Offence: Royal Offences > treason
Verdict: Not Guilty > non compos mentis
Punishment: Imprisonment > insanity
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1877. EDWARD OXFORD was indicted for that he, being a subject of our Lady the Queen, on the 10th of June, as a false traitor, maliciously and traitorously did compass, imagine, and intend to bring and put our said Lady the Queen to death; and to fulfil and bring to effect his treason and treasonable compassing, he, as such false traitor, maliciously and traitorously did shoot off and discharge a certain pistol, loaded with gun-powder and a bullet, which pistol be held in one of his hands, at the person of our said Lady the Queen, with intent thereby maliciously and traitorously to shoot, assassinate, and put to death, our said Lady the Queen, and thereby traitorously made a direct attempt against the life of our said Lady the Queen: And further to fulfil and bring to effect his treason and treasonable compassing aforesaid, he, as such false traitor, on the 10th of June, maliciously and traitorously did shoot off and discharge a certain other pistol loaded with gunpowder and a certain bullet, which he held in one of his hands, at the person of our said Lady the Queen, with intent thereby maliciously and traitorously to shoot, assassinate, and put to death our said Lady the Queen, and thereby traitorously made a direct attempt against the life of our said Lady the Queen; against his allegiance and against the Statute, &c.
The ATTORNEY-GENERAL, the SOLICITOR-GENERAL, SIR FREDERICK POLLOCK, MR. WIGHTMAN, MR. ADOLPHUS, and MR. GURNEY, conducted the Prosecution.
SAMUEL PERKS . I am a builder, I reside in London at the present time, and had done so one week before the 10th of June last. About six o'clock n the evening of the 10th of June I was standing by the column under the portico of the north wing of Buckingham Palace—I had gone there about half an hour before—I was standing waiting for the approach of the Queen—I saw her Majesty come out of the wooden gate of the north wing, (I believe it is called the garden-gate,) in a low open carriage, accompanied by Prince Albert—the carriage turned to the left, up Constitution-hill—there was a postilion and four horses—the top of the carriage about leached even with my forehead—I am not acquainted with the name of it—it was a low open one with four wheels—I was on the left-hand side of the carriage—there were no military in attendance on the carriage—there were four out-riders, two a little in advance, and the others a distance behind—there were no other attendants on the carriage, that I am aware of.
Q. Did you, on that day, see the prisoner any where? A. The first I saw of him was after the carriage came out—I turned short across the corner, up Constitution-hill, to get a second view of her Majesty, and then I saw Oxford—he was on the right side of the carriage, on the footpath next the iron-railing.
COURT. Q. He was on the off side of the carriage? A. Yes, on the right side.
MR. SOLICITOR-GENERAL. Q. How near were you to him when you first observed him? A. On the opposite side of the road, about the same distance as from here to the opposite wall of the Court—he was walking along very slowly, with his arms folded under his breast, and his coat buttoned—he was in advance of the carriage—the carriage moved on—the prisoner gave a nod with his head when the carriage came on; he turned round, and gave a nod with his head in the direction of the carriage—he was then about ten or twelve yards before the carriage—the carriage was moving towards him—as the carriage advanced he continued to move in the same direction—I observed him the moment the carriage passed—I was about a foot behind the carriage, and from the singular way he nodded with his head previous to the advance of the carriage, it attracted my attention—when the carriage had advanced, I ran in the direction of it, and the prisoner drew a pistol with his right hand from his left breast-pocket, presented it at their Majesties, and fired—I was just behind the carriage when he discharged the pistol—there was about one foot space between me and the carriage—I was within a foot of it—the prisoner was about five or six yards from the carriage when he discharged the pistol, and on the right side of it—the report of the pistol attracted my attention, and I had a distinct whizzing or buzzing before my eyes, between my face and the carriage—I was on the left side of the carriage, just at the back of her Majesty—the prisoner was on the right all the time—the moment he fired the pistol, he turned himself round, as if to see if any one was behind him; he then set himself back again, drew a second pistol with his left hand from his right breast, presented it across the one he had already fired, and
which he bad in his right hand, and fired, at both times taking very deliberate aims.
Q. What distance was the carriage from Oxford when he discharged the second pistol? A. The carriage was then about three or four yards in advance of where he fired the first—after the second pistol was fired, the two witnesses named Lowe immediately ran, and Joshua Lowe seized hold of the prisoner—the Lowes were somewhere behind me when I first observed them—at the moment of the firing, Joshua Lowe ran towards the prisoner, caught hold of him by the two arms, and Albert Lowe caught hold of the two pistols and wrenched them from the hands of the prisoner—a man named Clayton came behind Albert Lowe, and seeing the pistols in his hands, thought he was the person who had committed the act, and said to him, "You confounded scoundrel," I think were the words, and wrenched one of the pistols from Lowe, upon which the prisoner exclaimed, "It was me, I did it"—the carriage proceeded—we took the prisoner along the road, and delivered him into the hands of two policemen—the two Lowes and Clayton helped to take him—I held the back of the collar of his coat—a great many were about at the time.
COURT. Q. Where did you find a policeman? how far had you gone? A. I suppose about twenty yards; between twenty and thirty.
Cross-examined by MR. SIDNEY TAYLOR. Q. I think you say the prisoner was on the pathway? A. He was—the pathway is very little elevated from the carriage road—I suppose the footpath is about the height of the centre of the road—it is very little elevated above that part of the road next the footpath, it is nearly level—the channel is about six, or it may be eight inches deep—I do not think the footpath is a foot above that part of the road—I do not suppose the channel is more than eight inches.
MR. SOLICITOR-GENERAL. Q. Is there any channel or gutter by the side of the pathway? A, Yes, a slight one—there is an iron grating very near where it occurred—the descent of the pathway into that channel is about eight inches.
COURT. Q. It was an open carriage her Majesty was riding in—did her Majesty sit above the line of the carriage? A. Yes—I suppose the line of the carriage was about the centre of her back—the whole of that would be exposed to the sight of any body behind the carriage—her Majesty sat on the left. side, and Prince" Albert on the right—he was nearest to the prisoner—the top of my head was about level with the top of the back of the carriage.
Q. Then the whole carriage was between the prisoner and you when he fired the first shot? A. I was exactly a foot behind the carriage—the prisoner stood on the right, just opposite.
JOSHUA LOWE . I am a spectacle-maker—my place of business is in Copthall-court—my residence is in London-wall. I was in the Park on the evening of the 10th of June—my attention was attracted by the cortege of the Queen and the carriage her Majesty was in—I saw her Majesty sitting in the carriage on the left-side—Prince Albert was on the right—I was running by the side of the carriage on the left side, the wall side, the side on which the Queen sat. and heard the report of fire-arms—I was then about three yards from the carriage I should think.
Q. Were you in advance of it, or behind, or what? A, At the side, exactly at the side of the carriage—the noise attracted my attention in that direction, and I saw the smoke ascend—the carriage passed on a short
distance, and then I saw the prisoner with a pistol in his right hand—his right arm dropped—he turned round as if to see if any body was at his elbow, and to me it appeared that he pointed the second pistol across his right hand—he fired it towards the carriage.
Q. How long had he the pistol in that direction before he fired it? A. Not an instant—my nephew was with me—I immediately ran across and seized the prisoner—my nephew seized the pistols—some one came up I believe and took a pistol out of my nephew's hand at the time, and collared my nephew, upon which the prisoner said, "It was I, it was me that did it"—I had at the time he said that, got hold of him by the collar and his arm—we walked about twenty yards, and the policemen came up, and going along the road towards the station-house, after the policemen had come up, I said to my nephew, "Look out, Albert, I dare say he has some friends"—the prisoner turned round, and said, "You are right, I have "—I kept hold of him till we got down to Gardener's-lane station-house, and then he was taken into the station-house by the policemen—myself and two or three more had hold of him at the time—I never let' go.
Cross-examined by MR. BODKIN. Q. Did you see the Queen's carriage leave the palace? A. I did—I should think it had got about a hundred and fifty yards, or it might be a little more, up Constitution-hill, before this occurred—the road is wider there—the carriage was going slowly—I had seen her Majesty when the carriage left the palace and followed it for the purpose of seeing her again—I did not notice whether a good many other persons did the same—there was a general rush—I was on the left-hand side—the garden wall of the palace is on that side—it is not very high, about eight feet, or more than that—I did not notice it particularly—it is a wall of considerable height—it is a brick wall—the footpath is on the other side of the road, and a very little channel divides the footpath from the road—when I saw the prisoner he was standing on the footpath—I think the footpath is about six inches higher than the road, but the centre of the road is about level—the Queen's carriage was more in the centre of the road—I believe there is a footpath on both sides of the road—I think the carriage was in the centre as near as possible.
Q. About what distance do you judge the prisoner to have stood from the carriage at the time you saw the smoke? A. About three yards—the carriage was quite open, and was going at a slow pace—that three yards would be shortened I think about three quarters of a yard by stretching out his arm.
Q. Then the muzzle of the pistol would be within little more than two yards of the carriage? A. I should say so—he appeared to take a deliberate aim—when I saw him fire he was about a yard from the railing which encloses the Green Park—the nearest gate by which any one could enter the' Green Park was about one hundred and fifty yards from where this happened—the railing is quite open.
Q. So as to afford an opportunity for a person to fire from the park side if he had chosen? A. If he had chosen—I did not observe what attendants her Majesty had—there were outriders, I think before as well as behind—I did not see the witness Perks till after the occurrence—I was on a slow run when I heard the discharge of the first pistol—I did not observe several persons running or walking on the same side of the carriage as me—I have no doubt there were persons about, but I did not see them—at the time my nephew was seized I had hold of the prisoner on
the pathway up against the railing—I had hold of him before he said, "It is I"—he appeared desirous that it should be known he was the person who did it—we had got a short distance from where this occurred, when I told my nephew to be cautious, for probably he had friends.
Q. Either when the prisoner said, "Yes, I have friends," or at any other time in the transaction, did you see any persons whatever in his company? A. Not in his company—there were plenty had got hold of him—I had an idea at the time that the witness Clayton was with him.
COURT. Q. Can you give any notion what distance of time there was between the firing of the two pistols. A. Merely to turn round and to place his hand—the carriage was moving on—I suppose at the last firing the carriage was about eight yards in advance of him—he fired the second pistol up the road, after the carriage—there were a few persons in front of the carriage.
ALBERT LOWE . I am the nephew of Joshua Lowe. On the 10th of June I was with my uncle on Constitution-hill in the Park—I saw her Majesty come in her carriage from the palace—I followed the carriage up the road and had not proceeded far before I heard the report of a pistol—my uncle and I were running by the side of each other—I did not know from whence the sound proceeded, but turning my head round I saw the prisoner holding a pistol in the direction of the carriage, and he fired—that was the second pistol—I thought he held it in his right hand—upon his firing the second pistol my uncle ran across the road with me—my uncle seized him, and I took both pistols from the prisoner—a roan came up, caught hold of me, and said, "You confounded rascal, it was you "—I had then the pistols in my hands—the man took one pistol from my hand the prisoner then cried out, "I did it," or "It was me that did it"—something to that effect—we were going to take him to the station-house, and the police came up—as we were going along, my uncle told me to look out, for be thought he had some friends about him—he turned his head round and said, "You are right, I have "—I delivered the pistol up which Clayton did not take from me, to the police—I do not know whether it was the one I saw fired.
Q. Can you tell how far the carriage had proceeded from Buckingham Palace when the first shot was fired? A. I thought about thirty yards, at first, but I have since been to see the place, and it is about 100—I did not see the prisoner fire the first pistol, but when be fired the last he was about five yards from the carriage, I should think.
ELIZABETH STOKELEY . I am housekeeper to Lord Bexley. I was on Constitution-hill, on Wednesday the 10th of June, going from the palace—I was on the side next the wall—I did not see the Queen's face—I saw her carriage—my attention was first attracted by seeing the carriage approach—I turned round on seeing it approach, and saw the prisoner walking in this position—(with his arms crossed over his breast)—he was walking by the railing, on the opposite side to me, nearly opposite—immediately on the carriage approaching I saw him draw his hand, and present, and then fire—I was not so near to the carriage then as I was afterwards—it came on a few paces before the second fire—when he fired the first pistol I saw him change his hands, and immediately present the second pistol, and fire it.
Q. In what direction did it appear to you that he presented the pistol? A. Immediately opposite where the Queen was sitting—the flash of the
pistol came almost immediately over the Queen's head—the Queen was crouching—she rather crouched, and the Prince stood—I think, to the best of my knowledge, the Queen first rose, and by what I observed, the Prince rather pressed her down; and it was immediately before the second pistol was fired that her Majesty crouched—it was the second flash which appeared to come over the Queen's head, and it came close past me; the flash did—it seemed something that whizzed past my ear, as I stood; it seemed like something quick passing my ear, but what I could not say—at the time the second pistol was fired I was very near to the Queen's carriage—I was as close to the edge of the pavement as I could be, and the Queen's carriage was coming along the centre of the road—I was near as could be, within a yard of the carriage.
COURT. Q. All this was at the second firing? A. Yes.
MR. WIGHTMAN. Q. When the second pistol was fired, what did you see the prisoner do? A, I saw him drop his hands, and stand—a gentleman rode up on horseback—the carriage drove off a few paces, then stopped, and the gentleman rode up to the carriage and spoke—the prisoner was surrounded, and I saw no more.
COURT. Q. Where was the prisoner standing at the time the second pistol was fired? A, He was standing very near the carriage—he was on the opposite side of the carriage to me, on the railing side—the second pistol was fired across the road—he was facing the carriage, and backed to get his aim—he was more behind the carriage when he fired the second pistol.
Cross-examined by MR. SIDNEY TAYLOR. Q. Was there any person near you at the time? A. A little girl—from the time I saw this my attention was so fixed upon it that I saw nothing else—I had not seen several persons about the carriage just before—I did not notice them—I saw the prisoner drawing the pistol, and my attention was fixed upon that—the first thing, when I turned round, was the prisoner drawing his hand out with the pistol—I could not see how far in the rear of the carriage he was when the second pistol was fired—he was by the carriage—he was standing by the railing—perhaps he might be two yards in the rear of the carriage when he fired the second pistol—I observed a wall there—I saw the second pistol pointed—I should say it was pointed right across towards the wall—I cannot tell how the first pistol was pointed—I did not take notice of the height of that wall—my back was towards it—I cannot say bow far I was from the wall—I was as far as could be—I was near the road—I cannot say how far that is from the wall—there are several trees about there—they are rather thick before the footpath on the left side of the wall—I could see the wall through the stems of the trees.
MR. WIGHTMAN. Q. You say the flash appeared to pass over the Queen's head and before your eyes? A. No, not before my eyes—it came just over the head of the carriage, and whizzed past my ear.
Q. What do you mean by the flash? A. The light and the smoke—I cannot explain what it was that whizzed by my ear—it was my right ear.
WILLIAM CLAYTON . I am a cabinet-maker, and live in Princes-street, Leicester-square. I was on Constitution-hill on the evening of the 10th of June—when the Queen's carriage approached I was standing about 200 yards from the marble arch of the palace, on the side where the wall is, the garden side—I heard ft pistol fired—the carriage
was then about twenty-eight yards from me, or it might be thirty, nearer to the palace than I was—I was in company with my brother, and on hearing the report I said, "Good G—d, Jack," and instantly ran off towards the spot—I crossed the road, and ran down to where I heard the report—when I came abreast of the horses I heard a second report—I was in the act of crossing the road when I heard the second report—I ran on, I never ceased—the horses stopped, and her Majesty arose in the carriage, and looked round, with no fear on her countenance neither—her Majesty's back was towards the palace—I was crying out, "Where are they who did it?"—I ran on and could not see how long her Majesty's carriage stopped—I did not see it go—I passed the carriage, and ran on to the spot where I saw the smoke—I saw two persons, one with his back to the railing, on the park side—I inquired, "Where are they who did it?"—a female said, "That is the man who did it"—she pointed to the two, but I judged it to be the man standing with his back to the railing, which was Albert Lowe—I said, "You confounded rascal, how dare you shoot at our Queen?"—the prisoner heard me say so—he was nearer to me than Albert Lowe was—I spoke in a loud voice—the prisoner said, "I did it; I give myself up; I will go quietly"—I took hold of his coat—the mob rushed in, and seized me, and knocked the pistol out of my hand on the ground—I stooped down to pick it up, expecting to resume my hold, when I was seized right and left, back and before, was kicked and torn, and my shirt-collar out, and was taken into custody—the police took me to the station-house, where I was locked up in a cell and searched—when I was brought from the cell I saw the prisoner in the inspector's office—I asked for a draught of cold water; what with the struggling and the dust that was created, I felt a great wish for a drop of cold water—the prisoner said, "And I should like a drop of cold water"—I was walking up and down, and in passing him, be turned round and said, "Is the Queen hurt?"—he turned his head towards me, and said so—I said to him, "What did you put in the barrels?"—he said, "I have answered a dozen questions; there have been a dozen persons asking me questions, and I shall answer no more."
Q. Do you know what became of the pistols that were taken from him? A. There was a pistol lying on the table, one was brought in by the policeman, that was locked up with me in the cell—I took hold of that pistol which was lying on the table, saying, "I have put my little finger into the muzzle of the barrel, and have wiped out the powder, and is there any here?"—I asked myself that question—I put my finger into both pistols, but the one I first put my finger into I marked—that pistol came from the hands of Albert Lowe—I took it from him—it was not taken from me when I was knocked down—it came on the ground, but I picked it up, and resumed my hold again—one part of the time the policeman had it, and at another time I had it, but it never went out of my sight till I had marked it—the police made their appearance, I should judge two minutes after the first shot—I had got the pistol before the police came—I can say that the pistol I marked was one of the pistols taken from the prisoner—it was in the hands of both the prisoner and Albert Lowe—this is the pistol—(looking at one)—there is a mark on the barrel.
COURT. Q. How far is the place where you seized Albert Lowe and the prisoner from the carriage? A. Fifteen or eighteen yards from where the carriage stopped—the second pistol was fired when I was abreast of the
horses—the carriage drew across the road immediately on the second pistol being fired—the pulling up of horses, going at the rate of six or eight miles an hour, would take six or seven yards—I should say the second pistol was fired the distance of full eight or ten yards from the carriage.
CHARLES BROWN . I am a policeman. On the afternoon of the 10th of June, I was on duty at Buckingham-palace. About six o'clock I was sent on an errand to the south wing—I saw the Queen's carriage going up Constituation-hill—I was in front of the steps at the south wing—shortly after I saw the Queen's carriage I heard a shot fired—I immediately ran towards where the sound proceeded from—it appeared to me to proceed from Constitution-hill—as I went towards the spot I met a gentleman on horseback, who spoke to me—my attention was attracted by a mob of people, who had hold of a person—before that a second shot had been fired—it was after I heard the second shot that the gentleman on horseback spoke to me—I was going towards the carriage when I heard the second shot—I ob of people having hold of the prisoner—the two Lowes had hold of him, and several others besides—on my coming up, several voices (I do not know whether it was the Lowes) said, "This is the man, and I laid hold of him—nothing more was said by the persons present—the prisoner said, "You have no occasion to use violence, I am the person, I will go quietly "—I had merely laid hold of his collar and his left arm when he said that—I proceeded with him to the station-house—shortly afterwards some person remarked, "Perhaps there might be more of them"—the prisoner replied, "I have friends "—Smith, a policeman, came up, we went in front of the Wellington-barracks, and as we got opposite the barracks some person said, "I wonder whether there was any balls in the pistols, or no"—the prisoner made answer, "If the ball had come in contact with your head, if it was between the carriage, you would have known it"—I took him to the station-house, and he was searched by me and another constable—the other constable took from him, in my presence, a key, a knife, and 2s. 6d. in silver—I have the key—I found a piece of wadding in his trowsers' pocket—I looked at it, and saw the mark of the hammer on one side and the cap on the other—I asked him what it was for—he said, "To prevent the pistol going off," as he did not wish to hurt himself—it would prevent the pistol going off, by putting it between the hammer and the cap—it had been so used—he also said, if I was to go up to the Park, where it occurred, I should find the other piece of wadding—while I was in the inspector's room different gentlemen came into the room—a question was put, (I cannot say whether it was to the prisoner,) whether there were any balls in the pistols—the prisoner said there were balls in the pistols—next day I made search in the garden, on the other side of the wall, but was not able to find any thing.
Cross-examined by MR. SIDNEY TAYLOR. Q. Now when the question was put, as to whether there was any ball in the pistols, how many policemen were in the room? A. I cannot say—I do not think there was any body but the inspector and myself—there were a number of gentlemen there.
Q. Had various persons been asking the prisoner questions? A. Not asking the prisoner questions, but asking one another, as they came in.
Q. Do you mean to say, that questions were not put to the prisoner himself? A. Not by the parties while I was there—I did not hear any one put questions to him except the inspector—he asked him questions
—he asked his name and where he came from—I believe he asked him something about the pistols.
Q. Is it the practice of the police, to whom you belong, to interrogate prisoners as to the fact of any crime with which they are charged? A. I believe not—the inspector merely asked him where he came from—he was not interrogated by the inspector, in my presence, as to whether there were balls in the pistols—he asked where he got the pistols from—the question about the balls was not put to the prisoner, but the gentlemen asked whether the pistols were loaded with ball—the prisoner was not asked the question, he was in custody at the time.
Q. You say he stated there were balls in the pistols; what were his words? A. As near as I can recollect, his words were, "The pistols were loaded."
Q. He did not say there were balls in them, but the pistols were loaded A. "There were balls in the pistols."
Q. The pistols were loaded,", were those his words? A. No, not exactly—he distinctly said there were balls in the pistols.
Q. He said they were loaded, were those his words? A. "The pistols were loaded with balls," those were the words, as near as I can judge—I will not swear to the exact words—I cannot tell the exact height of the wall of the garden—I should say it was eighteen or twenty feet high—I searched in the garden—I made a very minute search—not all over it—within about 100 yards in length, and about twenty-five in breadth—what I should suppose to be the range of the pistol-ball—I did not find any—I searched on the other side of the wall for a short time—about two hours after the firing—the police-sergeant and three or four men were there when I searched—I assisted in the search for a short time—I stopped there for about a quarter of an hour.
Q. What mode of searching was used? A. We kept moving over it with our hands, and then swept it with a broom—that search extended about twenty-five yards in length, and five or six yards in width—there was no ball found in the dust while I was there—I did not see all the dust sifted—it was taken down to the Palace, and sifted there—I saw it brought down to be sifted—I did not make any further search—there are several trees about there—I was not examined before the Privy Council, and have not stated any thing before the Privy Council as to balls in the pistols.
Q. Had you told any body before the examination by the Privy Council, that you had heard the prisoner state the pistols were loaded with ball? A. Yes, I told Mr. Maule, the solicitor.
COURT. Q. How many people were there in the room at the time he said there were balls in the pistols? A. From ten to twelve persons—he said it out loud—he was in my custody at the time, in one corner of the room—I should think he said it loud enough for other people to hear as well as me—the people were talking as to whether there were balls, one said, "I wonder whether there was one," and he said, "There was."
CHARLES SMITH . I am a policeman. I was on duty on the 10th of June, at Buckingham-palace—I remember the Queen coming out—shortly after the Queen came out, I heard a noise, which attracted my attention—it proceeded from the direction of Constitution-hill—I did not proceed towards the spot from whence the sound came, till I heard a second report—it was like the report of fire-arms—I then proceeded to the spot, and saw the prisoner there, in the custody of Charles Brown—Lowe had hold of
him—I saw a pistol in young Lowe's hand—I proceeded towards the station-house with the prisoner—going along, I asked where the pistols were—as we were going in front of the palace, young Lowe pulled one from his bosom, and said, "Here is the pistol"—I said, "Take care of it"—some one in the crowd asked if the pistols were loaded with ball—the prisoner made answer, "If your head had come in contact with the ball, you would have found there was a hall in the pistol."
Cross-examined by MR. BODKIN. Q. Was not the phrase, "if your head had been at the head of the pistol, you would have known whether it was loaded or not?" A. It was not—somebody in the crowd asked if the pistols were loaded with balls—the answer was, "If your head had come in contact with the balls, you would have found there was ball in the pistol"—those were the very words—Brown was there—I have no doubt he heard it.
WILLIAM SMITH . I am a policeman. I was in the Green-park on the 10th of June, in the middle of the Park—it is separated from Constitution-hill by a railing—my attention was directed to the, carriage as the Queen was passing—I heard the report of a pistol, and saw the smoke of it—I hastened to the spot, and saw a number of people running in that direction, and I saw the prisoner present a pistol, and fire it towards her Majesty's carriage—I was fifty or sixty yards from the carriage at the time the second pistol was fired—I ran, and got over the railing—they are iron palisades, about five feet high, or more, with spikes at the top—I had some difficulty in getting over—I hurt my hand in getting over—the prisoner was then in custody—the witness Clayton had a pistol in his possession at the time, and I took him into custody, to the station-house—I took the pistol away from him—he was put into the cell, and was there about five minutes—I then commenced Searching him—inspector Baites came in, and commenced searching him—he took out his card, and gave it to the inspector—I then gave the pistol into his hand to mark, and he gave it into the hands of the inspector.
Cross-examined by MR. SIDNEY TAYLOR. Q. When your attention was directed towards the carriage, did you see any out-riders? A. Yes—I did not notice where they were—whether before or behind, or on one side the carriage—I have been in the police almost twelve months—there were not many people near the carriage when my attention was directed to it, but afterwards there were—I cannot tell how many there were at first—people were scattered about on Constitution-hill—the people were very anxious to get a sight of the Queen—there were not so very many there at first—I cannot give any idea about how many there were—I saw the prisoner present the second pistol, and fire it—he was ten or twelve yards from the carriage when he fired it; on the right side of the carriage—the pistol was presented in a slant direction towards the top of Constitution-hill—I did not search afterwards for the bullet.
FREDERICK GARRETT . I am in the employ of Mr. William Hayes, who is a general salesman; he has two shops, in Blackfriars-road, where I attend as shopman. I remember the rumour of the Queen having been fired at—about three weeks or a month before that I saw the prisoner at our shop in Blackfriars-road—he bought a pair of pistols and a powder-flask of me—(looking at the pistols)—these are the sort of pistols Mr. Hayes was in the habit of keeping—this has Mr. Hayes's private mark on it—we had such pistols as that recently arrived—these are the pistols that
were parted with to the prisoner—I asked him two guineas for them; they were marked two guineas—he said he wanted to know what distance they would carry—I said, about twenty or thirty yards—he said, if I would take two sovereigns he would have them—I said, if he would not give more I must take it—he then asked about a powder-flask—I believe I took one from outside the shop—he gave me two shillings for that—I also gave him two bags to put the pistols in—these are the bags—(looking at them)—I know them again—this is the powder-flask—(produced)—I had never seen him before that day, to my knowledge—he was about ten minutes bargaining for and paying for the pistols—I had such observation of him as to be quite sure of him when I saw him again—I knew the pistol-bags and powder-flask again when they, were produced—they were brought to me about three days after the Queen was shot at, and I knew them again immediately.
Cross-examined by MR. BODKIN. Q. You do not tell us the exact day this bargaining took place? A, I entered it on the slate when they were bought, and Mr. Hayes took it off the slate and entered it in the book—no one was present in the shop besides myself—I think it was before one o'clock in the day—the prisoner was alone.
MR. ADOLPHUS. Q. When you serve in that shop your master is at the other? A. Yes.
WILLIAM SAMPSON HAYES . I keep a shop in Blackfriars-road, where fire-arms are sold; I have also another shop. I keep a day-book—I have not got it here—I had no order to produce it—I remember hearing of the Queen being fired at—I heard of it the same day—I do not know how long before that it was that I made the entry in the day-book—it was before that—(looking at the pistols)—here is my private mark on these pistols—I take the entries which I put in my book off the slate—they are entered by the young man on the slate, and next morning I copy from the slate into the book—that is my usual course—I remember an entry being made on the slate of a pair of pistols—that was on Monday, the 4th of May.
JOHN JOSEPH GRAY . My father keeps a shop at No. 10, Bridge-road, Lambeth; I assist him in his business; I am the principal there; we sell, among other things, caps for pistols. I remember the prisoner calling at our shop, on either Tuesday or Wednesday, the 3rd of June last—he brought half a hundred caps of me—he asked if I kept bullets—I told him no, but recommended him to a gunsmith in the Borough—he wanted to know if I had any small canisters of gunpowder—I had, and I showed him our half-pound canisters—he said they were not small enough, he wanted a small canister, he should like a quarter of a pound, if he could—he tried four or five of the caps while he was with me—he only showed me one pistol, but I believe he had a pair with him—I found some caps that fitted it—I had known the prisoner some years back, in the same road where I am living now—I had been to school with him, but for bow long I cannot say—to the best of my recollection it was eight or nine years ago—when he came into the shop I feigned not to know him—he asked me if my name was not John Gray—I told him it was—" Well," he said, "don't you remember any one of the name of Oxford?"—I said, "Yes, I certainly do, I went to school with a person of that name"—he said, "Well, I am the same"—I asked him what he had been doing with himself—he said he had then lately come from Birmingham, but he had been in the public line.
COURT. Q. How long were you at school with him? A. I cannot say; I did think I was at school with him for about a twelvemonth, but my schoolmaster came forward and proved he was only there five weeks; I might have been mistaken by his once being a neighbour—I cannot say how long I have known him, it is so many years ago, it is impossible for me to say, I was very young at the time—I lived about twenty houses on the opposite side of the way to him, in Westminster-bridge-road; he lived about twenty houses lower-down, nearer the Marsh-gate.
Q. You say you feigned not to know him when he came in; what was your reason for that? A. I did not wish to make up the acquaintance again with him—I did not observe any thing odd in his appearance, not the least.
SIR HENRY WHEATLEY . I am keeper of her Majesty's privy-purse. When I heard of her Majesty being fired at, I went to the station-house where the prisoner was in custody—I saw him in the cell—he came forward when the door was opened, and asked me, "Is the Queen hurt?"—those were the first words that were spoken—Lord Uxbridge was with me—some conversation ensued—we asked him in what situation he was—he stated he was a bar-boy, and had been out of place about ten days—I do not recollect that he said any thing about a pistol, or about the shooting—he said he had come into the park at four o'clock, and had seen the Prince come from Woolwich, at least, he supposed if was from" Woolwich.
COURT. Q. That was between six and seven o'clock? A. About half-past six.
THE EARL OF UXBRIDGE . On the 10th of June I saw the prisoner—from the opening of the cell-door, where I found him, he addressed me by saying, "Is the Queen hurt?"—I said, "How dare you ask such a question?"—he said he had been in a public-house in Oxford-street for 'about four months, and had left it about a fortnight—he said he had been shooting a great deal lately—a very good shot with a pistol, but a better shot with a rifle—he said the pistols had been given to him on the 3rd of May, and something else also, which he went on to inform us was money, and, he could have as much of it as he pleased—I then said to him, "You have how fulfilled your engagement"—he replied, "No, I have not"—I said, "You have, sir, as far as the attempt goes"—to that he was silent.
Cross-examined by MR. BODKIN. Q. Did Sir Henry Wheatley remain with you during this conversation? A. During the first part, but he retired into the office—I went to the station-house immediately on hearing of the occurrence—there were one or two policemen there—it is a very narrow passage—I think Sir Thomas Freemantle came in, and a gentleman, who I afterwards heard was Mr. Thistle—no question had been put to the prisoner before he asked whether her Majesty was hurt—what followed was in answer to questions generally put by myself—he was probably not aware that I was an officer in the Queen's household—I did not mention who I was, nor did Sir Henry Wheatley in my hearing—there was no reluctance whatever to answer the questions which I put to him.
SAMUEL TAYLOR . I am acquainted with the prisoner—I have known him about twelve months—I recollect the rumour of the Queen being fired at—I saw the prisoner the evening before that—he showed me a pistol, and said he had been firing at a target—he did not say when or where he had been firing at it—he showed me nothing except the pistol—I asked whether it was loaded—he replied that it was loaded.
THOMAS GREENWOOD LAWRENCE . I live in Victoria-street, White Conduit-fields, and am a perfumer, in the employ of Delacroix, of Bond-street. I know a public-house in Oxford-street, called the Hog in the Pound—it is at the corner of South Molton-street—I know the prisoner—he was barman to Mr. Robinson, the proprietor of that public-house, when I first knew him—it might be about February when I first knew him as barman there—on Easter Sunday I went with him and one Roach to Hyde-park, about four o'clock in the afternoon, from four to half-past five—at Hyde-park-corner I said to the prisoner, "I suppose the people are looking for the Queen"—he replied, "They will be disappointed, as she is at Windsor"—we got back to the Hog in the Pound about half-past five o'clock—Roach and Curling were in company with us—I believe the prisoner quitted the Hog in the Pound about the let of May—I have frequented that house for the last two years, up to the present time—one evening, after he had left the service, he was in the parlour there, and he said he had lost a half-sovereign on a bet respecting the shot at the bull's eye, at the Shooting-gallery in Leicester-square—he showed me a flattened ball—I beard a person named Roach remark that he was more fit to shoot at a hay-stack than at a target.
THE HONOURABLE JOHN OLIVER MURRAY . I am brother to Lord Eli-bank. I was on Constitution-hill on Wednesday afternoon, the 10th of June, on horseback—when the first pistol was fired the prisoner was close to me, as near as he is now, or very little further—after the report of the first shot my horse plunged up into the air, being a very high-spirited animal—I saw the prisoner put his hand into his breast, draw out a second pistol, and take a most deliberate aim, in the direction of the Queen's phaeton, which was about fifteen or twenty yards from where I was—as soon as I got any power over my horse I tried to prevent his firing the second shot—when he did fire it I was as near to him as I am now—he stood with his back to the railing, with a smile—some persons came over the Park, and down Constitution-hill, and seized him—he did not offer the slightest resistance—I immediately afterwards looked at the wall—I was the first person that went to the wall—I noticed a mark which I supposed to be the mark of the bullet—it was a white mark on the dark wall, as large as the palm of my hand—at that time Colonel Fox came up—I pointed it out to him, and to Lord Belfast also—the mark was about five feet from the ground, and rather in a slanting direction from where the prisoner stood.
Q. Did it appear to you such a mark as a bullet would have made? A. I have not the slightest doubt of it, in my own mind.
Cross-examined by MR. BODKIN. Q. Did you not observe any other mark on the wall? A. There was a kind of angular mark on the wall, but a very old one—it was near this mark—I took notice of that to mark the spot.
Q. Have the goodness to describe what kind of mark this was. A. The wall was dark—it was a white round mark upon that wall, as a bullet would make—it was much larger than a bullet—it was as if a piece of the brick was knocked out by the force of the ball, or whatever made the mark—I looked about on the ground for the bullet before any one came, but found none, but being fired in a slanting direction it might—
Q. Did you find any piece of brick? A. I did not look for any—I was looking about the ground for the bullet.
MR. ATTORNEY-GENERAL. Q. I do not know whether you have been
accustomed to see marks made on a wall by the firing a ballet against it? A. I have, frequently—the first shot was fired in a slanting direction, the second shot was almost before me—the carriage never stopped—it went on up Constitution-hill, in the direction of Grosvenor-place.
COURT. Q. Was the place on the wall as big as the palm of your hand? A, I think nearly as large—that would be nearly the whole flattening of the bullet—the ball would be a perfectly flat surface if it made so large a mark as that—I should say the piece of brick was broken by the force of the bullet on the wall.
THE HONOURABLE WILLIAM OWNED STANLEY . I was in the Park on the 10th of June last—I was coming straight down in the direction where the shot was fired, from the reservoir at the top of the Park—it might be about two hundred yards from the spot—my attention was called by hearing the report of one pistol first, and a few seconds afterwards a second—as soon as I came down to the rails I tried to get over, but could not for the spikes—I then asked what had happened, and asked the bystanders whether there were any marks on the wall—I got to the wall about ten minutes afterwards—I have tried since, and it took me about seven minutes to walk round—I have had frequent experience in the mark that a ball would make going against a wall—I saw a mark which in my opinion was decidedly such as might have been made by a bullet—I have not the pleasure of knowing Mr. Murray.
Cross-examined by MR. SIDNEY TAYLOR. Q. Have the goodness to describe what sort of mark this was? A. It was rather longer than wide—it appeared to me that the bullet had struck there—I could see the part where the bullet bad struck, and a chipped brick, which had broken off about an inch and a half—where the bullet struck it appeared to be circular—I examined other parts of the wall, and there appeared to me to be another mark about fourteen yards from that, not quite a similar mark, it appeared to me to be fresh, and such a mark as might have been caused by a bullet—I examined about twenty yards on either side, but could find no other mark.
Q. After you had seen these two marks on the wall, did you examine whether there were any bullets underneath the places where the marks were? A. It would have been no use—I did examine, Hooked down on the ground close to the marks, but found no bullet there—there were three little chimney-sweepers there—Sir John Eustace was with me—he examined also—he walked round with me, and there was an old artillery man there—he examined—he found no bullet—he agreed with me.
Q. The artillery man, you, and Sir John Eustace searched for the bullet, and found none? A. cannot say that I did search for the bullet, for being in an angular direction, the bullet would have glanced off—I looked down, but no more—I was looking down for a few seconds by each mark—I looked down to see if the brick that had chipped off had dropped below—I did not look to see if there was a bullet, because I did not think it likely—I did not see any policeman there at the time—some came up before I left—they did not search—I did not speak to them—it was no use—they did not search while I was there, to my knowledge—the wall is, I suppose, fourteen or fifteen feet high there—I did not search in the garden.
asked what had happened, and in consequence of what I heard I did not look for the ball in the immediate neighbourhood.
COURT. Q. In your opinion decidedly the mark in the wall was produced by what? A. I have no doubt whatever in my own mind that it was produced by a bullet fired from a pistol.
JOHN WILLIAM LINTON . I live with my father in the Waterloo-road. I am a playmate of the prisoner's—I was never at school with him—I remember hearing of the Queen having been shot at—on the Monday previous to that the prisoner called on me—about a month before that I had been to the Strand with him—I cannot remember our conversation when he called on me then—he asked me to go with him to the Shooting-gallery in the Strand—he showed me some pistols—he did not show me the pistols the first time he called to ask me to go—he called one day to ask me to go, and I went with him the next day—he showed me the pistols the day we went to the gallery—they were very handsome pistols—they were carved on the stock—I did not notice how they were mounted—he said a friend had lent them to him—(looking at the pistols produced)—I almost think these are the pistols, but I could not swear to them—to the best of my knowledge they are—I went to the Shooting-gallery in the Strand with him—he there shot at the target—he had half a dozen shots—the people at the gallery provide the ball—when he called on me the Monday before the Queen was shot at, he showed me the pistols—they were the same I had seen before—he said he had been at a much better Shooting-gallery than the one we first went to—he did not say where it was—I understood it was over the water—I mean over the Thames—we were then in the Waterloo-road, and he meant over the water, on the Westminster side of the Thames.
COURT. Q. Where were you when the conversation took place? A. At my own home in the Waterloo-road, over the river—I understood him to mean on the Westminster side.
SARAH PACKMAN . I keep the house No. 6, West-place, West-square. The prisoner lodged at my house, and had done so I think six or seven weeks before the Queen was shot at—his mother had been there about three months—his mother took the lodging—she was there the whole of the time except when she was at Birmingham—she went to Birmingham full a month before the Queen was fired at—after she went the prisoner remained in the lodging—his room was the front room one pair—the night the Queen was fired at, some police-officers came to my house, and took a box away from the prisoner's room.
SAMUEL HUGHES . I am an inspector of the Metropolitan police. On Wednesday, the 10th of June, I went to No. 6, West-place, West-square, about a quarter to eight o'clock in the evening—I went into the front-room one pair—it was open—I found this box there—(producing it)—it was locked—I opened it with a chisel and hammer—I afterwards tried this key to it, and it fitted it—I found in it this sword and scabbard, four books, a black crape cap with two red bows, a powder-flask containing about three ounces of gunpowder, a razor, a bullet-mould, two pistol-bags, a memorandum-book containing four papers, I also found five bullets, and twelve or fourteen percussion-caps—(producing the articles)—the bullets that were cast by that mould fitted the pistols—I cast one, and tried it, and it fitted the pistol—the bullets that I found loose would roll into the pistols, but they were rather smaller, and did not appear to be cast in that mould—I took the box and the articles to the station-house—I showed them to the prisoner—he
said the box was his, and the things that were in it—he saw the pocket-book and the papers—he said those were his also—he said be intended to have destroyed them in the morning before he went out, bat he had forgotten them—the papers were folded up in the pocket-book as they are now—they were not pinned together—the three letters were folded up as letters—the foolscap paper was folded up in that form.
The following papers were here put in and read:—
"1. That every member shall be provided with a brace of pistols, a sword, a rifle, and a dagger; the two latter to be kept at the Committee-room.
"2. That every member must on entering, take the oath of allegiance, to be true to the cause he has joined.
"3. That every member must, on entering the house, give a signal to the sentry.
"4. That every officer shall have a factitious name; his right name and address to be kept with the secretary.
"5. That every member shall, when he is ordered to meet, be armed with a brace of pistols, (loaded;) and a sword, to repel any attack; and also be provided with a black crape cap, to cover his face, with his marks of distinction outside.
"6. That, whenever any member wishes to introduce any new member, be must give satisfactory accounts of him to their superiors, and from thence to the council.
"7. Any member who can procure an hundred men, shall be promoted to the rank of captain.
"8. Any member holding communications with any country agents, must instantly forward the intelligence to the secretary.
"9. That whenever any member is ordered down the country, or abroad, he must take various disguises with him, as the labourer, the mechanic, and the gentleman; all of which he can obtain at the committee-room.
"10. That any member wishing to absent himself for more than one month, must obtain leave from the commander-in-chief.
"11. That no member will be allowed to speak during any debate, nor allowed to ask more than two questions.
"All the printed rules kept at the committee-room."
"List of principal members.—Factitious Names.
Marks of Distinction.
Council.—A large white cockade.
President.—A black bow.
General.—Three red bows.
Captain.—Two red bows.
Lieutenant.—One red bow.
"Young England.—Dated May 16, 1839.
"SIR,—Our Commander-in-Chief was very glad to find that you answered his questions in such a straight-forward manner. You will be wanted to attend on the 21st of this month, as we expect one of the country agents to town on business of importance. Be sure and attend.
"A. W. SMITH, Secretary."
"P.S. You must not take any notice to the boy, nor ask him any questions."
"Addressed, Mr. Oxford, at Mr. Minton's
"Young England.—Nov. 14, 1839.
"SRI,—I am very glad to hear that you improve so much in your speeches. Your speech the last time you were here, was beautiful. There was another one introduced last night, by lieutenant Mars; a fine, tall, gentlemanly-looking fellow; and it is said that he is a military officer, but his name has not yet transpired. Soon after he was introduced, we were alarmed by a violent knocking at the door. In an instant our faces were covered, we cocked our pistols, and with drawn swords stood waiting to receive the enemy. While one stood over the fire with the papers; another stood with lighted torch to fire the house. We then sent the old woman to open the door, and it proved to be some little boys who knocked at the door, and ran away.
"You must attend on Wednesday next."
A. W. SMITH, Secretary."
"Addressed, Mr. Oxford, at Mr. Parr's,
Hat and Feathers, Goswell-Street."
"Young England.—3rd of April, 1840.
"SIR,—You are requested to attend to night, as there is an extraordinary meeting to be holden in consequence of having received some communications of an important nature from Hanover. You must attend, and if your master will not give you leave, you must come in defiance of him.
A. W. SMITH, Secretary."
"Addressed, Mr. Oxford, at Mr. Robinson's,
—TIERNEY. I am a police-sergeant. I have, since this morning, been to the wall on Constitution-hill, opposite where the prisoner stood—the height, from the foot of the wall, is nine feet four inches—it is twenty-two yards from the wall to the railing opposite, in rather a slanting direction.
COURT. Q. The foot of the wall is lower than the road? A. It would make about a foot difference—that would be about eight feet four inches from the road—I saw a mark on the wall—that is exactly six feet from the foot of the wall, or about five above the level of the road.
JAMES BROWN . I was an outrider attending her Majesty, on the evening of the 10th of June—there were two more outriders attending her Majesty—her Majesty had no other attendants from the palace to the place where she was shot at—the two equerries went across the garden from the door, and came out at the gate from Constitution-bill, leading from the garden to the road—I was behind—the other two outriders were before her Majesty's carriage—my horse's head was not above a yard from the carriage when the first shot was fired—when the last shot was fired I was close by the side of the prisoner—as I looked round from the report of the. first pistol he was just firing the next—I was about the same distance behind the carriage—I was close to it, within about a yard of it—I was in the centre of the road—it was smallish man that fired, respectably dressed, in a brown coat—I was trying to turn my horse—two or three persons had got hold to the prisoner, and I followed on with her Majesty to her Royal Highness the Duchess of Kent's—I had not noticed the man before I beard the report.
Cross-examined by MR. BODKIN. Q. How many equerries usually attend her Majesty? A. Two—on this occasion they went across the garden, and not out at the usual gate, to join the carriage at the top of Constitution-hill—it is usual for them to go out with her Majesty at the front gate—they generally ride one on each side of the carriage, close to the hind-wheel—her Majesty usually sat on the left-hand side of the carriage, in this small carriage.
MR. ATTORNEY GENERAL. Q. In the larger carriage, dots her Majesty sit on the same side, or sometimes on the right side? A. Sometimes on the right side; generally so, I believe, in the larger carriage.
THE HONOURABLE FOX MAULE . I am Under Secretary of State for the. Home Department. I was present when the prisoner Was before the Privy Council and examined—When the examination was closed, the Secretary of State informed the prisoner that he was at liberty to make any observation he chose, but at the same time warned him that any thing he did state would be taken down in writing—the prisoner did make a statement voluntarily, and he also voluntarily signed that statement—this is the statement he signed—(read)—" The prisoner says, 'A great many witnesses against me—some say I shot with my left, others with my right—they vary as to the distance—after I fired the first pistol, Prince Albert got up as if he would jump out of the coach, and sat down again, as if he thought better of it—then I fired the second pistol—this is all I shall Say at present—(Signed) EDWARD OXFORD.'",
Q. Were the witnesses examined in the prisoner's presence? A. Yes, and he put questions to them by way of cross-examination.
Cross-examined by MR. BODKIN. Q. I believe other persons were examined, who have not been to-day? A. Yes, Lord Colchester and some others—I have seen the prisoner twice in Newgate—I have had conversation
with him—I do not know whether I put questions to him; but on one occasion, when I saw him, I was given to understand it was at his own request, and then he made a statement, in my presence, which the governor of Newgate took down, with his own consent—I may have put several questions to him—I found no reluctance to answer any questions I put to him.
Mr. SIDNEY TAYLOR addressed the Court and Jury in the prisoner's behalf, and called the following witnesses;—
SANDHAM KENT . I am a carpenter, and reside at Kentish-town. I was acquainted with John Oxford, the grandfather of the prisoner—his wife was my sister—he was a sailor—I saw him when in England, and continued, at intervals, to have him under my observation to the time of his death—I do not remember in what year he died—I should think it is about eight or nine years ago, but I cannot say to a certainty.
Q. In the latter part of his life what was the state of his mind? A. The latter part, I think, was better than it was before—the first part of his life, I think, was very unsound—I formed that opinion by his behaviour and his ways of going on—he was raving mad at one time—that was about 1799—I was obliged to put him under restraint then—I was obliged to put cords on him—he was in the country—I was assisted by three persons in doing it—it required the strength of those persons to confine him—I never saw him confined by a strait-waistcoat—at the time I speak of he was confined in the country, just by Petworth—he was put in Petworth Bridewell, and kept there a fortnight—he was put there for being unsound, for care—I did not see him there—we took him to the Magistrate, and he sent him there—he was there a fortnight, and was sent out, promising he would come off to London—he was very queer, at times, in his conduct—once he ran after me with a spit—I had not given him any provocation for that, nor had any quarrel with him—at the time he was confined he broke the windows, and smashed every thing in the house—the things were not his own, but my father's—he was down there then—his wife came down to my father's, and he came down to her—at the same time he threw a couple of clocks down in the room, and smashed them to pieces—his wife was obliged to go from my father's to another house to be protected from him—that was at the time of the christening of one of his children—I did not see him for two or three years after he came out of the Bridewell—I then saw him in town—he was in a very good state then—he went to sea, and two years after he came home, and was very queer again—I do not remember any thing particular which he did then—while he was in town he used to be always laughing and jumping about, like anybody quite gone—he was after that admitted into Greenwich Hospital—I cannot say whether there is apart of the Hospital where lunatic patients are kept—I saw him at the Hospital—he was in the Queen's ward—I never saw him in the infirmary.
Cross-examined by MR. ATTORNEY-GENERAL. Q. How old was he when he married your sister? A. I cannot say, I suppose between twenty and thirty—I did not know him before that—I became acquainted with him two or three years after his marriage—he was given to drink a good deal—I believe it was after those drunken bouts that he displayed a violent turn—I do not think he lived very happily with his wife, but I cannot say—I took him before the Magistrate at Petworth, for throwing down and breaking the things in the house, and threatening our lives—he was
allowed to go at liberty from the Bridewell, on promising to go to London—I saw no more of him for some years—he continued his habit of drinking—he went about Greenwich Hospital like any other of the pensioners.
COURT. Q. Do you know how long he was at Greenwich? A. I cannot say, it was five years or more.
SOPHIA OXFORD . I live at Bishop's Stortford. I am the widow of the prisoner's grandfather, he has been dead eleven years, he died in Greenwich Hospital—I had been married to him thirty-five yews—he was a seafaring man, and went abroad occasionally—I generally saw him when he came to England—he was generally in a very unsettled state of mind when he came to see me—he was addicted to drink—he was not so much unsettled when he had not been taking liquor as when he had.
Q. Do you remember any thing particular that happened, to show the state of mind in which he was? A. I think it was soon after I was married—the very day that Edward's father was twelve months old, he came to me and made a very great disturbance—he broke the furniture and the clocks, and tore down the table-cloth—it weight be owing to liquor—he was taken up and put in Petworth-gaol—they took him on horseback to gaol—I think three men took him—nothing was done to him before he was taken—I once saw a strait-waistcoat put on him, in 1821—I really cannot recollect the waterman's name who put it on—a waterman came in and put it on—that was at Deptford—I sent for the person to put it on—I was in danger—the waterman was not an officer—the beadle of the parish came as well as the waterman, and one or two more men—I cannot say how long they were putting the waistcoat on him, for I was not present when it was done—I saw him afterwards, when it was done—I was at my own home—my husband was up stain—I did not go into the room while they were putting the waistcoat on, I did not like to see it done—no one was in the room with him before the men came—I took them up stairs—he had been very restless during the night, and told me he should get up and go to Birmingham, and I watched him—he told me to go to Woolwich—my daughter was in the house—I sent her, and he had the waistcoat put on him, and after it was put on he was very bad indeed, and so continued for several days—it was necessary to have two men with him—he was fastened down to his bed at that time—he was not fastened to his bed more than a day, but the strait-waistcoat was kept on between a week and a fortnight—a medical man was called in—I think it was Mr. Atkins, a surgeon, living at Deptford—I do not know whether he is living or dead now—the straight-waistcoat was kept on several days after the medical man had seen him—at the end of the time I have mentioned, he got better, and went to sea again, after some time—as well as I can remember, about a couple of months elapsed between the attack and his going to sea—I never knew him in the Royal Naval Asylum—I knew him in the college—he was a pensioner, he was under the care of Sir Richard Dobson, for a complaint in his head, after he was admitted at Greenwich—I firmly believe the attack in his head affected his mind—I saw him in the hospital at the latter part of his life—his bodily health was very good, until within the last fortnight—his intellect appeared very steady the latter part of his time, the last fortnight—for the last few years of his life, I was a great deal away at Brighton—I was not with him till within the last twelve months.
Q. Well, what was the state of his intellect during the last twelve
months? A. It appeared very steady when be refrained from liquor—I did not know him to be labouring under any delusion at any time while in the hospital—I was at Greenwich for the last year—he used to come to and fro to me from the hospital.
Cross-examined by MR. SOLICITOR GENERAL. Q. How long had you known your husband before you were married? A. Not more than two months—I was living in a family at East Bookham, when he went to sea before I saw him at Petworth—I cannot exactly say how long he had been absent when he came to my father's—he had made a voyage to the East Indies, and came back—I went to my father's when he was liberated the jaol—I was living with my father when he came to me at Petworth—I had left him in London when he last went to sea, before he behaved so badly—he was not displeased at my going to my father's—he wished to give them a treat, which did not suit them, and then he turned into a great rage, and got in liquor—he was not tipsy—he was about two days at my father's house when this happened.
Q. What was the treat they would not have, which made him so angry? A. He had high notions, and he thought they ought to have paid him that homage—he thought they did not behave well to him—when be broke the things, they sent him to Bridewell—he went to sea again—it might be a few days after that, or it might be a month or two—after be came out of the Bridewell, he came to London—I went to London with him till he went away—he was about four years in Greenwich Hospital, to the best of my recollection—for the last twelve months, he was steady, and kept from liquor.
SOPHIA BARTLETT . I am daughter of the last witness. My husband is a farrier, and lives in Harrison-street, Gray's Inn-lane—I remember the time of the strait waistcoat being put on my father at Deptford—I was then about twelve years old—some men were sent for, and I believe four came—it was very near four o'clock in the morning—I believe it was is the summer time—the men shut the door when they went into my father's m—he was confined to his bed about a fortnight on that occasion—he afterwards recovered, and went to sea—I and my mother then went to Brighton—I next saw my father at Greenwich College—I saw him there very often.
Q. What appeared to you to be the state of his mind when you saw him at Greenwich Hospital? A. Not altogether insane, more of an eccentric character at that time—he told me he was the Pope of Rome—that was when he was keeping guard at one of the college gates—he would tell me he was St. Paul, and that the Pope of Rome had made his escape—that was when he was guard at the gate—he said these things as if he seriously meant them—he was quite sober when he said them—by the term eccentric I meant strange—he was treated very kindly at the hospital, particularly by his lieutenant—I had a brother named Peter, who I believe was younger than myself—he had a complaint in his head which caused his head to be light—I believe he was put into the Naval Asylum for that—I saw him there once—his head was quite well then—I do not exactly know how long he was there.
Q. Now, with respect to your father, from the means of observation you had, was he in your judgment, of sound mind, or not? A. Never.
Cross-examined by SIR F. POLLOCK. Q. When did you last see your father before his death? A. On the Sunday evening as he died on Monday
morning—that was in the year 1831—I am twenty-six years old—I was born in 1815—I have never had any serious illness—I have been indisposed—when my father had the strait-waistcoat on he was confined in the top room of his own house—he was not carried away—I remained there during the whole fortnight he was confined, except of a night—I do not know how long he had been to sea before this happened—he had been to sea from a very early age—he had been borne some time previous to this occurrence—I cannot say how long, as I was not at home myself—I cannot say whether he came home well or unwell—his manner bad been strange before he had the strait-waistcoat on—he had had no fever—he was in perfect health of body—I was at the top of the stairs when he was in his room, and I looked through the door—I was in the room when any one else was there—he went to sea after this—not for many years—I cannot say how many—he went to sea, I believe, in about six months after he was confined—he took no other situation till he went to sea—he went in the Royal Navy—when he was at Greenwich College he used to say he was the Pope of Rome, and he would hoist his halbert over his shoulder—his duty while on guard was to open and shut the gate—I did not observe that he carried any arms—I believe he did not—he would sometimes say he was St. Paul—that was when at the gate, and when he came home too—I never heard him say he was St. Peter—Dr. Henderson attended him, at Deptford—he bad no doctor at the time he talked about being St. Paul and the Pope—I never mentioned it to a doctor—he was perfectly harmless—the prisoner is my eldest brother's son.
SARAH KITCHEN . I am seventy-four years of age, and am cousin to the widow of the prisoner's grandfather. I formerly kept the Black Prince public-house at Kennington—I retired from business many years ago—I did not see Edward Oxford, the grandfather, often—I recollect his coming to me one day at Kennington—that was the tint time I saw him—he behaved in a very singular way, but I did not know him before, and did not now his manners—he acted in a very inconsistent way—I supposed he was not quite clear in his head—it is thirty years ago—I cannot exactly recollect in what way he acted, but I know he behaved in a very singular way—it was on a Sunday afternoon when he went from me—his wife was with him—he behaved very indecently in the street, and the watchman was obliged to take him to the watch-house—the last time I saw him he sat down at the table, pulled his handkerchief out of his pocket, and tied it tight round his head—I asked him if his head ached—he said, no, he was St. Paul, and he was going to be my leader—he said he would be my leader because he was his wife's leader, and he then sat down again—he then got up, went to the other side of the room, and talked to himself a considerable time—there was no one in the house but myself, and I felt very much alarmed at his conduct—he said he was going to tell his captain (the gentleman he sailed with, I forget his name) that he was to be his leader also—he went home, and next morning he was obliged to have a straight-waistcoat on, and be tied down to the bed—I wished to get rid of him, and he went—I knew his son, the prisoner's father, when he was a little boy at school, but I never saw him since.
Q. When he was a little boy, did you see him do any thing strange? A. I did—one time I saw him go to the top of the house, get out of the window, and hang by his hands—a person came and told me of it—his mother was sitting in the bar with me, and she and the woman went up
stairs and pulled him in—he was hanging by the sash at the bottom part of the window—I cannot say what height the window was from the ground—it was on the first floor—he was hanging over the street in that way—he was about twelve or thirteen years old then—I never saw him after that.
Cross-examined by MR. ATTORNEY-GENERAL. Q. With regard to the grandfather, did you know enough of him to be aware that he was very much given to drink? A. No—I never heard it—I never saw him in liquor—I never saw him but four times in my life.
HANNAH OXFORD . I am the prisoner's mother. I was twenty years of age when I married his father—he was also twenty—I was acquainted with him about six months before I married him—I was at that time living at Birmingham, with my father, who kept the Hope and Anchor tavern—he was an artizan—he became acquainted with me by frequenting the tavern.
Q. Before your marriage, did any thing take place in your presence which you thought singular in his conduct? A. He was singular altogether, not like any other man I was acquainted with—I did not marry him with the consent of my friends—I refused to marry him a great many times—on those occasions he would pull a razor out of his side pocket, and bare his throat, and say he would cut his throat in my presence if I refused him—I have at other times seen him with pistols and poison—he would show me the paper with oxalic acid—at the time the Princess Charlotte was lying dead, he followed me out of the house with a double barrelled pistol loaded with slugs, and said if I refused to have him he would blow his brains out before my face, and I promised him then—I never said I would have him before then—upon that threat I for the first time said I would marry him—we were married on the 28th of April in the following year, 1818—I had made the promise in November—a variety of circumstances took place between the time of my giving the promise and the time we were married—he would come to my father's, and when my father would not serve him with liquor, he would send out for it to other houses, and he would offer to pay other people's scores—he was then, I should say, the worse for liquor—I remember the day before we were married, a person had written to his master to inquire his character, and it was not satisfactory—it arrived that day—I then told him I would not be married to him—on my telling him that, he went into a violent rage, pulled out a roll of Bank-notes and the license, and burnt the notes—I then said I would be married—the notes were entirely consumed—on another occasion he took some Bank-notes, twisted them round his finger, lighted them, threw them on the ground, and watched them burn out—they were Bank-notes of his own—his conduct did not improve after marriage—he would promise if I would marry him he would keep it a secret, as I was married without the consent of my parents, but he quarrelled with my mother, and then disclosed the circumstance of my being married to him—it was before we were married that he burnt the Bank-notes—twice before we were married he burnt Bank-notes—the bundle he burnt the day before our marriage was in consequence of my refusing to have him—the others he burnt after I promised to have him—he wished me to have the money to purchase furniture, and said, "Will you have it?"—I would not, and he then burnt the notes—there was a very large roll of notes—I do not know precisely the number—he was earning on an average I
should say 20l. a week at that time—he was very skilful at a workman, and very quick—he was a gold chaser, which at that time was a very lncrative employment—he was considered the best in Birmingham.
Q. Do you remember at any time his making an attempt upon his own life? A. I do—frequently, before our marriage—one night he was picked up by the watchman outside the door, and there were a great number of people there—I, knowing what he had threatened, was very much alarmed—he was found by the watchman in the street with a razor in his hand—I was in my mother's house—he was brought in, and I saw him—the watchman had the razor, and gave it to my mother—he was crying at that time, and teemed very desponding—we had seven children—the prisoner was the third child—the first child is living—at the time I was pregnant of the second child, my husband's conduct was dreadful, brutal—he neglected me to that I fainted three or four times a day for want of food—he once broke a jug, and threw a piece at me—it would have cut my face, but I held up my arm and it cut my arm—I have the wound now—he annoyed me dreadfully by grimaces while I was pregnant of my second child, and by jumping about like a baboon, and imitating their grimaces—that continued during the whole period of my pregnancy of the second child—that child was barely born alive—it was a confirmed idiot, and its countenance was precisely as the father looked when he made those grimaces—it put its tongue out like he did—it lived about between two years and four months, not quite two years and a half—during all that time it had not the least appearance of reason—it never spoke or walked—it was very voracious—it showed no indication of sense or reason at all—I continued to suckle that child after the birth of the prisoner—it took to the breast two or three days after this boy was born—its cry was not human—it was a sort of moan—it was not like a child cries—I suckled that child and the prisoner together—my husband's conduct was much the same during my pregnancy of the prisoner, grimaces and so on—I was in tears one day when a lady called, she said, "What is the matter, Mrs. Oxford?"—I said, "He is commencing the same faces he always has done," and she told him it was very wrong of him—he once struck a file into my breast, and the milk flew out from the wound—there was a stream of milk on the floor—that was before the birth of the prisoner, it was whilst I was suckling my first child, and on observing the milk come from the wound, he showed the same indifference that he always did—I had not had any quarrel with him—he was always tormenting me—he delighted in annoying and teasing me.
Q. Did you do any thing to provoke him to these extraordinary acts? A. No—I was considered too patient, and too attentive to him—I was blamed by my parents and many persons—he kept a horse at one time, and I have seen him bring the horse into the house, he led it in by the bridle, and he seemed, like a child with a toy, amused at his own folly—he brought it into the sitting-room, and led it about—I have frequently applied to him for money for the support of the family, which he has refused, and abused me, and he once knocked me down, and fractured my head—I had done nothing more than ask him for money to support the family—I knew he had received many pounds that night—he put 2s. on the table—I said I could not do without money—he was perfectly sober—it was between seven and eight o'clock in the evening—I believe it was before the birth of the prisoner that I received the blow which fractured
my head—I cannot say whether it was at the time I was pregnant—he cut my head with a quart pot, while I was pregnant with the prisoner—he threw it at me, and it cut my straw bonnet through, and cut my head—I did not know my head was cut till I felt the blood coming down—I do not remember, how far advanced in pregnancy I was then.
Q. Was your mind ever at all affected by any violence done to you by your husband? A. When asleep I screamed, and I was obliged to be awoke up in my dreams—that was when my head was fractured—I was carried in by several persons, and when they dressed my head, I attempted to walk, but could not, my head turned round with giddiness—that was the day it was done—I was dangerously ill—I was obliged to have my head shaved and poulticed—Mr. Partridge the surgeon can tell when that was better than I—I believe he is here—I remember one day walking with my husband—he left me, saying, he had a box to go off by to-morrow, and he must go and finish it—he left me at my mother's, on telling me that—after that I went home with the servant and child, and found the house locked up—it was not opened to me—I went back to my mother's—it was afterwards opened, and part of the goods were removed, the house in confusion, and my husband gone—he was taken by the authorities of the town next morning, in the act of leaving Birmingham, for London—I had not had any quarrel with him at that time—not a word or sentence of anger—when I saw him afterwards he did not give me any explanation of his conduct, but he came into my father's house and asked me some questions, which I answered him—the persons sitting by wondered how I could speak to him—he went away again immediately—he continued in Birmingham for some weeks, and then went to Dublin, where he stopped four months, leaving me and my children with my mother—at the end of the four months he returned, and sent for me to a lodging-house; I of course put out my hand, expecting he would be glad to see me, but he pushed me from him—he said nothing particular, only be seemed annoyed at my looking better than when he left me—he said so—I have heard him reasoned with by his friends as to his conduct, and he said, if any one persuaded him to do any thing, be would act directly opposite—he did not appear to be capable of seeing the folly and wickedness of which he was guilty—he would laugh in the most triumphant manner; and he had I should say, an almost supernatural look with him when he had done wrong, and when I was distressed—the day I was put to bed with the first child he kicked me violently because 1 did not agree to something which he proposed to me to do—I have known him take poison twice, I believe—once he took laudanum, and he was very ill for several days afterwards—he was at my sister's house the same day that he took it in the afternoon, and she spilt half of it—he kept his bed several days in conesquence—Dr. Birt Davis was called in in consequence—my husband died on the 10th of June, 1829—I have seen my husband's father several times—I saw him on the occasion of my husband's death, and the night before he was buried, he said he was determined to lie by the side of his dear boy and he was then in a putrid state, in his coffin—I had been obliged to burn vinegar for the last two or three days—his father did not appear to be in a sound state of mind—he reproached me for having my husband opened without getting any thing in return, which was very unnatural, I think, in a father—his conduct was very eccentric on other occasions when I saw him—he had a great many peculiarities. The prisoner was born on
the 19th of April, 1822—for the first seven years of hit life he was under my care.
Q. Did you observe any thing remarkable about him from his infancy? A. Yes, he would burst out crying when there was no one near him, and no one speaking to him, and he was always very troublesome—it was different to the mere waywardness of childhood—if he sat still or stood still, he would burst out crying—that was after he had learned to walk as well as before—all children cry, but this was when he was three or four years old, and he has continued to do so through life, to cry without any apparent cause—I have known that to be the case up to the time of my going to Birmingham, or just before that—that was in the present year—he had a great many other very singular habits—he would get into a violent rage without any cause; he would deliberately break any thing, and willfully destroy any thing that he took in his hand—he once pointed a pistol at me, that was the first day he brought them home—I should have told you that my husband, during my pregnancy with the prisoner, pointed a gun at my head—the prisoner was particularly fond of fire-arms and gunpowder—I have frequently taken it from him when he was young—he would sometimes play about with other children, and at other, times he would amuse himself with letting off cannons, and he was once very much burnt with gunpowder all over the face—he was very much hurt, that is eight years ago this summer—he was at play in the yard with a little boy, and the cannon exploded, and he was very much burnt—his eyebrows and eye-lashes were burnt off, hit hair was very much singed, and his face was a complete mass—I sat up two nights to wash it with a lotion—it was very much hurt—he behaved very fractious indeed, and screamed terribly, so that the doctor was angry with him, and gave him a sleeping medicine—when I first saw him, after he had burnt himself with the gunpowder, he was crying dreadfully—I was absent at the time, and when I returned I found him washing his face with water.
Q. Has he any habit of laughing? A. I have frequently beat him for it when he was much younger—that habit has continued up to the present time—he would laugh hysterically after these gloomy fits and fits of violent passion—it is an involuntary laugh—I told Mrs. Robinson so the day he left—he was in the habit of alarming me dreadfully, by making strange noises, firing off cannons, and flourishing a great stick before his sister's face, and before the looking-glass—complaints were made to me by the customers of his laughing, and if I asked him to do any thing when I was in business, be would make such a disturbance, that it used to distress my feelings dreadfully, and annoy the customers—I was at that times keeping a pastry-cook's shop in the Westminster-road, but he has annoyed them since then at a coffee-house which I afterwards took—when the gentlemen have been reading the newspaper, he has made such a dreadful disturbance that it was very annoying and very distressing to my feelings—the customers complained of it—I shut him in the cellar, on one occasion, when I kept the pastry-cook's shop—the customers came to complain of him—I lost a great many of them in consequence—I lost my business entirely—at times he was very affectionate, and at other times the contrary—he would break out unawares, and if he wanted any thing, and it was not reached him in a moment, lately, he would strew the room with litters, and throw every thing down that came in his way—he was sometimes very gloomy—he would sit. for a long time with his hand to
his head, and not speak, and he would be impatient if I spoke to him, especially if he was reading, and we spoke to him, he would get in a violent rage—I went into a situation at Mr. Prescott's, the bankers, as confidential housekeeper, and was there a year and a half—I saw the prisoner occasionally during that time—I placed him with a person named Sandon.
Q. After you left Mr. Prescott's, and he came from Sandon's, did these peculiarities appear to have subsided or increased? A. Increased considerably—I could not manage him at all—he broke windows to the amount of 29s., and he used to jump on the sofa, and throw the pillows about, and destroy things wilfully—that is eight years ago—since that time he has been under my own observation until the last four years, and then he has only been with me for a week or a month occasionally, having gone out to situations—he was with my sister at Hounslow first for about two years—she then kept a public-house—she does not now—he then went to Mr. Minton's, at the Shepherd and Flock, in London, and from there to Mr. Farr's, in Wilderness-row—when at home he was in the habit of going on the roof of the house and throwing at people as they passed—he was brought home one night by a policeman, who informed me he had been taken to the station-house—he had got behind a carriage, and frightened a lady who was in it by making a great noise, and she was pregnant; and her husband, who was a solicitor, was exceedingly alarmed and angry—that was stated in his presence—I went next morning to inquire after the lady's health, and apologize—he took no notice when he heard this account—he did not appear conscious of having done wrong—he used to look very indifferently about all these things—I think this was somewhere about six years ago, between five and six—when he was at home of late, I knew of his having no companion but Master Linton, who has been examined—he never, to my knowledge, belonged to any club or any meeting—I left London for Birmingham about four weeks and three days, I think, before this occurred—at that time he was out of place—he had left his place just a week before I went to Birmingham—he received 20l. a year wages where he had been—he did not purchase the clothes he has on with that money—he has had that coat a long time; he had it just as Mrs. Minton died, more than two years ago—he then had a suit of mourning given him, consequently this coat was saved—he has had it in his possession full two years, I should say—I do not know whether it is so much as two years—I should say he has had these clothes nearly two years.
Q. How lately has any thing occurred between him and you in allusion to Macbeth, or any thing of that kind? A. He has always been talking in that manner, repeating parts of plays, from a very little boy, and we used to imitate him because he said it so badly—he wanted to go to sea last winter—he wanted me to go to Birmingham for 50l. to provide him as a midshipman—I told him of the folly of his going to sea when he knew nothing about nautical affairs—he said he should have nothing to do but to walk about the deck and give orders—I said, "But you must first learn navigation"—he said he would allow me half his pay, and how proud I should be of my son when I saw his name in the papers, Admiral Sir Edward Oxford—when he brought the pistols home, I said, how could he think of laying his money out in such folly, and he said they were not his—he was saving them for a young man—I do not know whether there was any thing in the pistol when he presented it at me—he had only just then brought them in—he has behaved violently towards me—the day
before I went to Birmingham he made my nose bleed by a blow from his fist—I was playing with him and turned round, and he hit me on the nose—that was not in the course of the play—it was after—he turned round suddenly as he was going through the door, and struck at me—it hurt me very much—I screamed out—the landlady came up stairs, and she said, "If I was to strike my mother I should expect my hand to drop off"—he appeared very sullen.
Q. You know his hand-writing, of course? A. Yes—(looking at the paper headed "Rules and Regulations" found in the prisoner's box)—I believe this paper is his hand-writing—all that is his writing—I have received two or three notes from him since he has been confined—I have seen him write many times—I have no doubt whatever these are his hand-writing—these three notes—(looking at them)—are also his handwriting.
Cross-examined by MR. SOLICITONR-GENERAL. Q. About this nose bleeding, did he tell you it was an accident, and did you tell Mrs. Packman that you thought it was an accident? A. I did, because I did not like to appear so severe with him—my parents on many occasions witnessed the threats that my husband made to me before our marriage—his threats of what be would do to me if I did not marry him—the courtship continued, and I afterwards did marry him—I do not know the amount of the notes which he burnt—it was a very large roll of notes—I am sure they were notes, because the Birmingham notes were very much soiled, and I could tell their appearance—my son (the prisoner) went to school when he was a very little boy—Walters, I think, was his first schoolmaster's name, I am not quite sure—when he went to a master's school I was not there—it was while I was at the situation at Mr. Prescott's that he was sent—I lived in Mary Ann-street, Birmingham, at the time of his birth—he continued under my care till three months after his father's death—he was seven years old then—he bad been to a small school in the neighbourhood where I lived—my husband kicked me at the time of my confinement—that was not the occasion upon which my father said he would prosecute him—that was when I was in such a dangerous state with the second child—I was taken home a month before my confinement, or else there was every reason to suppose I should not have recovered—it was on that occasion my father said he would prosecute him—I cannot say exactly how long the prisoner was at school at Walter's—he next went to Mr. Robinson's, in the NewCut, Lambeth—that is about eight years ago—Mr. Walters was in Birmingham—he was at Mr. Robinson's several months—Mr. Robinson used to come and complain of his inattention—he next went to a school at Camberwell, and remained there a few months—there were the same complaints then of inattention and wildness—I do not think he went any more—when I was at Mr. Prescott's, he was placed with George Sandon, of Birmingham, who married a niece of mine—he was there twelve months—my father had the care of him after that—he remained with my father till eight years ago—I do not exactly know how long he remained with my father—it could not have been much more than a twelve month—part of that time I was with Mr. Prescott, and the other part in the Westminster-bridge-road, in business as a confectioner—when he left my father he came to me in the Westminster-bridge-road, and resided with me till he went to his aunt's at Hounslow, four years ago—he was barman at his aunt's—he continued with her till she failed in business, till he went to Mr. Minton's—the duty of a barman is to serve liquor at the bar, and
receive money, and account for it—he went to Mr. Minton's from his aunt's—he was in the same situation there, as barman—he lived there twice—he received wages at his aunt's—he lived about four or five months with Mr. Minton the first time—he then came to my house for a short time, and Mr. Minton had him back again—I cannot say how long he remained there the second time—I should say more than six months, or about six months—he had 20l. a year there—his next employ was at Mr. Parr's, in Wilderness-row—he remained there till Mr. Parr left the house, and remained a short time with the persons who succeeded Mr. Parr, to initiate them in the business, for which he received a sovereign, I believe—he then came home for a short time, and then went to Mr. Robinson's, in Oxford street—he gave Mr. Robinson notice, and afterwards he staid for a short time to oblige Mr. Robinson, till he suited himself—I went there for the first time the very day he left, and asked for him—Mrs. Robinson said he had left—I was rather alarmed, and said, "When did he leave?"—she said, "Not above an hour ago"—I said, "I hope he has given you satisfaction"—they said, "In every thing but laughing"—I said, "He cannot help it, for I have often boxed his ears for it"—I did not hear any complaint from Mrs. Robinson of his breaking the things, but I have often beard it from himself—when he was going to leave Mr. Minton the first time, I went to know the cause, and he said he made such mistakes in giving change, he liked him in every thing but that—Mr. Minton is alive—he is not here—the barmaid is—it was two or three weeks, I think, before he took him again—it was in consequence of the other barman leaving—I cannot tell how long exactly he remained the second time—I believe he was recommended from Mr. Parr's to Mr. Robinson's—my boy told me so—I never went to visit him at Mr. Parr's—he went to his aunt's four years ago this summer—during that four years, with short intervals he has supported himself in those services.
Q. What were those noises that you speak of that he made at the coffee-house? A. Why he would cry and roar, like a boy that had been beaten, if I asked him to do any thing, and I put him in the cellar once, and locked him in—I have frequently corrected him at other times—I have been compelled to beat him when he was much younger—he was in the habit, as a child in play, of using cannons and gunpowder, occasionally hurting himself—my daughter and I were so much alarmed once that we were both ill by the loud report of a cannon—we took it from him—I gave it to a lady who was there, and who is now dead—he was in the habit of using those kind of things—the last place he lodged at was in West-place—I forget the name of the solicitor who took him to the station-house for frightening his lady—the lady lived in Camberwell-grove—I went there next morning—I believe it was a gentleman's cab—he got up behind, and made a great noise in the lady's face—he put his face round from behind the cab, while the lady and gentleman were riding home—the gentleman immediately gave him in charge—I do not know whether he was acquainted with a lad named Roach, or Smith, or Gray—I do not know either of those—I know Linton—the prisoner associated with the lads in the neighbourhood of the Westminster-road—he had been home a week and a day, when I went to Birmingham—I left him in the lodging—I think he brought the pistols home on the Tuesday or Wednesday after he left—I intended to return to West-place—I did not intend to stay so long when I went—I desired that he would look out for another place—he said nothing was stirring, and he should rather wait till a good place offered
itself, than answer advertisements—I did not propose that he should advertise, or answer advertisements—I got him his first place, and he got himself the others.
FRIDAY, July 10th, 1840.
The Queen against Edward Oxford.—(Continued.)
MARY SUMNER . I am a widow, and live in Church-row, Houndsditch. My husband was a jeweller, and lived in Norfolk-street, Birmingham—I knew the prisoner's father there in 1820—we lived exactly opposite him in the same street—I had frequent opportunities of observing him—the first thing I saw singular about him was on an occasion when he rode into his own parlour on his horse—his wife was screaming, and I went over, and saw him riding round" on horseback—I, of course, considered he was not right in his mind—I observed peculiarities in his conduct on many occasions—once at dinner he threw the meat and vegetables out of window—I was present at the time, and saw it—I was in my own house opposite—my husband and I have frequently said to ourselves that he must be out of his mind—that was the general opinion—I have very frequently observed peculiarities of conduct in him, though I cannot exactly call them to mind—we always considered his acts more the acts of a madman than any thing else—he came from Birmingham to London with us in 1820, and there he stopped several weeks, and his actions then were more like a mad-man than any thing else—my husband was obliged to tell him he must return, for we could not be troubled with him any longer.
Cross-examined by MR. ATTORNEY-GENERAL. Q. Did he drink a good deal? A. I never saw him drunk, or approaching to is—I have seen him take a glass of wine and beer very frequently—he used to come to our house, and we were in the habit of seeing him, and when we were in London for three weeks he came to our house daily.
Q. Was he not a very bad husband? A. Why, they used to have little broils, I believe—I was not aware that he was a very good husband—I think not—I do not know—I believe he was not a good husband—on one occasion he sold the goods during his wife's absence for a few minutes—he used his wife very harshly and ill continually, during the time we were in Birmingham, and after we left I heard he still continued to do the same.
COURT. Q. Did you ever know him to be attended by any medical man? A. No.
CHARLES MARKLEW . I live in Birmingham, and am brother to Mrs. Oxford. I bad opportunities of observing the conduct of the prisoner's father—I had the care of the prisoner and his sister when they were young—the father came one morning to see them—he kissed both the children when he went out—he looked through the window, showed me a bottle, and before I could get out to him, he swallowed the contents of the bottle—I picked up the bottle, and I could tell by the smell that he had swallowed laudanum—the bottle was empty when I took it up—it was full before—I called him a fool for acting in that way—he was taken very ill—I desired he would try to throw it up off his stomach—he tried to do so, hut could not do it—I got him to bed, and informed his friends of it—a car was sent for, and I took him home to his lodging—after that Dr. Birt Davis was sent for to attend him—I always considered that he was in a mad state ever since I knew him.
Cross-examined by MR. SOLICITOR-GENERAL. Q. Pray, when he came and kissed the children, did he say any thing about the laudanum before he went out? A. Not a word—he took leave of the children—he had always been in the habit of ill-using his wife, and they were parted through that—he did not tell me what he was going to do, nor where he was going—he was not at all affected in taking leave of the children, he seemed sorry—I did not ask him where he was going—I asked him no questions whatever—he and his wife had been parted, perhaps two or three weeks then—he was a gold-chaser—he carried on that business at Birmingham some years, perhaps two or three years—I cannot say exactly—he came to live in London soon after—he never resided in Birmingham after that time—he came to visit the children—that is all—he stopped two or three hours—he did not sleep or live in the house.
COURT. Q. Did you live in London at this time? A. No, in Birmingham, but Oxford never visited Birmingham after he left.
DR. JOHN BIRT DAVIS . I am a physician, and reside at Birmingham—I am also a Magistrate of the county, and am Coroner for the Borough. I attended the husband of Mrs. Oxford on one occasion—he was labouring under symptoms of poisoning by laudanum—I may have seen him twice or thrice—I cannot tell which, but J believe I saw him twice—it was in 1824—sixteen years ago—I have no doubt I directed proper remedies to be administered to him—he recovered—I can hardly say whether I considered him in danger when I saw him—I do not recollect the estimate I took then of his exact danger—I have been practising as a physician from the year 1823—I do not think I had ever seen him before that occasion—I never saw him after—the two occasions on which I saw him did not afford me any sufficient opportunity of judging as to the state of his mind—I heard at that time of his odd conduct to his wife—representations were made to me of his conduct by others—I have been in Court during this trial.
Q. Have you formed any opinion of the sanity or insanity of the prisoner? A. I have formed an opinion.
Q. Supposing a person in the middle of the day, without any suggested motive, to fire a loaded pistol at Her Majesty, passing along the road in a carriage, to remain on the spot, to declare he was the person who did it—to take pains to have that known, and afterwards to enter freely into discussion, and answer any questions put to him on the subject, would you refer such conduct to a sound or unsound state of mind? A. If to that hypothesis were added what I deem a proof of hallucination—
COURT. Q. The question is, whether upon those facts alone you should judge a person to be insane? A. I should judge him to be insane upon those facts alone, but I should be stronger in that opinion if I was permitted—
Q. You mean to state, upon your oath, that if you heard those facts stated, you should conclude that the party must be mad? A. I do.
Q. Without making any other inquiry? A. Yes—taking this into consideration, the absence of motive, the absence of precaution, the deliberate owning, and the free discussion afterwards, of his own conduct, criminating himself in that way immediately afterwards, with the danger staring him in the face.
MR. BODKIN. Q. Suppose, in addition to those circumstances, it was shown, that just before the transaction, the party had written these papers which you have heard read, would that conduct strengthen, or otherwise,
the inference that you have already told us you draw? A. It would greatly strengthen the inference.
Cross-examined by SIR F. POLLOCK. Q. I collect from what you have said, that you have no distinct recollection of the remedies you prescribed to the prisoner's father? A. I have not—I have seen many cases of poisoning by opium—I should say a dozen cases, I cannot rely on my memory for the treatment of that particular case—I did not make any minute of the case—I was called in within a few hours after the laudanum was taken—I do not recollect the particulars of the case—it is mainly impressed upon my recollection by the fact of the man being a man of colour, and his residence.
Q. I collect from that, the only particulars you do recollect, are, that sixteen years ago you attended a man of colour, who had taken laudanum? A. That is about the sum of my recollection—I received the information that he had taken laudanum, from others—I cannot say whether he survived the effects of the laudanum by the assistance of any excitement or stimulant, or whether it was removed from his stomach by an emetic—I have no recollection of the particulars of his case.
Q. As a medical man, you are perfectly aware that a large dose of laudanum, may be taken without producing death, if a party is stimulated, and kept in motion by counteraction? A. The majority of such cases would recover, when properly treated, when treated in the usual way—he was drowsy—I am sure of that—I was not able to form any notion whatever of his state of mind.
Q. You have answered some hypothetical questions put by my learned friend opposite, (Mr. Bodkin) I beg to ask you whether you give that answer from your knowledge, as a physician, or from your experience as a Coroner, or as a Magistrate, or merely as a member of society? A. I answer as a physician—I think the circumstances which have been supposed, have, medically speaking, a tendency to prove insanity.
COURT. Q. We do not exactly understand what you mean when you say medically? A. If, as a physician, I was employed to ascertain whether an individual was sane or insane, in whom I found those facts, I should undoubtedly give my opinion that he was insane.
Q. As a physician, you think every crime that is plainly committed to be committed by a mad man? A. Nothing of the kind; but a crime committed under all the circumstances of the hypothesis.
Q. What are the circumstances in the crime itself, which you think show madness? A. The crime is committed in open day, it being obviously of great magnitude and danger; of great atrocity; it is committed without any precaution, without any looking out for the means of escape; it is afterwards spoken of openly, so far from concealing the criminating facts; facts which might afford a chance of escape; the existence of the balls is acknowledged, the free discussion of the circumstances, the absence of motive—by the free discussion, I mean a free respondence to the questions put to him immediately afterwards in the cell—the questions which Lord Uxbridge stated yesterday he did put—he said, on Lord Uxbridge entering the door, "I did it."
JOHN WRIGHT . I am a sergeant of (he police at Birmingham. I knew the prisoner's father when he resided there, about 1821—I was articled to him to learn the gold-chasing—I observed something strange and peculiar in his conduct—he was a man having wild and mad ways with him, and a
great brute to his wife—I have seen it in many instances—I have seen him strike her and plague her very much—as far as my opinion goes, I should think he was not right in his head half his time.
Cross-examined by MR. ATTORNEY-GENERAL. Q. Who articled you to him? A. It was an agreement between ourselves, drawn up by himself, and signed by both of us—I was about twenty-one years of age at that time—I was twenty-one the January following—my family and friends resided about seven miles from Birmingham—they knew of my being articled to him, and approved of it—I had known him about a fortnight before I was articled to him—I had a brother in Birmingham, who was a carpenter and joiner, and he introduced me to his company—he had known Oxford, and recommended me to become his apprentice, as I wanted to learn his trade, and it was a very good trade at that time—he was a very good workman, and very ingenious—I did not continue with him more than three months—I was turned over to a gentleman, named Carrington, who lived three or four doors from his house—Oxford neglected his work, and gambled, and drank a good deal—on one occasion he presented a gun at his wife when in the family way with the prisoner—I had been out shooting, and I presented Mrs. Oxford with some of the birds, and he took the gun up and presented it at her—I took it from him, and told him it was loaded, and she was very much frightened.
MR. SYDNEY TAYLOR . Q. You know that she was then pregnant with this boy? A. Yes; it was one who was called Edward afterwards—when I took the gun from him, and said it was loaded, he began to pull faces at her.
ROBERT MEDD . I reside in North Old-street, Birmingham. I became acquainted with the prisoner's father in 1817—I continued to know him from the time he came to Birmingham till the time of his marriage—that was not twelve months—he lived with me after his marriage—I was acquainted with him five years altogether, before and after his marriage—I had very often opportunities of noticing his conduct and demeanour—from what I saw of him I considered him to be in a very unbound state of mind.
Cross-examined by MR. SOLICITOR-GENERAL. Q. I think you said you knew him twelve months before his marriage? A. No, not a twelve month, he was a twelvemonth before he was married—I knew him five years altogether—part of that time he lived with me in my house—he boarded and lodged with me both before and after his marriage—he did not live with me long the first time, not a month—I should think it was four years before he came to me again—I knew him in the interval—he lived with me about a month the second time—his wife was along with him—he was working as a gold-chaser—he worked for different manufacturers—I considered him in a very unsound state—I never saw him tipsy in my life, that I know of—I gave him a key of the house to let himself in—the first time I ever recollect any thing was, he came home in the middle of the night, called us up, and said be found the door open—when we came down we found the things all about the house, two or three little things, a prayer-book, and a Bible, he had secreted, we could not find them—next morning he produced them, and began to laugh at us—another time he had been quarrelling with his wife, he came out of the shop, took a knife out of the drawer, threw himself on the floor, and began to pretend to cut his throat—the neighbours came in and got the knife from him—he was haggling away at his throat—I got hold of his hands,
and they tent for Dr. Stokes—he did not cut his throat—I did not give him a chance—I did not send for the doctor—the women can away foolishly—they were not aware he had not done it—we got the knife from him, and then he ran out of the shop, put his tongue out, and began to laugh and shout—I do not know of any other instance—he got a good deal of money, from 10l. to 20l. a week—I know what he got for his work was all brought into my house from different manufacturers—he frequently tried to frighten his wife and other persons by doing himself a mischief—I have heard a good deal about him—Dr. Stokes has been dead these five weeks.
COURT. Q. Did he come? A. Yes; and as soon as he came into the shop he began to laugh and shout at him, and he went away—he could very seldom settle himself to work unless he had got no money—when he had got money he was a complete madman—he could not keep it—I do not know which way he used to make away with it—he would give it to any body in a foolish way, or set lads to fight in the streets for it, or give it to any body in the shop to fight for it.
WILLIAM HENEY PATRIDGE . I am a surgeon, and live at Birmingham. I formerly knew Mrs. Oxford, the prisoner's mother—I attended her more than once for an injury on her head—I do not know that it was inflicted by her husband—I was told so—I only knew the state of the prisoner's father's mind from common report.
GEORGE SANDON . I am a tailor, and live at Birmingham. The prisoner was under my care about twelve months—he came to me in 1880, I believe—I did not know him previously, nor since—he was a very peculiar boy while with me, something more than the common order of boys are—he was subject to many rash tricks when; he was out—I considered by the singularity of his ways, he was not right in his mind, and that was the reason I sent him home to his friends.
Cross-examined by MR. SOLICITOR-GENERAL. Q. What rash tricks are you speaking of? A. When he was out with other children playing he would get nettles and beat them very severely, and make them blister on their arms, which is something more than common with children; and at other times he would get up to the room-window and throw things out—at other times he was very much addicted to laughing and crying, both at a time, and when I asked him why he did it he would say (in fact he would give me no straightforward answer) he would say he did not know, and would ran away from me, which I considered very singular in a boy of his age—he was about eight years of age when he came to me—I cannot say whether he had been educated when he came to me—he could read very little—I cannot say whether he could write—I never practised him—I have taught him to read a little—he improved a little, but he was more inclined to be wild and run about—he did not seem any way attached to be in the house—I used to ask him why he did it, and sometimes I would give him a box on the ear, and, instead of crying, he would make a very peculiar laugh—not being a child of my own, I did not like to be very harsh with him—I kept him about twelve months, and then sent him to his friends in Birmingham—I do not know that I ever hit him more than once or three times—it was merely boxing his ears—I never beat him in any other way—I never locked him up—when he was up stairs by himself he would throw things out of the window
—he was always up to some singular trick, always mischievous, more than other boys generally are.
BENJAMIN WALTERS . I live at Birmingham, and am agent for the Birmingham Brewery. I had the prisoner under my care in 1832, for about a year and a half, or a year and a quarter—his conduct was very bad while with me—I had a great deal of trouble with him the whole time—his conduct was very peculiar and different to that of other boys—I always found him very different to any boy I ever had to do with—I thought there must be something in him contrary to other boys—his behaviour was different.
Q. What impression did it make on you as to the state of his intellect and his understanding? A. He was quick at what was set him to do, when I could get him to set to it.
Q. What was your opinion as to the soundness or unsoundness of his understanding? A. I considered him unsound.
Cross-examined by MR. ATTORNEY-GENERAL. Q. He was with you as a schoolmaster? A. Yes—I had about 110 boys—it was a day-school—he learnt reading, writing, and cyphering with me—he was a quick lad—I believe he made considerable progress with me—he is a very good scholar in reading and writing—that he learnt of me—I had a good deal of trouble to get him to attend—he was a mischievous boy—he was rather idly inclined, and mischievous to the other boys—I have punished him for late attendance at school—he had a great distance to come—he would be there at eleven o'clock instead of nine—I was compelled to make complaints to his grandfather, who said he had better come to live with me, and he lived with me about two months—I punished him with the cane—I remember caning him once or twice—it was generally on the hand—he held out his hand, and I gave him a slap with the cane, as I did to other mischievous boys—I have punished him for mischievous tricks to other boys; and so it went on all the time he was with me.
CLARINDA POWELL . I now live at Islington—I formerly kept the King's Head public-house at Hounslow—I am the prisoner's aunt—he was in my employ two years—he has left me two years—he was under my observation daily during the two years he was with me—from my observation of his conduct and manner, I consider he was in an unsound state of mind from the time he came to live with me till he left.
Cross-examined by MR. SOLICITOR-GENERAL. Q. Was yours the first place of service that he had? A. The first—his duty was to be in the bar to draw spirits and beer—he went out with articles sometimes—he would have to receive the money, and account to me for it—there was no one in the bar besides him and myself—I had other servants to superintend the house, except the beer business, and my nephew managed that—I had been in business at Hounslow three years and a half before he came to me, during the life-time of my husband—I did not leave the house, when he left my service—I continued in it till the last twelve months—I have just left twelve months—there was no stoppage in the business about the time he left—he had to learn the business with me—he put the money into the till as it was taken—we had no book to keep—he sometimes received money for the articles he took out, not always—he went from me to Mr. Minton's, at the Shepherd and Flock—Mr. Minton did not make any application to me to know bow he conducted himself in business—he did not apply to me either verbally or by writing.
Q. What were the acts you refer to which induce you to say he was unsound? A. One night in particular he put out the lights, when the house was full of company, at ten o'clock—the hour of closing was twelve o'clock—there were five gas-lights burning—he could not account why he did so—we were likely to have a disturbance, all the company being in the dark—I was obliged, at the risk of my life, to come down stain, and he was then going on violently—I was obliged to come down to soothe him.
Q. Did he put them all out separately, or turn off the supply-pipe? A. Turned them off separately—I was ill in bed—I know he did not turn them off at the supply-pipe, because the cellar-door was locked, and the main was in the cellar—that is about four years ago within a week or two—he had been about twelve months, I think, in my service then—I have frequently seen him very absent—I have spoken to him three or four times, and he did not seem to know me, he seemed quite in a study—he read very much while he was at my house, generally sea voyages—that was the principal—he used to talk in a random way—I never asked why he left me—he left me of his own accord—he was treated with every kindness—he did not get into any scuffle at the time he left me—he was taken before a Magistrate, and fined—I paid the fine for him—that was six or seven days before he left me—I attended before the Magistrate—he was very ill-used by the party—it was me ought to have had them before the Magistrate—he had struck them with some violence—they dragged him down the yard by the hair of his head without any provocation.
MR. BODKIN. Q. Can you remember any expressions he used? A. He talked of becoming a great man—he used to talk of going to sea, and he should come to be very great, and things not very likely to take place.
JOSEPH DAY . I am a green-grocer, and live in Charlotte-street. In 1837 I was a corporal in the 2nd batallion of Grenadier Guards—I was quartered at Hounslow—I frequently went to Mrs. Powell's house there—I saw the prisoner there—I had opportunities of observing his conduct—it was my opinion that he was of an unsound state of mind.
Cross-examined by MR. SOLICITOR-GENERAL. Q. What part of his conduct brought you to that conclusion? A. When he had occasion to bring the beer to the tap-room, at times he would say, "That makes five, and that makes four," at the time there was only one unpaid, and he would lay hold of the servant girl, and behave very indecently, and take liberties with her—on the following morning, at ten o'clock, I left the house to call the roll of men, and I was brutally knocked down with a poker, and brought back—the following morning I was in conversation with Mrs. Powell, and the prisoner said, "Should you know the man if you saw him; was he short, thick, thin, or a tall man?" and ran over various things, his height, age, short, tall, or thin, and so on—he said nothing more about my knowing the man at that time—I thought he was unsound in that and other instances—I had occasion to go to the house again a week or a fortnight after, and he was still laughing and jeering, and making very curious remarks, and said, "I would rather be put to the mouth of a cannon-ball than be served as you was"—it was jeering me, and he seemed pleased at the injury I had received—I do not recollect any thing else.
MART ANN FOREMAN . I have been living at the White Horse public-house, Knightsbridge—I now live in Southampton-street. I was in service at the Shepherd and Flock public-house at the time the prisoner was there—Mr. Minton kept it—he has since left that house, and is somewhere
in Berkshire, I cannot say where—I was there about eighteen months while the prisoner was there—from ray observation of his conduct and behaviour during that time, I should say he was of an unsound state of mind.
Cross-examined by MR. ATTORNEY-GENERAL. Q. Was he barman during that eighteen months? A. Yes—I was barmaid—he came to take my situation, as I was going away, but Mr. Minton did not wish me to leave, and I staid—he served in the bar during that time, received money, and accounted for it to Mr. Minton—I do not know what wages he received—he slept in the house all the time—he went out very little—he was in middling health during that time, not very good—he had no doctor to attend him—he did not go to church on Sundays—we had no time for that—we could not get out—he went to Mr. Parr's after leaving Mr. Minton's—Mr. Minton gave him a good character—he was only full of his laughing and nonsense, and strange ways about him—he gave him a character to Mr. Parr as a person who would make a good barman, and a man that might be trusted—he thought he might be more steady.
MR. BODKIN. Q. What were his strange ways? A. Laughing and crying—if he made a mistake he would burst out crying, and if not, he would laugh—he seemed as if he hardly knew what he was about at the time—he merely put the money into the till—the head barman kept an account.
COURT. Q. There was a barman over him? A. Yes.
WILLIAM HAZLEWOOD . I was head barman at the Shepherd and Flock public-house when the prisoner was there—I have frequently observed his strange habit of laughing and crying—in my opinion, from the opportunities I have had of observing him, he was in an unsound state of mind.
Cross-examined by MR. SLICITOR-GENERAL. Q. He went from your house to Parr's? A. Yes—I believe he had a very excellent character given him by Mr. Minton—he was sharp at times in business—I spoke to him about his laughing and crying—he told me he could not help it, that he had been so from a child—sometimes he went away, and sat down in the kitchen, and cried, after I have spoken to him—he did not leave Mr. Minton's of his own accord, he left on my account—he and I had a dispute—he had been there twelve months—he left then, and I remained, and after I left the situation he came back again—there was about six or seven weeks between his quitting and returning—that was not during the six or seven weeks he was at Parr's—I believe he remained four or five months after coming back the second time—I was there during part of that time—I came back also—when he left the second time, Mr. Minton gave him warning—I cannot exactly say how long he remained after my return, a few days—I did not keep up my acquaintance with him at Mr. Parr's—I never went out—I had enough to do at home.
MR. SIDNEY TAYLOR . Q. Do you know why Mr. Minton gave him warning to leave? A. No, without it was the mistakes—he very frequently made mistakes—sometimes when he took change for any one he would give them a sixpence for a shilling, and sometimes he would draw beer instead of gin, and he used to be always making mistakes—I used to speak to him about it, and he used to be in his passion, and burst out laughing in my face, and then cry.
COURT. Q. Did the crying follow the laughing? A. Generally—he
would laugh first, and then burst out crying directly after—I never noticed whether his mouth was down on one side more than the other.
THOMAS PARR . I lived in Wilderness-row some time since—I now live at the Blandford Arms public-house. The prisoner came into my service from Mr. Minton—he remained with me nearly six months, until I left the house—from my observation of him while he was with me I considered him of sound mind, but he was subject to fits of laughter which at times were uncontroulable—I never saw him cry.
NEWMAN ROBINSON . I am the landlord of the Hog in the Pound public-house. The prisoner lived with me last April—he came on the 24th of January and left on the 1st of May—he gave me warning through a row, and he was always laughing—I reprimanded him for it—he kept laughing still—this laughing took place a good many times.
Q. Did you suffer any inconvenience in your business through his laughing in this way? A. The time he was with me was so short a time—some of the customers were offended by it.
Q. Did you form any opinion of the state of hit mind? A. No more than mischievous laughing and foolish things—if he let any thing fall or if I did, he would burst out laughing.
Cross-examined by SIR F. POLLOCK. Q. Did you ever scold him for that? A. Yes—he said he could not help it—he was very correct in his conduct in all other respects—when he took money, he had just to put it into the till.
COURT. Q. Did he keep any account? A. No.
JOHN TEDMAN . I am an inspector of police. I am acquainted with the prisoner—I first knew him as barman at Mr. Minton's, at the Shepherd and Flock public-house—he was under my observation altogether for eighteen months, or from that to two years—I frequented that house—it is immediately opposite the police-office—from my observation of him and his conduct I considered him of unsound mind.
Cross-examined by MR. ATTORNEY-GENERAL. Q. During the time was he entrusted to manage the business, to draw the beer and other articles which were wanted in the bar? A. Yes, to take money and wait upon the customers—he was not a private acquaintance of mine—I saw nothing of him only in the house.
COURT. Q. Upon what facts do you form your opinion? A. I have gone in of a morning and found him crying very much, with his hands before his face, and his apron before his face, with hit hands up—I saw that frequently—I have asked him what was the matter—he said, "Nothing, now, it is all over "—I asked him if any one had ill-used him—he said, "No"—at other times I have found him laughing very much—I have asked him why he was laughing—he said, the old women drank so much gin it would make any one laugh—I said, "There are no old women here now"—he said, "No, there is not"—he was by himself—on another occasion a gentleman came in and ordered some stout, and Mr. Minton requested the prisoner to bottle it—he got the bottles all upside down in the basket, and was putting the funnel and stout in at the wrong end of the bottle, the bottom end—that was about eleven o'clock in the morning—I asked what he did that for—he said it was a jolly good lark—he was filling the stout out of a can into the funnel—it ran all over the basket—there was no one with him—he was doing it without any one to look on—I think that is about two years ago—I told Mr. Minton he was acting
like an idiot about the place, and he had better send him away, and he did leave in a day or two afterwards—he was at times very violent in his temper, and at other times very quiet, and would scarcely speak to any person—I never particularly noticed that he was addicted to reading—I never saw him with a book.
Q. Did you ever hear him talk about great people? A. On one occasion I got Mr. Minton's children permission to see the Queen go to the House of Lords, from a lady who lives opposite—he complained to me and said, "Why did not you let me go?"—I said, "I did not know you wanted to go"—he said, "Oh yes, I did, I want to see the Queen particularly, and I am determined I will see her some how or other"—that is about eighteen months ago—it was when the Queen went to open the Parliament in 1839.
SUSANNAH PHELPS . I am the prisoner's sister. He lived in the same house with me in West-place at the time this circumstance occurred—there was constantly something extraordinary and strange in his conduct when living there—he was always firing pistols out of the window and in the yard at the back of the house, and pointing them at me—I do not know whether the pistols be pointed at me were loaded with ball or not—I never saw him load them—I never knew of any body being hurt by the pistols which he fired out of window.
COURT. Q. Did he fire into the street? A. No, out of the back window into the garden.
MR. SIDNEY TAYLOR . Q. Was this until very recently before the unhappy affair occurred, which he is on trial for? A. It began a day or two after he bought them—he brought his quarter's money, and a week over, from his last place—that was 5l.—he had 20l. a-year at the place he was in—I recollect his having a suit of mourning on the death of Mrs. Minton—I did not observe him keeping company with any persons when at our place, except John Linton, who was examined yesterday—I saw no one coming to see him, and he never received any letter—from what I observed of his conduct in West-place, it was my opinion, and every body's else, that he was not right in his mind—he once held a pistol at my head as I lay in bed.
Cross-examined by MR. SOLICITOR-GENERAL. Q. During the time he was in West-place, had he one pair of pistols or two? A. One—I only saw one pair—he read a good deal—he used to have books from the library—once he read the "Black Pirate," and "Jack Sheppard," and "Oliver Twist"—I do not know whether he read voyages and travels—he staid at home a good deal—he very seldom went out—I knew of his going to the Shooting-gallery—on the day he fired in the Park, he left home with the intent of going to the Shooting-gallery—he left home about ten minutes after three o'clock that day—he told me he was going to the Shooting-gallery, and to buy some linen for me to make him some shirts; and he told me he would bring some tea home from Twining's in the Strand—I do not know how lately he had been at the Shooting-gallery—it was on the Monday before that he fired at the house—Linton was not much with him at our house—he frequently went to Linton's—he used to spend most of his evenings there—I do not know of his paying his addresses to any young lady—I heard so from him when he was a little boy, but not lately—I never heard him mention any young lady he was visiting.
MR. BODKIN. Q. What was that when he was a little boy? A. He
was very little then—that could not be of any consequence—him and Johnny Linton used to write letters to a girl in the neighbourhood—that is three years ago.
COURT. Q. Did he sit in his room and write at all? A. Sometimes he used to be copying out of the New Testament—nothing else that I know of—I do not know what parts of the New Testament he used to copy—I never interfered with him, as he would fly into a violent rage when I spoke—he sat at one of the tables in the sitting-room—in the same room with me—I have seen him reading the books I have mentioned—I fetched them from the library for him—the "Pilot" was one—I cannot recollect any more—I never heard him talk about "Young England," nor of any society that he belonged to, or said he belonged to.
EMILY CHITTENDEN . I was nursery-maid at the Hog-in-the-Pound for three months, at the time the prisoner was there—his contact was very strange at times—I considered him in a sound state of sometimes very eccentric—Mrs. Robinson fell down stairs once, she did not hurt herself particularly, I believe, only by the fright, the prisoner was in the bar at the time, and he laughed very much indeed at it—I have noticed him laugh occasionally at other times—there was something peculiar in it, because there was sometimes nothing to be laughed at—I never saw him cry—I have not heard him talk of himself in any particular strange manner—I have not heard him say any thing about being King—I have received a letter from him since he left that house—it is destroyed—I remember how it was addressed to me—I cannot say how long ago it is, but as far as I can recollect, it was at the latter end of May in the present year—it was before I heard of his being taken up—as far as I can recollect, it was addressed—
"Fly postman, with this letter-bound
To a public-house, the Hog-in-the Pound.
To Miss Chittenden there convey,
With speedility obey.
Rememember, my blade,
The postage is paid." to this was added the No. of the house, and name of the street—it reached me by the post.
CHRISTOPHER DAY . I am assistant to Mr. Carbery, a tailor, at Charing-cross. I was in the Green-park on the evening the prisoner is charged with having discharged the pistols at the Queen—I saw the Queen's carriage—I did not see it leave Buckingham-palace—I first saw it after the first pistol was fired—I was, I suppose, sixty or seventy yards from the carriage at that time—the report of the first pistol attracted my attention to it—I saw the second pistol fired—I should say I had advanced about three paces when the second pistol was fired—I was about sixty or seventy yards from the carriage then—I could see how the pistol was directed—the prisoner's arm was on a level, I should say, with the top of the carriage, upwards—his arm was as high as the carriage—I should say that pistol was fired rather up Constitution-hill.
COURT. Q. How far was he from the carriage when you say his arm was in that position? A. About five yards from the carriage—he was behind the carriage at that time—the carriage was about five yards in advance.
coming through the Park on the day the Queen was fired at—I did not see either of the shots fired, nor did I hear them distinctly—I heard a noise, but not distinctly—I dare say I was 100 yards off at the time—I was coming down Constitution-hill—after hearing the noise, I proceeded on to where the carriage was—I looked at the garden-wall of the palace—it was pointed out to me by a gentleman on horse-back, about the spot where he thought the balls bad struck the wall—I observed a mark there—in my judgment it was not a mark which had been made by a ball.
Cross-examined by MR. ATTORNEY-GENERAL. Q. Did you see one mark or two? A. Two marks—three I saw, one lower down still—two of them seemed to have been recently made.
MR. BODKIN. Q. How far were those two apart from one another? A. They might be two yards and a half or three yards apart.
COURT. Q. You did not see one fourteen yards off? A. Yes—I saw one at some distance—I saw three marks—I think the one fourteen yards off was also recent—it seemed to be quite newly done—it might be by a scraping with a stick by any body who was loitering about.
DR. HODGKIN. I have been a physician about fourteen years—I have been lecturer on morbid anatomy, and have written some works: lectures on pathological anatomy, and lectures on the promotion of health.
Q. Upon all the circumstances of hereditary insanity in the family, supposing a crime is committed without a motive, that the party committing the crime is subject in consequence of that crime (if brought home to him) to lose his life, and that on the commission of that crime, instead of attempting to escape from justice, he delivers himself up to the law and seems reckless of the consequences, are you as a medical man prepared to say whether those circumstances taken together in the commission of the crime, indicate a sane or unsound state of mind in the criminal? A. By themselves I should consider they were circumstances of strong suspicion, but other facts should be sought before one could be warranted in giving a positive opinion—those would be facts leading to a strong suspicion that the party was insane—if it should also appear that there was a previous delusion, that would certainly strengthen the case—supposing there was inherent insanity in the family, my opinion, grounded on cases which have occurred, would be strengthened that the individual was insane—striking cases are on record.
COURT. Q. Do you say that all insanity is hereditary? A. No, I have not said so.
MR. SIDNEY TAYLOR . Q. Are there instances on record of persons becoming suddenly insane, whose conduct has been previously only eccentric? A. Certainly there are—supposing, in addition, that there was previous delusion in the mind, my opinion would be that he was unsound—such a form of insanity exists and is recognised.
Cross-examined by MR. SIR FREDERICK POLLOCK. Q. What form of insanity do you call it? A. Lesion of the will, it has been called by Le Mare, insanity connected with the development of the will—I should not consider a headstrong person to be under such an influence—I mention lesion of the will, as a term under which a highly reputed writer on insanity has chosen to designate a form of insanity, in which sometimes flagitious acts, sometimes only eccentric acts, are committed—it means more than a loss of control over the conduct—it means morbid propensity—moral irregularity is the result of that disease—I suppose in some instances there are
other indications of the disease—I do not know that there are not—I should think it most likely there would be, if the individual was sufficiently watched—that is a fair conjecture; but the case not coming under my own observation, it is impossible I can give an answer—I have had cases under my observation, in which I suppose this form of insanity existed, one case in particular, that person was in perfect health—I do not think I ever met with a case where the only apparent symptom was moral irregularity, where I had no medical indication of physical disease—I think that, committing a crime without any apparent motive, is an indication of insanity—doing any thing of any sort, without any motive, is not an indication of unsoundness of mind in every instance.
MR. SIDNEY TAYLOR . Q. Do you not make a difference when a man has to suffer the penalty of death for the act? A. Certainly—the species of insanity which Dr. Le Mark calls lesion of the will is a well-recognised species of insanity.
COURT. Q. Do you conceive that this is realty a medical question at all which has been put to you? A. I do—I think medical men have more means of forming an opinion on that subject than other persons—I am supported in that opinion by writers on the subject, by Lours, and by Le Mark, who I have alluded to, who is a particularly eminent writer—my reason for thinking so is, because it is so stated by those writers.
Q. Why could not any person form an opinion whether a person was sane or insane from the circumstances which have been referred to? A. Because it seems to require a careful comparison of particular cases, more likely to be looked to by medical men, who are especially experienced in cases of unsoundness of mind.
Q. What it the limit of responsibility a-medical man would draw? A. That is a very difficult point—it is scarcely a medical question—I should not be able to draw the line where soundness ends and unsoundness begins—it is very difficult to draw the line between eccentricity and insanity.
JOHN CONOLLY . Esq., M.D. I am physician to the Hanwell Lunatic Asylum. I have 850 patients under my care—I have had some experience in the treatment of disorders of the mind—I have seen and conversed with the prisoner—in my opinion he is of unsound mind.
Cross-examined by MR. ATTORNEY-GENERAL. Q. When did you see him? A. The day before yesterday, for the first time—I saw him on that occasion, and I have been in Court the whole of yesterday and this morning—I never saw him in private more than once—that interview lasted perhaps half an hour—a person who is unsound need not, in all cases, be under the care of some person—it depends on the character of the insanity—there may be individuals who may be at large, and associate with others, and still be of unsound mind.
Q. Do you consider there is any danger in the unsoundness you have discovered in the prisoner? A. Certainly I do—Dr. Chowne, Mr. Clark, and a gentleman who I am informed is Mr. Maule, the solicitor of the Treasury, were with me when I examined him—he did not exhibit any violence—he replied willingly to the questions I put to him, but his answers were very unsatisfactory—he seemed to have a very indistinct impression of the circumstances—he knew he was to be tried—when I spoke to him of his trial, wishing to see what impression it made upon him, on two occasions he said, "What trial, when?" and subsequently
he seemed to know the trial was about to take place the next day, and what it was—I asked him if he was not conscious that he had committed a great offence in shooting at such a young and interesting person as the Queen—he said, "Oh, I might as well shoot at her as any body else"—I did not take notes of the conversation—it was so short an interview, and so few questions were put, it seemed to me unnecessary—I went there with the view of being a witness on the trial if required.
Q. Tell me any answer that was unsatisfactory? A. Without recollecting the whole conversation, I cannot pretend to do so—I am unable to recollect—when I asked him if he was not attached to his mother and relatives, and whether he did not think it would very much distress them that he should be brought to trial, and condemned, his reply was, "Yes," he was attached to them—when I asked whether he thought it would affect them or distress them, he said he did not know—when I said he might possibly be condemned, he said he did not know—he answered indifferently—I do not remember any other question, the answer to which was unsatisfactory, not so distinctly as to take on myself to repeat it.
Q. How long before had you notice that you were going to see Oxford with a view to ascertain his state of mind? A. On the evening before—I made some notes when I got home of my observation of him, of the general result of the impressions of my mind, not of the questions I put or the answers I received—I did not ask him to do me a sum in arithmetic.
MR. BDKIN. Q. Are these the notes you refer to? (producing them) A. Yes—they were not made on the same day—I examined the prisoner's head—it appeared to me that the formation of the anterior part of the head would indicate an imperfect development of a certain portion of the brain—I frequently find that form of head in insane persons—there are many persons of that form of head who are not insane—my notes were written as soon afterwards as I could possibly write them—they are very brief—they were not made with any intention of being read.—(Reads.)—"A deficient understanding; shape of the anterior part of the head, that which is generally seen when there has been some disease of the brain in the early period of life—an occasional appearance of acuteness, but a total inability to reason—a singular insensibility as regards the affections—an apparent incapacity to comprehend moral obligations, to distinguish right from wrong—an absolute insensibility to the heinousness of his offence, and to the peril of his situation—a total indifference to the issue of the trial; acquittal will give him no particular pleasure, and he seems unable to comprehend the alternative of his condemnation and execution; his offence, like that of other imbeciles who set fire to buildings, &c, without motive, except a vague pleasure in mischief—appears unable to conceive any thing of future responsibility."
COURT. Q. Of course in that conversation you had with him you were watching his manner as well as what he said? A. Certainly—my judgment is formed in part by his manner, as well as by what he said.
Q. Did you try to ascertain whether he was acting a part with you or not? A. I tried to ascertain it as well as I possibly could—my judgment is formed upon all the circumstances together.
DR. CHOWNE. I am a physician of Charing-cross-hospital. I have been a physician twelve or thirteen years—I am lecturer in that hospital on medical jurisprudence.
Q. If you heard of a person committing a crime without the ordinary inducements to crime, either revenge or interest, and that crime exposes him to loss of life, and he seems reckless of consequences, and delivers himself into the hands of justice, and appears wholly exempt from any thing like consciousness of responsibility for the act, what opinion should you form of that state of mind? A. I should consider it an exceedingly strong indication of his being in an unsound state of mind—a propensity to commit acts without an apparent or adequate motive under such circumstances is recognized as a particular species of insanity, called in medical jurisprudence, lesion of the will—I do not know a better term—it is an old term—it has been called moral insanity; may I be allowed to give you an example? It is by no means an uncommon thing for me to have patients who complain to me that they are impelled with a strong disposition to commit suicide, of the madness of which act there can be no doubt, and yet there is no one symptom about those people indicating mental disease; there may be a slight degree of general indisposition, but no symptoms at all of any mental irregularity: these patients will say, "I have nothing to complain of, I have no unhappy news, I have no disappointment, I have no unsatisfied wish; my husband (if the case be so) is kind to me, I have nothing at all to impel me to the act but a strong impulse"—I have been asked to prescribe for such cases, not in one sex only, but both in men and women.
Q. Now, in that sort of mental disease, is it quite consistent with the person performing the functions of life and the duties of life with accuracy? A. There is no doubt of it; they can perform the duties of life with accuracy; I do not say with the same facility—I saw the prisoner in Newgate the day before yesterday, by permission of the Secretary of State, in company with Dr. Conolly, Mr. Clark, and Mr. Maule—I had some conversation with him.
Q. Now, from the conversation you had with him, and the opportunity you had of observing him, what is your opinion as to the state of his mind? A. I should consider his state of mind is essentially unsound; there seems a mixture of insanity with imbecility—I regard the incapacity of controlling laughing and crying, as proofs of imbecility, not as positive proofs in themselves, but as assisting to form my opinion.
Cross-examined by MR. SOLICITOR-GENERAL. Q. This propensity to suicide in the patients you speak of, were they persons performing all the duties of social life? A. They were persons proceeding with their duties of life, and in all their ordinary avocations—despondency of mind is very often connected with disorders of the stomach, but it very often happens that the physical cause has not been obvious, and has not developed itself at all; it is not at all necessary that the physical cause should be obvious—in such cases, I prescribed for disease in the stomach; I found those remedies did operate on the mind—laughing and crying without control is connected with hysteria, and also with imbecility—generally, when connected with hysteria, it is associated with the sensations, there must be fainting and globus hystericus, which arises in the throat—the questions put to the prisoner were not numerous; some were put by one gentleman, and some by another; I endeavoured to impress upon him that he was labouring under error when he considered it was incapable of being proved there were balls in the pistols; I assured him, in a manner I thought most likely to make him believe, there really were;
that the fact of there being balls in the pistols would be proved against him; that his responsibility was a terrible one, and in all likelihood it would end in capital punishment, and if he knew whether that was decapitation—he said he had been decapitated in fact a week before, for he had a cast taken of his head—I endeavoured to make him understand it would be proved that there were balls in the pistols—I knew he had the impression that it could not be proved, from questions asked by myself—I cannot tell what he had said to induce me to form that opinion, but something was said to that effect by him—I concluded, from something he said, that he entertained that opinion—he insisted that there were no balls there—the fact did not occur to me before—I do not remember his words, but the remark was to the effect that it was impossible—the question as to whether he was not concerned about his mother he treated with indifference, and seemed to be totally destitute of feeling, apprehension, or thought on the subject—during the whole time I was struck with a very peculiar manner—he was not an instant (though I believe it is partly habit) that he was not playing with a pencil and a piece of Indian-rubber, with which I found him drawing—when we went into the room he was quietly drawing, with a pencil on a piece of paper, something like a landscape—during the whole conversation he was leaning with his head on one hand, with the other flapping about with a piece of Indian-rubber, sometimes clapping one pencil against another; in fact, a manner entirely without acute feeling or acute consciousness; and in order to ascertain how fax what I would call dullness of manner, that peculiar manner, might indicate idiotcy even, I desired him to get up and walk; and if I had supposed that he was acting when he was clapping the Indian-rubber about, that idea would entirely have been done away with by the manner in which he walked across the room, which he did with a great deal of lightness, liveliness, briskness, and smartness, not at all as if endeavouring to put on a peculiar manner—it occurred to me that it was perfectly natural, not as if he was acting or making the least pretence—the interview lasted, perhaps, about three quarters of an hour—I did not make any note of the conversation, neither at the time or after.
COURT. Q. Would it not have been wise to note the time of going and coming away? A. Perhaps it would, but I did not use that precaution—Mr. Maule was present during part of the examination, not during the whole—he came in during the latter part—I was in Court all yesterday.
Q. Did you form any opinion at all from the prisoner's manner during the trial? A. I did—I considered that manner was a continuation of the same kind of manner, but under some restraint here—I have no observation to make as to the form of the head—I also subjected the prisoner to what is called the arithmetical test—I infer nothing from it—I merely mention it because it did occur—he was pretty ready in casting up, but not ready in subtraction—I am not quite certain whether at the moment he was giving his attention to it; indeed I consider it is a fallacious test.
JAMES FERNANDEE CLARKE . I am a practising surgeon, and have been so between three and four years. I am surgeon to the Dorcas Charity, and Honorary Secretary to the Westminster Medical Society—I have had some experience in the treatment of insane persons, such as usually falls to the lot of the general practitioner, perhaps a little more, for having been so short a time in practice—I have been in the habit of attending the family of the prisoner—I have known him nearly two years
—I accompanied Dr. Conolly and Dr. Chowne, in their visit to him, the day before yesterday—I have formed an opinion as to the state of his mind; not from that alone, but from other circumstances which I had had personal opportunity of seeing.
Q. What is the opinion you have formed as to the state of his mind? A. That it is decidedly that of imbecility—I consider it more imbecility than any thing—I do not like giving definitions—in my judgment he is decidedly of unsound mind—during the time I have been attending his mother and sister occasionally I have had opportunities of seeing the prisoner, and his mother has frequently mentioned to me that she thought there was something exceedingly peculiar about him, and asked what I thought—the chief thing that struck me was the laughing, which has been so much dwelt upon, the involuntary kind of laughing—with what perhaps we might call a kind of general hysterical tendency in him—he did not seem to me to have that sufficient control over the emotions which we generally find in sane individuals.
Q. Did you notice, at any time, any other symptom that is usually connected with hysteria? A. My interviews with him were not prolonged, and my attention was attracted to him chiefly by the desire of his mother, who said she was afraid he was getting in the way that his father was—I did not know his father—I put one or two questions to him, when I saw him in Newgate—I heard questions put by the other medical men as well, and the answers which he gave—I watched his manner during the interview.
Q. Did it appear to you to correspond with his manner on former occasions on which you had seen him, or to differ? A. Much the tame character—great insensibility to all the impressions which were attempted to be made upon him—on one occasion some time ago my attention was more particularly directed to him, from a circumstance which this occurrence has brought very strongly to my recollection; I think it is about five months since I was on a visit at his mother's house; I called in my rounds to see her; she was very poorly at the time; if I recollect right, he was sitting at the fire reading a book; he took no notice of me when I entered, and seemed to be absorbed in what he was reading; his mother made some observation to him; such as, "How rude you are;" "Why not take notice of Mr. Clarke?" "Why sit there and behave in this kind of way?" He did not seem to notice the observation of his mother at all; he seemed still to be absorbed in the book; she put the question to him again, and there was still the same apparent reverie; and when she touched him, to put him in mind that some one was there, he jumped up in a fury; such as at the moment alarmed me, and swore that he would "stick her," I think was the expression he made use of; but certainly it was such an expression that at the moment I drew back, thinking he meditated some violence. After this transaction bad occurred, the mother called on me in great trouble, and made a communication to me, upon which I wished to see the prisoner, accompanying that with some opinion of my own, which I had formed. I did not see the prisoner until the day before yesterday, when the permission of the Secretary of State was obtained—I had made application at the Home Office on the Monday.
Q. In cases of hereditary insanity, is there any particular period of life at which medical writers consider it likely to break out, to appear? A. In that kind of insanity particularly, which is connected with acts of violence,
Escoreaux says, in several cases which bear great analogy to the one which we might suppose to exist at present—in six of those cases I think that three of them took place at the age of puberty, between the ages perhaps of fourteen and twenty.
Cross-examined by MR. SIR FREDERICKK POLLOCK. Q. You say you have attended the family for some time? A. Yes—I live in Princes-street, Leicester-square—that is perhaps a mile and a half from where Mrs. Oxford and the prisoner lived, but they did not live there during the whole time I attended them—Mrs. Oxford has lived in Commercial-road within the last month—I never prescribed for the prisoner—I did not recommend any course of treatment—I considered that the disease was mental, one of those weak minds which, under little excitement, might become overthrown—I did not alarm the mother, for she is an exceedingly nervous woman—I recommended no course of conduct, diet, or treatment whatever.
Q. In short, I am to understand that you never gave any advice on the subject, of any kind whatever to his mother? A. Simply in conversation, I gave my opinion rather as to his state than any advice, nothing further—I never gave any advice, I was never asked my advice.
Q. Where did you meet the medical gentlemen when they went to New-gate? A. We came together from Dr. Chowne's, I think, but I forget at this moment—we assembled somewhere, and went together—I communicated with the medical gentlemen before they saw the prisoner, and stated what my notion was about him, to assist them in their investigation—I was present when he was brought into this Court last Sessions, and heard some affidavits read to postpone the trial—I was not asked to make any affidavit at that time—I was subpoenaed here, and was actually in Court.
MR. BODKIN. Q. Was you asked to prescribe for him by his mother? A. No, my visits were to her and to the sister—I am not aware of any medical treatment likely to be useful in cases of hereditary insanity—I was told he lived a regular life, no intemperance, no late hours—perhaps twelve o'clock—his bodily health appeared good.
NOT GUILTY, being Insane To be detained during Her Majesty's pleasure.