<!-- © 2003-2008 Old Bailey Proceedings Online -->
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<interp inst="def1-1182-18460511" type="surname" value="RICHARDSON"/>
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<hi rend="largeCaps">WILLIAM RICHARDSON</hi> </persName> and
<persName id="def2-1182-18460511" type="defendantName">
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<interp inst="def2-1182-18460511" type="surname" value="RICHARDSON"/>
<interp inst="def2-1182-18460511" type="given" value="ANN MARIA"/>
<hi rend="largeCaps">ANN MARIA RICHARDSON</hi> </persName> were indicted for
<rs id="t18460511-1182-offence-1" type="offenceDescription">
<interp inst="t18460511-1182-offence-1" type="offenceCategory" value="kill"/>
<interp inst="t18460511-1182-offence-1" type="offenceSubcategory" value="murder"/> the wilful murder of
<persName id="t18460511-name-1024" type="victimName">
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<interp inst="t18460511-name-1024" type="surname" value=""/>
<interp inst="t18460511-name-1024" type="given" value="THEODORE HORATIO RICHARDSON"/>
<join result="offenceVictim" targOrder="Y" targets="t18460511-1182-offence-1 t18460511-name-1024"/>Theodore Horatio Richardson</persName>.</rs> </p>
<hi rend="smallCaps">MESSRS. BODKIN</hi>
<hi rend="italic">and</hi>
<hi rend="smallCaps">HUDDLESTONE</hi>
<hi rend="italic">conducted the Prosecution.</hi>
<hi rend="smallCaps">CHARLES PEARCE</hi>. I am a labourer in the employ of Mr. Hiscock, a bricklayer, at Greenwich. On Thursday, the 22nd of Jan., I was employed in the yard of a house near the Globe, at the Royal-hill, Greenwich, search
<lb/>ing for a cess-pool, and while digging I found a small coffin, which had been covered with green baize—my pick-axe broke the lid open, and there was an infant in the coffin—I left the coffin in the hole, covered it over with some dirt, then went for my master, and told him what I had found—he came back with me—I showed it to him—he said he would see further into it, and I left it covered up in the place.</p>
<hi rend="smallCaps">
<persName id="t18460511-name-1025" type="witnessName">
<interp inst="t18460511-name-1025" type="gender" value="male"/>
<interp inst="t18460511-name-1025" type="surname" value="HISCOCK"/>
<interp inst="t18460511-name-1025" type="given" value="JOHN"/>JOHN HISCOCK</persName> </hi>. I am a bricklayer, and live at Greenwich. On Thurs
<lb/>day, the 22nd of Jan., some of my men were working at a house on Royal-hill, Greenwich—I know the prisoner William Richardson—he resided in that house towards the autumn—in consequence of a communication from Pearce I came with him to the house, and saw a coffin, which was taken out of there and placed in the kitchen of the house—I left the house locked up, and I kept the key till next day—nobody lived there—I gave information to the beadle that day—I saw the coffin again next day—it remained in the house-locked up that night—on the following day I went with Herrington and an
<lb/>other constable to the house, and took it away to the Morden Arms.</p>
<hi rend="smallCaps">
<persName id="t18460511-name-1026" type="witnessName">
<interp inst="t18460511-name-1026" type="gender" value="male"/>
<interp inst="t18460511-name-1026" type="surname" value="HERRINGTON"/>
<interp inst="t18460511-name-1026" type="given" value="JOHN"/>JOHN HERRINGTON</persName> </hi>. I am a beadle of Greenwich. On Friday, the 23rd of Jan., I assisted Larking in taking a coffin to Mr. Walker's, Morden Arms—Mr. Hiscock was with me—I gave it to Mr. Walker—I put it on his premises.</p>
<hi rend="smallCaps">
<persName id="t18460511-name-1027" type="witnessName">
<interp inst="t18460511-name-1027" type="gender" value="male"/>
<interp inst="t18460511-name-1027" type="surname" value="LARKIN"/>
<interp inst="t18460511-name-1027" type="given" value="THOMAS"/>THOMAS LARKIN</persName> </hi>. I am a constable, of Greenwich. On the 23rd of Jan. I accompanied Herrington and this coffin from the house to the Morden Arms—I put it into the coal-cellar, locked the door, and gave the key to Mr. Walker, the landlord—I afterwards gave information to the Coroner—I went to the Morden Arms next day, the 24th, when the Jury were there—Dr. Mitchell was there about four o'clock that afternoon at the Coroner's Inquest I showed him the coffin—he took the child out of the coffin and opened it—no part of the child was taken away by him at that time—after the Inquest I took the coffin to the bone-house in the church-yard—(that evening, the 24th,) the whole of the body was in it—I locked it up in the bone-house—the key remained in my possession—on Friday, the 30tb, it was removed from the bone-house—I took it to Dr. Mitchell—I left the body there and brought the coffin away.</p>
<hi rend="smallCaps">
<persName id="t18460511-name-1028" type="witnessName">
<interp inst="t18460511-name-1028" type="gender" value="male"/>
<interp inst="t18460511-name-1028" type="surname" value="WALKEB"/>
<interp inst="t18460511-name-1028" type="given" value="JAMES THOMAS"/>JAMES THOMAS WALKEB</persName> </hi>. I am landlord of the Morden Arms, Broad-street, Greenwich. On the 23rd of Jan. Larking brought a coffin to my house—it was put in the cellar—I had the key—nobody had access to it but Dr. Mitchell—Larking took it away on the 24th.</p>
<hi rend="smallCaps">
<persName id="t18460511-name-1029" type="witnessName">
<interp inst="t18460511-name-1029" type="gender" value="male"/>
<interp inst="t18460511-name-1029" type="surname" value="MITCHELL"/>
<interp inst="t18460511-name-1029" type="given" value="THOMAS OAK"/>THOMAS OAK MITCHELL</persName> </hi>. I am a surgeon practising at Greenwich. On the 23rd of Jan. I was called to see the body of the child—I made no inter
<lb/>nal examination of it that day—I went again on the 24th—I then examined it—it was so decomposed that it was impossible to tell the cause of death from</p>
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<p>an internal examination—I removed a portion of the contents to undergo che
<lb/>mical analysis—I took out the contents of the abdomen—they were all mixed together from decomposition—I put it into a new earthen vessel, and removed it, with my assistant, to my own house—it was subjected to various chemical analyses—it was done by myself and Mr. Hatch and my assistant—my expe
<lb/>riments enabled me to find out that the results were not such as I ought to have had, had not something out of the common course been present—it enabled me to imagine that arsenic was present—I con
<lb/>jectured that arsenic was present—I stated my suspicions to the Coro
<lb/>ner—I did not deliver the contents of the stomach to any one—in cones
<lb/>quence of what I suspected from the examination of the parts I took, the re
<lb/>maining portion of the body was given to Dr. Leeson—a jar was given to him, into which I placed the remains of the body of the child—this was another jar—the other contained the contents of the abdomen—that was not subjected to any further examination—it was lost sight of—the remaining portion was put into a jar—Larking had brought the coffin to my house—the contents were put into a jar, which was tied over and sealed by him and myself—I conveyed it to St. Thomas's hospital—it was the whole of the body except the parts I had first taken, which was but a small portion—the greater part had run out and got into the coffin—I delivered the jar at St. Thomas's Hospital to Mr. Heisch, Dr. Leeson's assistant—I left it there on Friday, the 30th of Jan.</p>
<hi rend="italic">Cross-examined by</hi>
<hi rend="smallCaps">MR. CLARKSON</hi>.
<hi rend="italic">Q.</hi> Did you find the body in a state of all but entire decomposition?
<hi rend="italic">A.</hi> The internal part of the body entirely so, but the body itself was not so—that enabled me to ascertain the sex-to the best of my belief the child had been born alive—I could distinguish there were eyes without telling the colour—it was not all in a pulpy state—I have not got either of the vessels here in which the portions of the body were placed—I cannot say what became of them—I cut the body into four pieces, and put it into a common glazed porcelain jar, a new one—I went for it, and bought it myself at a shop on the Royal-hill, of a man named Jaggers, or something like that—I bought it that afternoon, as I wished to send it the following day, Thursday, the 29th of Jan.—I placed the jar in my own sur
<lb/>gery, in a cupboard, which I locked—I am speaking of the second jar-before I cut the body to pieces I put the contents of the stomach into a white porcelain jar, one of which I used for medical purposes—it belonged to Mr. Heisch—Mr. Heisch did not go with me when I took the contents of the stomach from the coffin—I put what I took from the coffin, mixed with the sawdust and dirt of the coffin, into a white porcelain jar, which I got from Mr. Heisch—it had been lent to me some time before to make galvanic experi
<lb/>ments, for holding sulphuric acid for a galvanic battery, which I use for some of my patients—I used it for nothing else—part of the contents of the first jar were thrown away, the rest, I believe, is lost—two or three small phials of the contents of the stomach were in Court last time I was here—the rest have been thrown away—we first boiled the contents of the stomach with an equal quantity of distilled water, and filtered it, and a portion of the fluid was tested for various poisons, first, for oxalic acid, and found there was nothing to render that poison present—we then tried for mercury and various others, and at last for arsenic; for which purpose we used sulphate of copper, am
<lb/>monial nitrate of silver, and that gave an appearance which induced us to think arsenic was present—the ammonial sulphate of copper gave a green arsenious appearance, and the nitrate of silver a white—we then tried Marsh's test; subsequently, some days after we tried experiments with the re
<lb/>maining portion—I applied copper, which is Reinsche's test, which produced a greenish appearance—nitrate of silver gave a shadowy, cloudy appearance</p>
<xptr type="pageFacsimile" doc="184605110148"/>
<p>Marsh's test is burning hydrogen gas in a tube—that produced a black ap
<lb/>pearance on glass; and subsequently Dr. Leeson applied other tests.</p>
<hi rend="italic">Q.</hi> Suppose sulphate of copper was applied to a body dying by fair means, not infected by poison, can you tell me what would be the result?
<hi rend="italic">A.</hi> I am not able—nitrate of silver might have been similar to what I have stated—in Marsh's test I do not think the result would be the same—there would be no mark at all upon the glass—I have tried that before in one case, and there is no appearance whatever on the glass, not even a cloud—on the other was this dark cloudy appearance—it was seven or eight years ago that I tried the experiment, and found no appearance at all—I recollect seeing the experi
<lb/>ment tried—it was to test the accuracy of Marsh's test in detecting a small portion of arsenic—it was tried on some fluid which had been brought by a medical man to be tested.</p>
<hi rend="italic">Q.</hi> You mentioned Reinsche's test, which is considered, I believe, the best?
<hi rend="italic">A.</hi> That is different altogether—it is with copper—we boil the bright copper and the suspected liquor, and the copper comes out a dark colour, these ex
<lb/>periments led me to that conclusion—I never tried Reinsche's test before—the jar, containing the remainder of the body was with me part of the day, till conveyed to Mr. Heisch—it was under lock and key, tied over and sealed—it was delivered to me on the 29th—I took the four pieces of the body to Dr. Leeson on the 30th.</p>
<hi rend="smallCaps">MR. BODKIN</hi>.
<hi rend="italic">Q.</hi> Dr. Leeson had nothing at all to do with the parts of the intestines you experimented upon?
<hi rend="italic">A.</hi> Nothing at all.</p>
<hi rend="smallCaps">
<persName id="t18460511-name-1030" type="witnessName">
<interp inst="t18460511-name-1030" type="gender" value="male"/>
<interp inst="t18460511-name-1030" type="surname" value="HBISCH"/>
<interp inst="t18460511-name-1030" type="given" value="CHARLES"/>CHARLES HBISCH</persName> </hi>. I am assistant chemical lecturer at St. Thomas's hospital. Dr. Leeson is the principal—on the 30th of Jan. I removed a iar to the hospital from Mr. Mitchell—it was covered with leather, and sealed over—I was present when it was opened the following day—in the meantime it remained sealed up in a small room at the back of the laboratory—when it was opened Dr. Leeson and myself were present—we found it contained part of the remains of a child—we experimented upon them, and discovered a certain portion of arsenic—the first thing we did was to fill the jar with boiling distilled water, with the body in it—the contents of the jar were then washed out in a perfectly clean dish, made of Berlin porcelain—two legs and one arm of the child were then taken out of the dish, as not likely to contain poison—the other arm was so decomposed that the flesh all came off—I could not take it away, and the rest was placed upon a sand bath and boiled for about half an hour—as many of the bones as possible were then taken out, and a portion of perfectly pure hydrocloric acid was added to the contents of the dish, which were boiled, except the bones—it was boiling at the time I added the acid—it was then boiled a short time longer, and filtered through a linen cloth, and a portion of the liquor, which was filtered through the cloth, was boiled with a piece of perfectly pure and bright copper—this cop
<lb/>per, after being boiled, appeared covered with a dark coating, which coating we believe to be arsenic: but further to ascertain whether it was so, the copper was introduced into a piece of hard German glass tube, which was heated, and the whole of the dark appearance disappeared from the copper, and was transferred to the glass tube—this tube was then heated, and a small amount of air being allowed to pass through it, after the copper was re
<lb/>moved, the dark stain which had before been on the tube disappeared, and we obtained a white crust, which being examined with a microscope, con
<lb/>sisted of white octohedral crystals, which confirms the presence of arsenic—a small portion of pure distilled water was then boiled on these crystals in the tube, by which the crystals were dissolved—the liquor was then poured into a glass to one portion of which we added ammonial sulphate of copper, which gave a green precipitate—to another portion we. added ammonial</p>
<xptr type="pageFacsimile" doc="184605110149"/>
<p>nitrate of silver, which gave a yellow precipitate—to a third portion we added sulphurated hydrogen gas in solution, which also gave a yellow precipitate, and from these tests we were able perfectly to conclude that arsenic was present—as nothing but arsenic could have produced all these results—other experi
<lb/>ments were used, simply with a view of ascertaining the quantity of arsenic present—we separated from other portions of the body which we had, about four grains and one-tenth of a grain of arsenic—I had rather not give an opinion whether that was sufficient to cause a child's death.</p>
<hi rend="italic">Cross-examined by</hi>
<hi rend="smallCaps">MR. CLARKSON</hi>.
<hi rend="italic">Q.</hi> Have you preserved any of the 4 1/10 grains of arsenic?
<hi rend="italic">A.</hi> There are portions preserved—no other substance could produce all the results we found from these various experiments, that is as far as I could judge—we are discovering new poisons at times by new tests—it has been said by some persons that the bones of the human body contain arsenic—I have known experiments made with a view to ascertain that fact—it is believed by the faculty that there is arsenic in some kinds of earth—arsenic is originally taken out of the earth—it is sometimes found in ores of copper, in nickel and various other metals found in mines—it is to be found in the earth from which copper is taken—it is very frequently found in combina
<lb/>tion with copper—I experimented with the body and found 4 1/10 grains of arsenic—a portion was in solution, and a portion in a metallic form—we sepa
<lb/>rated 4 1/10 grains from the body—there might be more—a portion of that adheres to some copper—a portion has been applied to tests, to make our-selves sure it was arsenic—and a portion has been very probably thrown away—the portion which adheres to the copper is, I believe, in the possession of Dr. Leeson—it has not been administered to any animal to test it</p>
<hi rend="smallCaps">MR. BODKIN</hi>.
<hi rend="italic">Q.</hi> Youhave been asked your belief of the human bones containing arsenic, is it a very small quantity?
<hi rend="italic">A.</hi> I do not believe that belief is common among scientific people—I have seen tests applied to discover it from bones, but never knew any separated from bones at all.</p>
<hi rend="italic">Q.</hi> You state arsenic is sometimes found in combination with copper—you used copper with the experiments?
<hi rend="italic">A.</hi> Yes, but the purity of the copper was ascertained before we used it—we tested it—no arsenic was present there—the purity of the copper was ascertained by boiling it in pure hydrocloric acid—it was not necessary to try the arsenic on animals to satisfy me.</p>
<hi rend="smallCaps">COURT</hi>.
<hi rend="italic">Q.</hi> Would such an experiment have satisfied you it was arsenic?
<hi rend="italic">A.</hi> Not more than before—it might have satisfied me it was poison, but I could not get it into a shape to give it to an animal—it was not absolutely necessary to use a Berlin porcelain dish, but they are cleaner than others, and bear a greater portion of heat—the things were brought to me in an ordinary pickle jar—I imagine from its appearance it was glazed with salt.</p>
<hi rend="smallCaps">
<persName id="t18460511-name-1031" type="witnessName">
<interp inst="t18460511-name-1031" type="gender" value="male"/>
<interp inst="t18460511-name-1031" type="surname" value="LEESON"/>
<interp inst="t18460511-name-1031" type="given" value="HENRY BEAUMONT"/>HENRY BEAUMONT LEESON</persName> </hi>. M.D. I am physician to St. Thomas's hospital, and lecturer on chemistry and forensic medicine—I received from Mr. Heisch a jar, containing the remains of a human body, upon which I per
<lb/>formed experiments—I have heard Mr. Heisch's evidence, and agree in the correctness of his details—I made, however, other experiments, in addition to those described by Mr. Heisch—I conducted the analysis myself, except the first boiling, which was done in my presence and under my directions, by Mr. Heisch, in distilled water, the purity of which, and of every other article used in the analysis, was examined—the Berlin dish, the cloth, the water, the muriatic acid, everything else used, were previously tested by myself, to see that they were perfectly pure—I will produce the two pieces of copper with which the examination was made—I took two pieces of copper made clean and bright, by dipping them in a mixture of nitric and sulphuric acid, which re
<lb/>moves from the surface of the copper any impurity that may be present on the surface—I took a portion of the liquid in which the body had been boiled.</p>
<xptr type="pageFacsimile" doc="184605110150"/>
<p>and taking a similar quantity of the muriatic acid employed, and mixing it with an equal quantity of the distilled water previously made use of, I then took the two pieces of the bright copper, and put one into the one liquid and the other into the other liquid, and then boiled them—the one piece of copper which was put into the muriatic acid and water remained bright, whilst the other piece had a coating of arsenic deposited on it—this is Reinsche't test that arsenic was present—to prove that the deposited metal was really arsenic, I placed a portion of it in a German glass tube, as detailed by the last witness, and subjected the end of the tube, containing the copper, to a strong heat, which had the effect of subliming the arsenic from the copper—I put my nose to the end of the tube and smelt the strong characteristic smell of arsenic—I then allowed a current of air to pass through the tube—after removing the copper, the arsenic being sublimed on the surface of the tube, and forming there a dark metallic crust, which is peculiarly characteristic of that metal, this current of air converted the metallic arsenic into an oxide,
<hi rend="italic">i.e.</hi> the arse
<lb/>nious acid, which formed on one portion of the tube minute crystals, which are peculiarly characteristic of arsenic being present—when I examined it with a microscope, I ascertained it to consist of small octohedral crystals—I dis
<lb/>solved the crystals in distilled water, one portion of which when tested with the ammoniac nitrate of silver produced a light yellow precipitate—to another portion I added ammonia sulphate of copper, which produced a green preci
<lb/>pitate, called Scheele's green—by this method of analysis we get rid of all the fallacies which ordinarily attach themselves to these tests, when organic matters are present, and I consider no fallacies can arise—I took another por
<lb/>tion of the liquid in which the body had been boiled and subjected it to the action of galvanism, using a platinum pole at one extremity of the battery, and a portion of clean copper to the other and in this manner also obtained the precipitate of metallic arsenic, which I have here—this when first preci
<lb/>pitated was very bright and silvery, but by keeping it has become partly oxidated—there is now a small portion of white arsenic on the surface, which is also another indication in my mind that the liquid contained arsenic—hav
<lb/>ing obtained by sublimation from another piece of the copper the metallic arsenic in a glass tube, I subjected it to a further test, which is a modification of a test commonly known as Marsh's, which in the manner generally used is subject to objection—I took a quantity of pure sulphuric acid and water, and a portion of pure zinc—the zinc was placed at the bottom of a tube, and that tube placed in a glass vessel containing the dilute sulphuric acid—to the inner tube was attached another tube, for the purpose of collecting the hydrogen formed by the action of the acid and water on the zinc, and this tube dipped into a second double necked bottle containing a solution of ammonia sulphate of copper—the gas after bubbling through this solution was then passed through the tube containing the metallic arsenic, which was attached to the second neck of the bottle—my reason for doing so was that if any impurity had escaped me as existing in the acid or the zinc employed, the ammomia sulphate of copper in the second vessel would have separated it, and thereby rendered the hydrogen gas perfectly pure—the hydrogen gas thus formed being thus led through the tube containing a portion of the metallic arsenic sublimed from the copper, and the other extremity of that tube being drawn out to a fine point, I held it over this small vessel of porcelain, on which it deposited by burning a portion of the metallic arsenic resulting from the decomposition—I have here the small cup with the black metallic stains, but, from keeping, a small portion of the stain has disappeared—when I first w it, as even now, it exhibited a black metallic stain of arsenic</p>
<xptr type="pageFacsimile" doc="184605110151"/>
<hi rend="italic">Q.</hi> What is your opinion from the various tests of the existence of arsenic which you formed by boiling?
<hi rend="italic">A.</hi> I have not the least doubt that the body contained arsenic acid or common white arsenic—I would explain with regard to the amount of arsenic stated by Mr. Heisch to be present, it is quite obvi
<lb/>ous that in making a great variety of experiments, and particularly the preli
<lb/>minary experiments, which I made with a view to discover arsenic or any other poison which might exist, that portions of the liquid must be used for the purpose—the plan I proceeded on was to divide the liquid into several measured portions, and it was by the examination of one such measured por
<lb/>tion that I ascertained the total quantity present in the liquid to be 4 1/10 of a grain—there were eight or nine portions into which the liquid was divided—I am perfectly sure that from the whole liquid there was 41/10—it must have been equally diffused through all the liquid, and I was very careful in measuring it.</p>
<hi rend="italic">Q.</hi> Would that quantity be sufficient to cause death?
<hi rend="italic">A.</hi> It would in a child—I believe less, but it would depend in a great measure on the state of the child's stomach.</p>
<hi rend="italic">Q.</hi> Supposing arsenic to be given to a child whether in food or otherwise, what would be the appearance on the child afterwards?
<hi rend="italic">A.</hi> First of all we might expect very great pain in the stomach—we should probably observe a redness in the throat and the internal part of the mouth—there would be in a short time after small vescicles or blisters about the tongue or throat.</p>
<hi rend="smallCaps">COURT</hi>.
<hi rend="italic">Q.</hi> Something like the thrush?
<hi rend="italic">A.</hi> Very much like the thrush, and we should have the general symptoms which attend inflammation of the stomach, such as great thirst, a burning sensation in the throat—vomiting is one of the earliest symptoms—there might or might not be foaming at the mouth—it would be attended with very great pain—I examined some earth which was brought to me by the witness May, to ascertain whether there was arsenic in it—there was none present.</p>
<hi rend="italic">Cross-examined by</hi>
<hi rend="smallCaps">MR. CLARKBON</hi>.
<hi rend="italic">Q.</hi> Do I understand that previous tests which have been relied on by the faculty have, by more discerning per
<lb/>sons, been considered fallacious?
<hi rend="italic">A.</hi> Marsh's test has been much referred to previously, but it is fallacious unless great care is taken in using pure sulphuric acid and zinc—those of commerce both very commonly contain arsenic—I would not rely on Marsh's test alone—it is usual before adding the suspected liquid to try if it produces a stain—if it does not it may be inferred that the sulphuric acid and zinc are pure, but I have found this sometimes fallacious, for, having kept the apparatus at work all day I have found that sometimes it would show arsenic and at other times there was none—this would depead upon a small isolated portion of the zinc containing arsenic becoming dis
<lb/>solved, although other portions of the zinc might be pure—Reinsche's test is quite a modern one—the faculty principally rely on that now, in conjunct
<lb/>tion with the further examinations of the crust deposited in making use of that test.</p>
<hi rend="italic">Q.</hi> I am afraid it must be admitted that in all matters of this kind, notwith
<lb/>standing unusual endeavours, accompanied by very great acquirements and in
<lb/>telligence, are employed to discover the presence of poison, there has been found considerable difficulty in arriving at a satisfactory conclusion
<hi rend="italic">A.</hi> I think the difficulty you speak of applies to the general imperfection of the vessels made use of—there are some things which in themselves cannot be subject to any fallacy—others again may, if carelessly applied, produce fallacious results.</p>
<hi rend="italic">Q.</hi> But in any test arrived at by the use of any metal containing in itself what you are seeking to find elsewhere, does it not necessarily follow that</p>
<xptr type="pageFacsimile" doc="184605110152"/>
<p>there would be great danger?
<hi rend="italic">A.</hi> No, not in the present case—if the articles you use themselves contain poison, then your whole results may be fallacious, therefore I always make it a matter of examination to see the articles themselves do not contain the substance—I made a further examination after Reinsch's test—I examined the copper made use of in the first instance—I took a piece of the whole copper, and ascertained it was pure copper by dissolving a portion of it and examining the solution thus obtained—there was no arsenic in it.</p>
<hi rend="italic">Q.</hi> You saw none?
<hi rend="italic">A. I</hi> saw none—I am sorry to say I believe there have been cases where poison was said to be present, but I consider the experiments to be fallacious—as to the individual test of Reinsch's, which consists in the deposition of arsenic on the surface of the copper, I should not be satisfied with that alone: it is by further examining the deposit, and from all the tests used, that I conclude that there certainly was arsenic present.</p>
<hi rend="smallCaps">MR. HUDDLESTONB</hi>.
<hi rend="italic">Q.</hi> After the experiments you made have you any doubt of the presence of poison in this child?
<hi rend="italic">A.</hi> I have not, nor have f any of its being arsenic.</p>
<hi rend="smallCaps">
<persName id="t18460511-name-1032" type="witnessName">
<interp inst="t18460511-name-1032" type="gender" value="male"/>
<interp inst="t18460511-name-1032" type="surname" value="MAY"/>
<interp inst="t18460511-name-1032" type="given" value="CHARLES"/>CHARLES MAY</persName> </hi>. I brought some earth to Dr. Leeson—I got it from Larking, who I saw get it out of the male prisoner's garden, in a corner by a wall, in a place that had been dug there.</p>
<hi rend="italic">Cross-examined by</hi>
<hi rend="smallCaps">MR. CLARKSON</hi>.
<hi rend="italic">Q.</hi> When did you get it?
<hi rend="italic">A.</hi> On the 25th of Feb.</p>
<hi rend="smallCaps">COURT</hi>.
<hi rend="italic">Q.</hi> Did Dr. Leeson send you for it?
<hi rend="italic">A.</hi> No, Larking sent me.</p>
<hi rend="smallCaps">
<persName id="t18460511-name-1033" type="witnessName">
<interp inst="t18460511-name-1033" type="gender" value="male"/>
<interp inst="t18460511-name-1033" type="surname" value="LARKING"/>
<interp inst="t18460511-name-1033" type="given" value="THOMAS"/>THOMAS LARKING</persName> </hi>
<hi rend="italic">re-examined.</hi> I got the earth from the place where I understand the coffin had been taken from, by the wall—Sidery pointed out the place.</p>
<hi rend="italic">Cross-examined. Q.</hi> At that time had the earth been dug over?
<hi rend="italic">A.</hi> The hole was filled—I dug about a foot deep—I had not been to the hole before.</p>
<hi rend="smallCaps">DR. LEESON</hi>
<hi rend="italic">re-examined.</hi> I sent the boy to procure some of the ground, that I might ascertain whether there was arsenic—I judged that it might be material—I knew it had been asserted that the earth in churchyards contained arsenic, and thought it possible such a question might arise in this case.</p>
<hi rend="italic">Cross-examined. Q.</hi> What quantity did you test?
<hi rend="italic">A.</hi> About half a pound.</p>
<hi rend="smallCaps">COURT</hi>.
<hi rend="italic">Q.</hi> Do you know arsenic to have been produced from earth?
<hi rend="italic">A.</hi> No, I believe the assertion to be incorrect—I have made the experiment on former occasions—I did not entertain any doubt which led me to make the experiment.</p>
<hi rend="smallCaps">MR. CLARKSON</hi>.
<hi rend="italic">Q.</hi> In the course of your reading have you not found men of science and skill, both English and foreign, have a different opinion on this subject?
<hi rend="italic">A.</hi> Very often.</p>
<hi rend="smallCaps">
<persName id="t18460511-name-1034" type="witnessName">
<interp inst="t18460511-name-1034" type="gender" value="female"/>
<interp inst="t18460511-name-1034" type="surname" value="REYNOLDS"/>
<interp inst="t18460511-name-1034" type="given" value="ELIZABETH"/>ELIZABETH REYNOLDS</persName> </hi>. I am the wife of William Reynolds, of No. 3, Weston-place, Weston-street, Bermondsey—I let lodgings. On Friday, the 10th of Sept., the male prisoner</p>
<xptr type="pageFacsimile" doc="184605110153"/>
<p>came to my house and asked me what apartments I had to let—I told him a front room on the first floor—he looked at it and engaged it—he said he wanted it for his daughter, who was near her confinement, and her husband was gone abroad—he wished the place to be comfortable and quiet—on Sunday, the 14th, he came again with his wife—the prisoner stated that his daughter's name was Mrs. Robinson, and her hns-band had gone abroad for two years—on Monday, the 15th, the female prisoner came to the house—her father and mother came with her and left her in the house—Mrs. Richardson stopped with her until next day—on Wednesday, the 17th, about three or four o'clock in the afternoon, the male prisoner came again—he was alone—the female prisoner was in bed—she had been delivered of a male child that morning before he came—Mr. Wood, the sur
<lb/>geon, was present at the birth—the child was not put to the breast—Mr. Richardson desired that it might not be put to the breast—he said his daugh
<lb/>ter was in too delicate a state to nurse the child—as a mother, myself, I did not consider her so—the child was apparently healthy—it was fed upon tops-and-bottoms, gruel, and rusks—the rusks were kept on the sideboard—I fed the child generally—on Wednesday, the 24th, a week after it was born, it became less well than it was at first—it was well up to that day—on that day the male prisoner was there—he came alone about four o'clock in the afternoon—the child was not ill before he came—he remained until something like eight o'clock in the evening—I do not remember whether he had remained in the house all that time, or went out and came in again—I was not with the prisoner all the time he was in the house—his daughter was in bed—he remained in the room where his daughter was while he was in the house—I was in and out of the room—he had tea there with his daughter about five o'clock—between four and five o'clock, I think, I left the room for about half an hour to dress—I do not remember that I was out of the room, down stain, after that—(I remember leaving the room on the Thursday while Mr. Richard
<lb/>son was there—I left to fold the clothes which I had been washing on the Wednesday)—I was occasionally in and out of the room after five o'clock—on Wednesday evening the male prisoner left about eight, and between eight and nine o'clock the child was taken with violent screaming—it might be about nine o'clock, from half an hour to an hour after the male prisoner left—it con
<lb/>tinued in violent screams all night—I had to walk the room the whole night with it in my arms—it screamed until it could scream no longer—it was so hoarse it lost its voice—I remained up with it all night, and next morning Mr. Wood, the surgeon, came to visit the mother—he was not sent for—he saw the child—he sent some powders and a lotion for it—the child's eyes were very much inflamed after the screaming—I gave it one of the powders on the Friday—the day after it was taken ill the male prisoner was there—the doctor was fetched on the Friday to see the child—it was asleep I think when he called—Mrs. Richardson came to my house that day, Friday, and remained all night—I was informed by her of the death of the child at four o'clock on Saturday morning—on Thursday and Friday the child had a slight appearance of the thrush in the mouth—it appeared to scream until between six and seven on Thursday morning—after that it lay in a stupor—it took nothing after that but thin gruel—on Friday morning the female prisoner wrote a letter to her father—it was taken to the post by my daughter—on Saturday, the 27th, between one and two, after the child was dead, the male prisoner came to my house—he appeared to be very sorry for the death of the child—he said he was going to take it to Greenwich to get it buried—we were all strangers, and it would be less expensive to take it home to be buried—I directed bio to an undertaker to get a coffin, and on that evening he brought a coffin to my house—I assisted to put the body in the coffin—the coffin was put into t bag by the prisoner, and he carried it away—the female prisoner and her mother went away with him—on the Tuesday or Wednesday (I think) before the death of the child, but not before it was taken ill, I desired Mr. Richard
<lb/>son to get it registered in case of anything—I think it had the first appearance of the thrush on Tuesday—before screams commenced there was a slight appearance of thrush in the mouth.</p>
<hi rend="smallCaps">COURT</hi>.
<hi rend="italic">Q.</hi> You saw the thrush on the Tuesday, that was the day before?
<hi rend="italic">A.</hi> I am not sure whether it was Tuesday or Wednesday morning that Mr. Richardson was there, but I remember mentioning the thrush to him on the</p>
<xptr type="pageFacsimile" doc="184605110154"/>
<p>Wednesday—I thought it was the thrush, and wished him to get the child registered—there was not the least appearance of pain till the Wednesday—I saw the child had the thrush on the Tuesday, and told him it ought to be registered—he went out on business, and when he returned, he told me it was quite right, he had had the baby registered—his daughter asked what name he had given—he said, "Theodore Horatio"—the child was not called by that name—on the Monday after the body of the child was taken away, I obtained a doctor's certificate of its death from Mr. Wood—I gave him the name of the child—the child's food was usually placed in a tea-cup on the hob in the same room as the mother was—when the male prisoner was present, they conversed a good deal in French—not all in French, but a great deal—I beard no French on the Saturday, the day the child lay dead.</p>
<hi rend="italic">Cross-examined by</hi>
<hi rend="smallCaps">MR. CLARKSON</hi>.
<hi rend="italic">Q.</hi> I suppose you do not understand the French language?
<hi rend="italic">A.</hi> I do not—I suppose the female prisoner to be about twenty-two years of age—when the male prisoner and his wife came, he give his name and two cards of address, one of his private residence, and one of the observatory, that I might be satisfied who he was—my impression from the beginning was, that the child was a love child—the name of Robinson did not in any degree impose on me—it was on Monday the 15th, that the female prisoner was brought to my house, and on the 17th she was delivered—I was engaged to attend her as a monthly nurse, and was paid so much per week in addition to the price of the lodging—as the child died on the 27th, they went away on that day—I thought I might have trouble to get the lodgings paid for—they were taken for two months—I had some conversation with the male prisoner on the subject, and he executed an agreement to perform the original undertaking—he was in town on the day his daughter was delivered—as well as I remember he was there every 'day for a week, except the Sunday—Mrs. Richardson did not come from the Wednesday after the baby was born; until the Sunday—she has a family—the female prisoner appeared, as far as I saw, kind and affectionate to her offspring—she sympathised with the pains of the child, and appeared grieved at it during the Wednesday night—no one saw it die—I saw it before it was cold—it was then in bed with the mother, by her side—it appeared to die in bed by her side—Mrs. Richardson had been lying in the same bed, but she had come to call me—I had been up two nights with the baby—Mrs. Richardson said, she would watch the baby, and let me sleep a little while—it was part of my duty to be as constantly with the child as I could—I discharged that duty as far as I could—the female prisoner kept her bed three or four days—she sat up in a chair, and took tea while her bed was made, before the baby died, once or twice—it was on the Tuesday that I mentioned to the male prisoner, when he came home, that the child Appeared to have the thrush, and I thought it better it should be registered, in case anything should happen to it—the thrush does not often produce death, but we have got blamed, if they are not registered, if such a thing happens—I know that children are constantly seized with fits of screaming from derangement of the bowels, quite independent of anything except natural causes, but not often for so many hours—I gave the child one of the powders on Friday evening—they came on Friday morning—the doctor was not sent for until the Friday—I am quite positive of that—I did not send for him on Thursday morning the 26th, about nine o'clock—my husband was going by Mr. Wood's shop on the Friday, and called—I expected Mr. Wood to call, that was the reason I did not send for him before—I am quite certain I did not send for him on the Thursday—it was the morning after the child was in screams—the lotion that was sent for the eyes was used three or four times</p>
<xptr type="pageFacsimile" doc="184605110155"/>
<p>an hour—I fed the child every day—Mrs. Richardson, the wife of the male prisoner, occasionally fed it—I do not know otherwise—she has said, "I will feed the baby," when I have been going to do something else—that was in the early part of the time—she was not in the house the latter part of the time—I saw her on the Sunday, but not after that, till the baby was ill—she was sent for on Friday morning.</p>
<hi rend="smallCaps">MR. CLARKSON</hi>.
<hi rend="italic">Q.</hi> Did the doctor send the powders the same day that you sent for him?
<hi rend="italic">A.</hi> Yes—he did not examine the state of the child till the Friday—I spoke to him about the thrush, and he sent a medicine for it—borax and honey—I think that was on the Wednesday or Thursday—I should say Thursday—the day I gave the child one of the powders was the day I had sent for him in the morning—it was then apparently in a dying state—it was in a state of stupor—I did not send before as I thought there was nothing alarming in the screams, having seen children scream before.</p>
<hi rend="smallCaps">COURT</hi>.
<hi rend="italic">Q.</hi> You were in and out of the room on the 24th; were you present at tea-time, five o'clock?
<hi rend="italic">A.</hi> Yes, all the time—I took my tea with them: I always did—the female prisoner sat in the room with her father—after tea he generally went out for a little walk—I do not remember whether he did so then—I do not remember what time the female prisoner went to bed—she never staid up late—the baby was in bed part of the time, and part of the time in my arms—the pap was on the hob at that time—it was always put there to be kept warm—I generally fed the baby—I fed it on this day—I cannot recollect at what time—I do not remember whether I fed it while the male prisoner was there—it was generally fed every half-hour during the day—I fed it as usual that night upon tops-and-bottoms I think—I did not mix any milk with it.</p>
<hi rend="smallCaps">
<persName id="t18460511-name-1035" type="witnessName">
<interp inst="t18460511-name-1035" type="gender" value="male"/>
<interp inst="t18460511-name-1035" type="surname" value="REYNOLDS"/>
<interp inst="t18460511-name-1035" type="given" value="WILLIAM"/>WILLIAM REYNOLDS</persName> </hi>. I am the husband of the last witness. I remem
<lb/>ber the prisoners' coming to my house on the 15th of Sept,—I went out early that morning, and returned about six o'clock—I saw the male prisoner at my house on Wednesday, the 24th of Sept.—I had not been disturbed by the cries of the child before that—my wife was up all that night—I was disturbed for two hours by the child's screaming.</p>
<hi rend="italic">Cross-examined by</hi>
<hi rend="smallCaps">MR. BALLANTINE</hi>.
<hi rend="italic">Q.</hi> You went for a doctor, I be
<lb/>lieve, for it?
<hi rend="italic">A.</hi> Yes, about a quarter to nine o'clock on the Friday morning—I cannot say whether the doctor was there on Thursday.</p>
<hi rend="smallCaps">
<persName id="t18460511-name-1036" type="witnessName">
<interp inst="t18460511-name-1036" type="gender" value="male"/>
<interp inst="t18460511-name-1036" type="surname" value="WOOD"/>
<interp inst="t18460511-name-1036" type="given" value="GEORGE"/>GEORGE WOOD</persName> </hi>. I am a surgeon, and live in Bridge-street, Surrey. I delivered the female prisoner of a male child on the 17th of Sept.—it was tolerably healthy—I continued to visit the mother for some days after—her health was very good—on Thursday, the 25th, my attention was first called to the state of the child—the mucous lining of its mouth was inflamed, and the mucous lining of the eyelids also—it was quiet, and not at all in pain, when I was there—I had not observed these appearances before the Thursday morning, except that the eyelids were inflamed previously—I remember re
<lb/>marking to the nurse that the child had the thrush—I thought so at the time—I am not aware that there was any appearance of thrush before Thurs
<lb/>day, the 25th—I had not seen the child on Wednesday or Tuesday—my last visit had been on the Monday—I was sent for on the Thursday—Mr. Reynolds came for me about nine o'clock in the morning—I sent some powders for the child on that day—I made them up myself—it was mercury with chalk, soda, and the third ingredient was rhubarb, or compound chalk-powder, I am not certain which—I believe the lotion must have been sent previous to the 25th—I have got no entry of it, but think I must have sent it before the Thursday—I have some recollection of calling on Friday, the next day—I</p>
<xptr type="pageFacsimile" doc="184605110156"/>
<p>have no entry of my second call on my books, but I think I did call—it was then composed—I did not disturb it—my boy took the medicine—Mr. Rey-nolds called at my house, and informed me of the child's death—I gave a certificate of the death: I gave the cause of death as marasmus, that is, a wasting of the system—it had not improved: it was weakly and indisposed from the commencement—my attention had not been particularly called to it before the Thursday, when I was sent for.</p>
<hi rend="italic">Cross-examined by</hi>
<hi rend="smallCaps">MR. CLARKSON</hi>.
<hi rend="italic">Q.</hi> Is the inflammation of the eyelids one of the symptoms of thrush?
<hi rend="italic">A.</hi> It frequently accompanies it—I called on the Thursday morning at the instance of Mr. Robinson—I was not sent for after, and have no positive recollection of having seen the child alive after that—it was lying perfectly quiet in bed when I saw it—I did not take it up—I examined its mouth as it lay on the bed—it was not asleep; it was quiet; it lay composed—its eyes must have been open, but I do not recollect it particularly—it appeared to me to be lying composed to sleep—my examin
<lb/>ing its mouth alone would disturb it—I made a powder for it—I have an entry in my book of part of the contents of the powder—I was not very much engaged at the time, but having dispensed the medicines myself, it is merely a memorandum of what I prescribed, that is, the active parts only—I put down the active portions only for variation's sake—I cannot positively say the third ingredient was chalk or rhubarb—I have not entered the lotion in the book—to the best of my recollection it consisted of a solution of sulphate of zinc and opium tincture, that was all—we usually make it of those materials—the other material of the powder was not entered, because it was not an active ingredient.</p>
<hi rend="smallCaps">COURT</hi>.
<hi rend="italic">Q.</hi> When you went on Thursday, did you observe any appear
<lb/>ances about the mouth?
<hi rend="italic">A.</hi> Yes, white blisters of what is usually called the thrush, nothing else more than a general inflammation of the mucous membrane of the mouth—I was not informed of the child having screamed very much the night before—the thrush is not a painful disorder—the blisters in the mouth would give pain in a very slight degree—sometimes irritation of the stomach accompanies thrush; sometimes it does not; sometimes the child may suffer from irritation of the stomach from the thrush.</p>
<hi rend="smallCaps">
<persName id="t18460511-name-1037" type="witnessName">
<interp inst="t18460511-name-1037" type="gender" value="male"/>
<interp inst="t18460511-name-1037" type="surname" value="REES"/>
<interp inst="t18460511-name-1037" type="given" value="JOHN"/>JOHN REES</persName> </hi>. I am in the employment of the last witness. I took the medicine to No. 3, Weston-place—I do not know the day.</p>
<hi rend="smallCaps">
<persName id="t18460511-name-1038" type="witnessName">
<interp inst="t18460511-name-1038" type="gender" value="female"/>
<interp inst="t18460511-name-1038" type="surname" value="MILLS"/>
<interp inst="t18460511-name-1038" type="given" value="FRANCES"/>FRANCES MILLS</persName> </hi>. I am in the service of Mr. Robins, an undertaker. I recollect a person coming one afternoon in Sept. for a small coffin—I showed him one.</p>
<hi rend="italic">Cross-examined by</hi>
<hi rend="smallCaps">MR. CLARKSON</hi>.
<hi rend="italic">Q.</hi> I believe you showed him a cheap one, and he wished one which cost more?
<hi rend="italic">A.</hi> The first I showed him was not large enough—the second one he thought would do.</p>
<hi rend="smallCaps">
<persName id="t18460511-name-1039" type="witnessName">
<interp inst="t18460511-name-1039" type="gender" value="male"/>
<interp inst="t18460511-name-1039" type="surname" value="GRACE"/>
<interp inst="t18460511-name-1039" type="given" value="THOMAS"/>THOMAS GRACE</persName> </hi>. I am in the service of Mr. Robins, an undertaker. I came into my master's shop while the prisoner and the last witness were there—a coffin was handed down by the housekeeper to him—they were "still-born" coffins—I merely recommended him to have it lined and covered, to make it look more decent, as we do with respectable people—he did not say anything about still-born to me—he had it lined—I was not there when it was fetched away—my master said it would not be strong enough to go by railway; we had better make one: which we did.</p>
<hi rend="smallCaps">
<persName id="t18460511-name-1040" type="witnessName">
<interp inst="t18460511-name-1040" type="gender" value="male"/>
<interp inst="t18460511-name-1040" type="surname" value="ROBINS"/>
<interp inst="t18460511-name-1040" type="given" value="CHARLES"/>CHARLES ROBINS</persName> </hi>. I am an undertaker, and live in Abingdon-street, Ber
<lb/>mondsey. On the evening of the 22nd of Sept. the male prisoner came to my shop for a coffin which had been ordered before—he said it was going into the country by railway—my impression was that it was going to York
<lb/>shire—this is the coffin—(
<hi rend="italic">produced.</hi>)</p>
<xptr type="pageFacsimile" doc="184605110157"/>
<hi rend="italic">Cross-examined by</hi>
<hi rend="smallCaps">MR. CLARKSON</hi>.
<hi rend="italic">Q.</hi> You will not undertake lo say he did not say it was going to Greenwich?
<hi rend="italic">A.</hi> I do not think Greenwich was mentioned—I do not recollect.</p>
<hi rend="smallCaps">
<persName id="t18460511-name-1041" type="witnessName">
<interp inst="t18460511-name-1041" type="gender" value="male"/>
<interp inst="t18460511-name-1041" type="surname" value="JONES"/>
<interp inst="t18460511-name-1041" type="given" value="THOMAS"/>THOMAS JONES</persName> </hi>. I am a labourer, and live at Greenwich. In Sept. last I was employed at the male prisoner's house, at Royal-hill, Greenwich—I recollect on a Thursday he told me he was going to London, and should be home very soon, and gave me directions to dig a hole in the gravel walk in the garden, in a corner, as it would take a great deal of water away from the house—I dug it according to his directions, about two feet in size—he was not gone long to London, and came back in the afternoon, saw the hole, and said it would do very well—on the Saturday night after that I was waiting outside the house, near the Globe, for my wages, with Turner, Sidery, and Peterson—we usually expect our wages about six o'clock—about twenty minutes past eight I saw the male prisoner come home—he had a bundle under his arm—I cannot say what it was.</p>
<hi rend="italic">Cross-examined by</hi>
<hi rend="smallCaps">MR. BALLANTINE</hi>.
<hi rend="italic">Q.</hi> When examined before the Coroner did you think it was either Thursday or Friday you dug the hole; did you always recollect it was Thursday?
<hi rend="italic">A.</hi> Yes—I never thought it was Friday—I was never uncertain about it—it is possible that before the Magistrate I might say it was either Thursday or Friday, but that I was not able to say on which day it was—I am certain it was Thursday, and not Friday, because we had two bricklayers at work on Friday, and not on Thursday—their names are Peterson and Sidery—I always recollected that</p>
<hi rend="smallCaps">COURT</hi>.
<hi rend="italic">Q.</hi> What time on Thursday or Friday were you desired to dig the hole?
<hi rend="italic">A.</hi> It was before dinner—it did not take half an hour—I dug it before twelve o'clock on Thursday—I never thought it was in the afternoon—the gentleman was at home in the afternoon.</p>
<hi rend="italic">Re-examined. Q.</hi> There were two bricklayers at work on the day you were directed to dig the hole?
<hi rend="italic">A.</hi> No; on the Friday—Peterson was at work the day I dug the hole, and both him and Sidery on the Friday.</p>
<hi rend="smallCaps">
<persName id="t18460511-name-1042" type="witnessName">
<interp inst="t18460511-name-1042" type="gender" value="male"/>
<interp inst="t18460511-name-1042" type="surname" value="PETERSON"/>
<interp inst="t18460511-name-1042" type="given" value="JACOB"/>JACOB PETERSON</persName> </hi>. I am a bricklayer. In Sept. last I was employed by the prisoner to work at his house—I first went to work for him on a Wednes
<lb/>day, and remained till Saturday evening—that was the whole time, and the only time—on that Saturday night I was waiting with Jones for our wages, and saw the male prisoner come home, with something in a bag—it was be
<lb/>tween twenty minutes and a quarter to nine o'clock.</p>
<hi rend="italic">Q.</hi> Did you hear any direction given by the male prisoner to Jones about digging something in his garden?
<hi rend="italic">A.</hi> I have a faint recollection of some
<lb/>thing, but the distance between us was five or six feet—I heard conversation about a hole—I could not understand it properly—he said, "Jones, I want you to dig, or do something to a hole"—I never saw the hole at all—to the best of my recollection, this was on Thursday—Sidery was employed by the prisoner—I worked at the east end of the house—the garden is in front, at the west side.</p>
<hi rend="italic">Cross-examined by</hi>
<hi rend="smallCaps">MR. CLARKSON</hi>.
<hi rend="italic">Q.</hi> How long had you been on the premises on the Saturday?
<hi rend="italic">A.</hi> I was outside the door—I never heard anything about a hole then—I do not swear on what day it was I heard the con
<lb/>versation about a hole—Jones never told me that he did not recollect what day it was, but that it was one afternoon—I cannot positively say when it was, for I was engaged, and did not take notice—I cannot positively say it did not occur that very Saturday evening.</p>
<hi rend="smallCaps">COURT</hi>.
<hi rend="italic">Q.</hi> What, while you were waiting for your wages?
<hi rend="italic">A.</hi> No, it was not at that time.</p>
<hi rend="italic">Re-examined. Q.</hi> You were at work at the time you heard the conversa
<xptr type="pageFacsimile" doc="184605110158"/>
<p>about the hole?
<hi rend="italic">A.</hi> Yes—the prisoner was at home on the Saturday morning, before breakfast—he went away between breakfast time and ten o'clock, I think.</p>
<hi rend="smallCaps">
<persName id="t18460511-name-1043" type="witnessName">
<interp inst="t18460511-name-1043" type="gender" value="male"/>
<interp inst="t18460511-name-1043" type="surname" value="TURNER"/>
<interp inst="t18460511-name-1043" type="given" value="STEPHEN"/>STEPHEN TURNER</persName> </hi>. I am a bricklayer, and live at Greenwich. I was in the male prisoner's employ in September last—I recollect one Saturday night waiting with Peterson and Jones for my wages—I went about a quarter to six o'clock, and waited till about a quarter to nine—I saw Mr. Richardson come home with a coffin—I saw something under his arm as he went in at the gate—he put his hand into his pocket for the key of his door, and put the coffin upwards—I saw the bottom of it—he told me
<hi rend="italic">to</hi> follow him, and I saw him put it under the sideboard, with two handkerchiefs over it—he took me into his little study, and told me to sit down—I sat down while he paid the rest of the men.</p>
<hi rend="italic">Cross-examined by</hi>
<hi rend="smallCaps">MR. BALLANTINE</hi>.
<hi rend="italic">Q.</hi> I believe you were there on the Sunday morning?
<hi rend="italic">A.</hi> Yes, I was all over the garden—I never noticed a hole there—if there had been one I think I should.</p>
<hi rend="smallCaps">
<persName id="t18460511-name-1044" type="witnessName">
<interp inst="t18460511-name-1044" type="gender" value="male"/>
<interp inst="t18460511-name-1044" type="surname" value="SIDERY"/>
<interp inst="t18460511-name-1044" type="given" value="WILLIAM"/>WILLIAM SIDERY</persName> </hi>. I am a bricklayer. In September last I was in the employment of Mr. Richardson, the prisoner—I went to him on a Friday, and was in his employment four days and a half—Peterson, Jones, and Turner were waiting for their wages on Saturday night, the day after I had been at work there—I was there when the prisoner came home.</p>
<hi rend="italic">Cross-examined by</hi>
<hi rend="smallCaps">MR. CLARKSON</hi>.
<hi rend="italic">Q.</hi> Did you go into the garden at all that Saturday?
<hi rend="italic">A.</hi> I was at work in the garden—I saw no hole there at all.</p>
<hi rend="smallCaps">
<persName id="t18460511-name-1045" type="witnessName">
<interp inst="t18460511-name-1045" type="gender" value="male"/>
<interp inst="t18460511-name-1045" type="surname" value="STIRTON"/>
<interp inst="t18460511-name-1045" type="given" value="WILLIAM"/>WILLIAM STIRTON</persName> </hi>. I am a surgeon, residing at Greenwich. In June last I attended the female prisoner, and ascertained she was pregnant—in Oct-last I attended the male prisoner, who was unwell, and he told me his daughter had had a child, and that he was-the father of it—this was at the latter end of Oct.—I had several conversations with him on the subject—he said that society would view it as a great moral crime, and he was afraid be should lose his situation through it—he told roe the child was dead.</p>
<hi rend="italic">Cross-examined by</hi>
<hi rend="smallCaps">MR. CLARKSON</hi>.
<hi rend="italic">Q.</hi> Did you have any further conver-sation about it?
<hi rend="italic">A.</hi> He was in a very depressed state when I attended him, and said he thought he should come to the workhouse—he seemed under these circumstances to disclose
<hi rend="italic">to</hi> me what he had done—I received the first information from his wife, with a request that I should not make it known to him, but he afterwards made a statement
<hi rend="italic">to</hi> me—he was under great depres-sion of spirits at the time—he thought himself extremely ill, and he was very ill—he was in some danger for a day or two.</p>
<hi rend="italic">Re-examined, Q.</hi> Was this conversation at the same time he told you he expected to come to the workhouse?
<hi rend="italic">A.</hi> I do not think it was—I attended him
<hi rend="italic">every</hi> day—I had several conversations with. him.</p>
<hi rend="smallCaps">
<persName id="t18460511-name-1046" type="witnessName">
<interp inst="t18460511-name-1046" type="gender" value="male"/>
<interp inst="t18460511-name-1046" type="surname" value="KERSEY"/>
<interp inst="t18460511-name-1046" type="given" value="JOSHUA EDMUND"/>JOSHUA EDMUND KERSEY</persName> </hi>. I am apprentice to Mr. Thomas Hitches, apothecary and chemist, of Greenwich—he sells drugs as well as prescribes—I have been with him about four years—the male prisoner has been in the habit of coming to our shop—I remember his coming in August—Mr. Corney, who came to my master's on the 7th of August, was present at the time—he remained at my master's three months—he was present at the conversation between me and the prisoner, which by some means turned on poisons—I cannot exactly say how, and at last it came upon arsenic among other things—the prisoner said, "I do not remember I have ever seen a drug called arsenic"—I then went to the cupboard where we kept it, and took out this bottle—he took it, looked at it, and shook it, and said, "Oh, that is arsenic is it, I wonder how much it would take to kill anybody"—I said it would take</p>
<xptr type="pageFacsimile" doc="184605110159"/>
<p>a very small quantity—that was the end of the conversation at the time—lie left the shop—I made some observations to Mr. Corney—this was between the 7th and the 23rd of August, I know, because it was before I went into the country—I went on the 23rd and returned on the 12th of September—about a week after I returned the prisoner came to the shop—it was in the daytime—he purchased some arsenic, in my presence, of Mr. Ritches himself, who was in the shop—I handed the bottle out, as Mr. Ritches desired me to do so—he weighed out a portion of it, folded it up, wrote upon it, and gave it to the prisoner—I was not near enough to see what he wrote upon it.</p>
<hi rend="italic">Cross-examined by</hi>
<hi rend="smallCaps">MR. CLARKSON</hi>.
<hi rend="italic">Q.</hi> I believe at first you thought that the first conversation which took place in which poison was the subject of discussion, was nine or twelve months before you were examined before the Magistrate?
<hi rend="italic">A.</hi> Yes, I knew then that Mr. Corney was present, and I found afterwards that he had been at Mr. Ritches' shop a much less time than that—I do not think I introduced the conversation about the poison—I will not undertake to say I did not—I do not know by what means it came up—I came from the country on the 12th of Sept.—I know it was soon after my return from the country that the prisoner came to my master's shop—I am quite sure of it—I was not examined till Feb.</p>
<hi rend="italic">Q.</hi> What enables you to speak to any given time within a fortnight five months afterwards, when we find in the previous conversation you have made a mistake of three or four months?
<hi rend="italic">A.</hi> I am certain of it from my recent return from the country—there is no entry in our books of the sale of this arsenic—we should not enter so small a quantity—it was only two or three penny-worth—I know that from the quantity I saw in the paper—gene
<lb/>rally speaking, after I return from the country I feel a little unsettled for a week or so, and I was a little unsettled at that time—I mean unsettled in business—I had not got all things square in the shop, and was in a state of comparea
<lb/>tive confusion.</p>
<hi rend="italic">Re-examined, Q.</hi> Do you mean the shop was in confusion or yourself?</p>
<hi rend="italic">A.</hi> The things in the shop were out of their places and the stock rather low—I recollect this visit of the prisoner's was shortly after
<hi rend="italic">my</hi> return, from those circumstances.</p>
<hi rend="smallCaps">
<persName id="t18460511-name-1047" type="witnessName">
<interp inst="t18460511-name-1047" type="gender" value="male"/>
<interp inst="t18460511-name-1047" type="surname" value="CORNEY"/>
<interp inst="t18460511-name-1047" type="given" value="GEORGE"/>GEORGE CORNEY</persName> </hi>. I am in the employ of Mr. Ritches—I first went to him on the 7th of Aug.—I do not recollect the prisoner by sight—I recollect a person coming to the shop and a conversation taking place between me and Kersey—I think it was shortly after I went into Mr. Ritches' service—I an not certain whether any third person was present—I remember seeing Kersey show a bottle of arsenic to a person in the shop, and when he left an observation was made by Kersey about him.</p>
<hi rend="italic">Cross-examined by</hi>
<hi rend="smallCaps">MR. CLARKSON</hi>.
<hi rend="italic">Q.</hi> Have you seen him show bot
<lb/>tles to many persons?
<hi rend="italic">A.</hi> Not arsenic—I have a distinct recollection that it it was arsenic.</p>
<hi rend="smallCaps">COURT</hi>.
<hi rend="italic">Q.</hi> What was the conversation with the person about the bottle of arsenic?
<hi rend="italic">A.</hi> I cannot speak positively as to that—my attention was directed principally to what transpired after the person left.</p>
<hi rend="italic">Q.</hi> What was it Kersey said to you?
<hi rend="italic">A.</hi> To the best of my belief it
<hi rend="smallCaps">WM</hi> that the person professed atheism—I do not recollect his ever mentioning the same of any other person.</p>
<hi rend="smallCaps">COURT</hi>
<hi rend="italic">to</hi> J. E.
<hi rend="smallCaps">KERSEY</hi>.
<hi rend="italic">Q.</hi> You state that after the prisoner left your shop, you made an observation to Corney respecting him; what was it?
<hi rend="italic">A.</hi> I knew he was engaged at the Observatory, and that he was an atheist.</p>
<hi rend="smallCaps">
<persName id="t18460511-name-1048" type="witnessName">
<interp inst="t18460511-name-1048" type="gender" value="male"/>
<interp inst="t18460511-name-1048" type="surname" value="RITCHES"/>
<interp inst="t18460511-name-1048" type="given" value="THOMAS"/>THOMAS RITCHES</persName> </hi>. I am an apothecary and chemist, living at Greenwich—I</p>
<xptr type="pageFacsimile" doc="184605110160"/>
<p>have known the male prisoner some years—I do not particularly recollect his coming to my shop last Aug.—I do not recollect whether I supplied him with arsenic or not—I do not know of having done so for a certainty then, or at any time.</p>
<hi rend="smallCaps">
<persName id="t18460511-name-1049" type="witnessName">
<interp inst="t18460511-name-1049" type="gender" value="male"/>
<interp inst="t18460511-name-1049" type="surname" value="CROSS"/>
<interp inst="t18460511-name-1049" type="given" value="WILLIAM"/>WILLIAM CROSS</persName> </hi>. I am registrar of births and deaths for the parish of Bermondsey—Weston-place is in my district—I have the registry—there is no register in the registry of the death of a person called Theodore Horatio Richardson or Theodore Horatio Robinson, in Sept. last—I have not registered it at all—no person applied to me to make such an entry—it is necessary to have a certificate of the death before the clergyman can properly bury.</p>
<hi rend="italic">Cross-examined by</hi>
<hi rend="smallCaps">MR. CLARKSON</hi>.
<hi rend="italic">Q.</hi> You are out occasionally?
<hi rend="italic">A.</hi> Yes.</p>
<hi rend="smallCaps">COURT</hi>.
<hi rend="italic">Q.</hi> You have neither the birth nor death?
<hi rend="italic">A.</hi> No—I have a deputy, but have had no occasion for him to act since he was appointed—when I am out of the way he should act for me—his name is Benjamin Phillips—he is not here—he has never acted for me—I have attended to all matters of the registry.</p>
<hi rend="smallCaps">
<persName id="t18460511-name-1050" type="witnessName">
<interp inst="t18460511-name-1050" type="gender" value="male"/>
<interp inst="t18460511-name-1050" type="surname" value="WILSON"/>
<interp inst="t18460511-name-1050" type="given" value="GEORGE"/>GEORGE WILSON</persName> </hi> (
<hi rend="italic">police-serjeant.</hi>) On Friday, the 23rd of Jan., I apprehended the female prisoner—I told her I took her for secretly burying and concealing the birth of a child—she made a statement to me—she said she was delivered of a child on the 15th of Sept., at Mr. Reynold's, No. 3, Weston-place—I asked her where the child was—she said it died ten days after its birth—I asked her if she had a certificate of its death—she said no, but she believed her father had—she said her father was gone into the country, to Mr. Thomas's, corn dealer, Pocklington, Yorkshire—I asked her what had become of the body of the child—she said her father brought it away in a coffin, and buried it in his garden—I asked her if she had a certificate of its death, or if the birth had been registered—she said not—she said it was her father's own, and he was the father of the child—I asked her who was present at the burial of the child—she said no one but herself and her father—she said the grave was dug by a labourer who was at work on the premises—I asked her if he was aware for what purpose he dug the hole—she said she did not think he was, for it was not dug at all like a grave—I appre
<lb/>hended the male prisoner at Pocklington, on Sunday, the 25th of Jan.—he asked to see my warrant—I showed it him—he read it, and asked me if that was the charge against him—it was for secretly burying, with intent to conceal the birth of the child—he asked my name—I told him—he then said, "I see the warrant is granted on your oath—in this warrant I am charged with secretly burying, with intent to conceal its birth; that I deny; for from wishing to conceal the birth, there was a medical gentleman and a nurse pre sent: there could be no concealment, as regards the death of the child—I hold a medical certificate"—he gave me this certificate (
<hi rend="italic">produced</hi>)—he then said, "Is there no other charge against me"—I said, "Not that I am aware of. "</p>
<hi rend="italic">Cross-examined. Q.</hi> I believe there was an apparent readiness on the part of the female prisoner, to give you every information you desired, and to, answer all your questions?
<hi rend="italic">A.</hi> Quite so, unhesitatingly—I cautioned her first, that what she said I must repeat to the Magistrate—that did not deter her at all—she said she was confined at Mr. Reynolds, and Mr. Wood, of Union-street, attended her.</p>
<hi rend="smallCaps">
<persName id="t18460511-name-1051" type="witnessName">
<interp inst="t18460511-name-1051" type="gender" value="male"/>
<interp inst="t18460511-name-1051" type="surname" value="FINCH"/>
<interp inst="t18460511-name-1051" type="given" value="JOHN"/>JOHN FINCH</persName> </hi>. I am clerk to the Magistrates of Greenwich police-court—I took down the examination of the witnesses—the female pri
<lb/>soner was brought into custody on the 24th of January, charged with con
<xptr type="pageFacsimile" doc="184605110161"/>
<p>the birth of her child, and remanded till the 29th—a warrant was issued to apprehend the male prisoner—he was brought before the Magistrate on the 27th, and on the 29th the evidence was taken—when I took down the examination of the female prisoner, it was tendered to her to sign, which she declined—she was very much overcome, and it was not pressed—I read it over to her myself, and it is signed by the Magistrate—(
<hi rend="italic">reading</hi>—"Ana Maria Richardson says,—I am very sorry for what I have done; my father compelled me to do what I have done; to give way to him, I mean; I mean as to the connection; I know the object of my being taken to Weston-street to be confined; I will let it pass by, what he had done to me: I went once to Mr. English for protection: I was afraid my father was going to do something to me.") The male prisoner made a statement, which I tendered to him for his signature—he said, he would rather not sign it—he gave no reason—I read it to him, and asked by the direction of the Magistrate, if it was what he wished to say—he said, "Yes"—(
<hi rend="italic">read</hi>)—The prisoner William Richardson says, "I wish to speak the truth, however much the awful circumstances are against me; I never wished to conceal the birth or death of the child; I could have had it buried in London for a few shillings much more secretly: my desire was not to have the remains of the child disturbed: in June last my daughter was unwell, and Mr. Sturton was engaged to attend her; I went away, and when I returned I found she was pregnant, and I withheld any medicine which would tend to procure abortion; there was no concealment; I engaged a nurse and a doctor: on the 15th I took my daughter to the apartments I had engaged, and I returned home")—he then read this letter—I have no doubt it is the same—it was handed to the prisoner, and subsequently came into my hands—"No. 3, Weston-place, Weston-street, Sept. 16th, 1845,—My dear William,—Ann has passed a sleepless and miserable night, slow wretched pains almost reaching each other has never left her. We had the doctor this morning about ten o'clock. He said it was her labour, and that all was right; but, that it would be some hours before she would be out of her trouble. She is very much exhausted, being three nights without sleep, and never free from pain. I shall remain until she gets it over. The doctor is going to call again at two o'clock, bnt he said it might be midnight, or even longer, before it would be over, but I can say no more, hoping all is well at home, with kindest love to your
<lb/>self and children. Yours A. R. Mind dear Billy." The prisoner then went on and said,—"This shows the care which was taken of my daughter, and the infant; on the 17th I heard that the child was born; I believe I went up to see my daughter; on the 25th, I received a letter from my daughter"—(I believe this to be the letter—it came into my hands in the office)—"No. 3, Weston-street, Sept. 25th, 1845,—Dear father,—I wish you would come up this afternoon to see the baby, for he seems very ill. His cold has gradually gotten since you were here last. We had the doctor yesterday afternoon, and he said there was something the matter with the blood, and unless that cleared he would not thrive. He has bad a cold from his birth: it seems to be now on the lungs: his throat is very sore; he can scarcely swallow anything. The doctor sent him powders, and lotion to wash him with. Last night, from about ten to twelve o'clock, he was low and seemed scarcely to breathe. That Mr. and Mrs. Reynolds thought he would not live through the night, but he seemed to get a little better after twelve o'clock. I am very poorly. I have gotten a very severt cold, sore throat, and head-ache. Hoping your cold is better, and the family are all well. Give my love to mamma, and all the dear children—the same to you. Believe me to remain, your most dutiful daughter,
<hi rend="smallCaps">ANN RICHARDSON.</hi> </p>
<xptr type="pageFacsimile" doc="184605110162"/>
<p>P.S. Excuse my scroll, for I am quite in a tremble."—The post date is the 26th of Sept.—on 25th I went to the house to look after the child, and it died on the 27th in the morning; I went and got a coffin made, and I ex
<lb/>pressed anxiety about the child: every attention was paid to it, and I brought it to Greenwich by Railway." The prisoner further says—"I have never done anything
<hi rend="italic">to</hi> contribute to the decease of, or cause the death of the child, and God knows it; my sole care was to preserve the child: I declare be
<lb/>fore God and this people that I never saw the article, or bought any arsenic; the only thing which caused me to bury the child in my own ground was, that it should not be disturbed; I might have eluded this inquiry; all my children and my wife know that I have ever mourned the death of the child."
<hi rend="smallCaps">MR. FINCH</hi>. The last statement was made on the 5th of Feb., the day they were remanded—they were then told by the Magistrates, they stood before him on a much more serious charge. The latter part of the examina
<lb/>tion beginning with, "I have never done anything, &c," was taken then—the witness Kersey was present at the examination—he was examined in the prisoner's presence—when he was giving evidence of the purchase of the arsenic—the prisoner addressed the Magistrate—he said, "Why, sir, he says I have purchased arsenic, I have never seen it"—Kersey was subse
<lb/>quently re-called, and added to his examination, that he had shown him arsenic on a previous occasion.</p>
<hi rend="smallCaps">
<persName id="t18460511-name-1052" type="witnessName">
<interp inst="t18460511-name-1052" type="gender" value="female"/>
<interp inst="t18460511-name-1052" type="surname" value="RICHARDSON"/>
<interp inst="t18460511-name-1052" type="given" value="AMELIA"/>AMELIA RICHARDSON</persName> </hi>. I am the prisoner's daughter, and am seventeen years old.</p>
<hi rend="smallCaps">MR. BALLANTINE</hi>.
<hi rend="italic">Q.</hi> Do you recollect your father bringing home a coffin?
<hi rend="italic">A.</hi> Yes—he brought it on Saturday night, the 27th of Sept.—it was deposited in the earth on the Friday following, in a hole in the corner
<hi rend="italic">of</hi> the garden—I held the light—that hole was made on the Thursday after the child came home, as far as I can recollect.</p>
<hi rend="smallCaps">MR. HUDDLESTONE</hi>.
<hi rend="italic">Q.</hi> Did you see the hole when it was made, or after it was made?
<hi rend="italic">A. I</hi> saw it when it was making—Jones dug it on the Thursday after the child was brought home, as far as I recollect, but I am not certain of either the day of the week or the month, but it was dug after the child was brought home, as far as I recollect, but I am not certain of either the day of the week or the month, but it was dug after the child was brought home.</p>
<hi rend="smallCaps">
<rs id="t18460511-1182-verdict-1" type="verdictDescription">
<interp inst="t18460511-1182-verdict-1" type="verdictCategory" value="notGuilty"/>
<interp inst="t18460511-1182-verdict-1" type="verdictSubcategory" value=""/>NOT GUILTY</rs> </hi>.</p>
<hi rend="italic">Before Edward Bullock, Esq.</hi> </p> </div1></div0>

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