26th April 1910
Reference Numbert19100426-23
VerdictsGuilty > pleaded guilty; Guilty > pleaded part guilty; Guilty > unknown
SentencesImprisonment > hard labour; Imprisonment > hard labour

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SNYDER, Bernard (41, stationer), SNYDER, Reece (20, stationer), and WOLLMAN, Tobias Davis (40, merchant) , all conspiring together by false pretences to obtain from such of the liege subjects of our Lord the King as should thereafter be induced to supply goods on credit to the said R. Snyder divers large quantities of their goods and chattels and to cheat and defraud them thereof, and that the said R. Snyder in concurring debts and liabilities to such liege subjects should unlawfully and fraudulently obtain credit from the said liege subjects to a large amount by means of fraud other than false pretences. All unlawfully obtaining by false pretences from Isaac Nathan and Sir Vesey Strong and others 20,209 pounds weight of Kraft paper and one ton of Kraft paper; from Spicer Brothers, Limited, 18 tons of wrapping paper; from W. D. Edwards and Sons, Limited, and Thomas George Augustus Edwards 16 bales of Kraft brown paper; from the said W. D. Edwards and Sons, Limited, 7 bates of Kraft brown paper; from W. Harrison and Company, Limited, 10 bags of glue; from the Sheppey Glue and Chemical Works, Limited, 5 bags of glue; from J. and A. D. Grimond, Limited, 1,200 pounds weight of twine, and from William George Lodewyk Kretschener 4 cases of hemp twine, in each case with intent to defraud. Reece Snyder obtaining credit from Sir Vesey Strong and others to the amount of £237 15s. 11d.; from Spicer Brothers, Limited, to the amount of £330 1s. 7d.; from W. D. Edwards and Sons, Limited, to the amount of £215 18s.; from W. Harrison and Company, Limited, to the amount of £30 2s. 6d.; from the Sheppey Glue and Chemical Works, Limited, to the amount of £8 10s.; from J. and A. D. Grimond, Limited, to the amount of £26 13s. 8d., and from William George Lodewyk Kretschener to the amount of £69 9s. 7d., by means of fraud other than false pretences, and B. Snyder and Wollman aiding the said R. Snyder to commit the said misdemeanours. Wollman unlawfully receiving 20,209 pounds weight of Kraft paper, 1 ton of Kraft paper, 15 bags of glue, and 1,200 pounds weight of twine, well knowing the same to have been unlawfully obtained by false pretences.

Mr. Travers Humphreys, Mr. Boyd, and Mr. Mercer prosecuted.

Mr. C. F. Gill, K.C., and Mr. Abinger defended Bernard and Reece Snyder.

Mr. W. H. Leycester defended Wollman.

Bernard Snyder pleaded guilty of all charges; Reece Snyder pleaded guilty on the first charge of conspiracy, which plea was accepted by the prosecution.

WALTER BARBER , 35, Duke's Avenue, Chiswick. I formerly carried on a stationer and newsagent's business at 194, High Street, Chiswick, which in November, 1908, I sold to the female prisoner, Reece Snyder, for £275 for the goodwill and the stock at a valuation. I received in cash £190, leaving £200 to be paid—£25 the first quarter and £15 each succeeding quarter. The subsequent payments have been made to date and there is now-due £115. My daughter remained for some time to assist and show Reece Snyder how to conduct the business.

Cross-examined. It was a good substantial business, well worth the amount paid for it. The retail business seems to have been doing fairly well since.

JAMES C. WATTS , clerk to E. and H. Roddick, house and estate agents, 41, Turnham Green Terrace. In September, 1909, I saw Bernard and Reece Snyder and let to Reece Snyder for storage purposes Kensington Hall, Turnham Green Terrace.

HARRY Y. MERCER , manager to Halse and Co., Turnham Green, estate agents. On May 11, 1909, Bernard Snyder hired from me stable, 2, Terrace Mews, Turnham Green. I did not see Reece Snyder in the matter.

ISAAC NATHAN , traveller to Strong and Hanbury, 196 and 197, Upper Thames Street, paper merchants. In July, 1909, I had three transactions with Reece Snyder amounting to £48 0s. 2d., which were duly settled. In June, 1909, I had a conversation with Bernard Snyder. He told me he was about to create a wholesale branch for the supply of wrapping papers and brown paper to the trades people in the neighbourhood in small quantities and that it would be necessary to have a very large stock on hand. He described the means by which he meant to dispose of the goods, and it appeared to me, as a business man, a very probable way of carrying on a business. He proposed sending them out daily in a van to meet people's requirements from shop to shop. On July 26 Reece Snyder ordered 20 tons of ochre glaze paper at £9 10s., to be cleared within 12 months. On August 9

she ordered 30 tons of Kraft brown at £14 15s. per ton, to be delivered at intervals. Deliveries were made, and on January 10, 1910, there was due £217 15s. 11d. I only received one payment of £20 on November 26. On November 29 I saw Reece Snyder and told her the account was getting bigger than we anticipated and asked her to settle it. On November 30 I issued a writ for £29 4s., balance of the month's account. Exhibit 56 is a description of our delivery of October 28, which consisted of 50 reams Kraft, 29 by 45, 6,890 1b. at £14 15s. per ton—£45 7s. 5d. Our packages would have our name and mark upon them.

JEAN MARIE CORMEAU , of Olsen and Cormeau, 93, Cannon Street, paper merchants. My firm have a monopoly of imitation Kraft paper, which we supply to Strong and Hanbury at £14 15s. per ton. I have visited Stricklands, 9, Long Lane, where I saw a quantity of Kraft paper, similar to that supplied to Strong and Hanbury. It was in good condition, certainly not a job line. If sold to Strickland at £11 12s. 6d. a ton that would be much under cost price.

WILLIAM INGLETON , paper expert and buyer to Strong and Hanbury. In January, 1910, I went to Stricklands and saw 60 reams of imitation Kraft paper, which I recognised as part of the Kraft paper supplied to Reece Snyder between September 30 and October 28, 1909.

JOSEPH LEOPOLD COOPER , 33, King Edward's Road, Hackney, traveller. I have known Wollman for about 12 years. In June, 1909, he informed me he had a clearance, or job line, of stationery, and as my knowledge of the trade was greater than his he asked me to assist him in disposing of it; he said it consisted of paper, twine, wood boxes, etc. He said he was an undischarged bankrupt and was trading under the name of Simon and Co. I was to receive 2 1/2 per cent. commission. I introduced him to a number of buyers, including S. Burnay and Co. I gave Burnay card produced, "S. Simon and Co., merchants and job buyers, 10, Beaumont Square, E. Presented by Mr. J. L. Cooper," together with a sample, and I sold him 30 reams as a clearance line. I also called on I. Bender, trading as Goldberg and Co., of 75, Hackney Road, and sold him 12 dozen 1b. of twine at 4s. a dozen 1b. Wollman also gave me samples of glue, which I sold on his account at the prices fixed by him as clearance lines. I received as commission £70 during six or seven months. My commission was sometimes 2 1/2 and sometimes 5 per cent. I first heard of the Snyders in January, 1910. I told Wollman that I was entitled to commission for goods sold to customers I had introduced. He then told me he had an arrangement with the Snyders, of Chiswick, and I had an interview with Snyder.

Cross-examined. Wollman told me he employed me because I knew more about the stationery business than he did. I have only known Wollman as engaged in the drapery trade. I have been 26 years in the stationery business, 14 years as traveller; I have travelled for Burnay and Co. for six or seven years and am doing so still. I have been in business for myself in Hackney. All the firms I introduced Wollman to were well known and thoroughly respectable—they were Burnay and Co., Strickland, Goldberg and Co., McGinnis, and Brown. I should

have had nothing to do with any business I thought wrong. The first transactions prisoner described as a clearance or job line—that is, defective or slightly soiled goods. Paper which has been stored in a damp place would be sold as damaged. Manufacturers and dealers frequently sell as clearance lines surplus stock or stock not of the exact shade or colour required. I had not the slightest idea that I was dealing with goods dishonestly obtained. None of the firms to whom I sold suggested such a thing. They frequently refused to give the prices asked; Wollman saw them and either lowered the prices or refused to sell. Strickland on one or two occasions had an allowance because the paper was damaged or was not up to sample. Burnay told me he had to part with some twine I sold him under cost. I first knew Wollman was an undischarged bankrupt when he told me himself. He said that the business of Simon and Co. was his wife's and that he was acting as manager for her. In almost all cases the goods were paid for by cheque. With exception of 30s., my commission was paid by cheque. On January 21 I first heard from Burnay that two detectives had been to see him. I told Wollman about that and also that I had received no commission on the parcel sold to Burnay. He told me that he had had to issue a writ for payment and that the cost had swallowed up all his profit. He advised me to see Snyder. On February 1 I saw Bernard and Reece Snyder and they offered to allow me a larger commission if I sold a parcel of Kraft paper and some twine. I was to sell the paper at £11 a ton, have 5 per cent. commission on it, and anything over £11 I was to have for myself. The twine was 4s. 6d. a dozen 1b., on which I was to have 7 1/2 per cent. I did not attempt to sell this parcel. I never asked Wollman where he got the goods. All his transactions with me were perfectly straightforward and in the ordinary way of business. I had no suspicion that the goods were improperly obtained. On February 8 two detectives saw me and said they had a warrant out for the Snyders and for somebody named Cooper. I went to Hammersmith Police Station on February 9, made a statement to the inspector, and was afterwards called as a witness for the prosecution. I had no apprehension of being arrested. My address was easily found. I never represented myself to be Simon and Co. It is a very ordinary thing to remove the manufacturers' marks when goods are delivered by a dealer in the original packages in order to prevent the customer knowing the name of the original manufacturer.

Mr. Abinger asked leave to cross-examine on behalf of Bernard and Reece Snyder. The Common Serjeant held they were not parties to the present issue.

Re-examined. I understood Simon and Co. were job buyers from paper mills and wholesale houses of clearance or job stock. I never heard of a business of buying new goods in order to sell them as clearance lines. I reported the goods as clearance lines on the instructions of Wollman.

CHARLES STRICKLAND , manager to John Morris, trading as Strickland and Co., Aldersgate Street. I have known Cooper ten or twelve years. He called on me in August, 1909, produced Simon and Co.'s card, samples of brown packing paper and string, and sold me a number of parcels of goods between that date and the end of the year. He introduced

Wollman to me as Simon and Co. and I bought goods direct From him. I always paid by cheque to Simon and Co. The total amount paid by me was £629 11s. 6d. The paper was mainly "Imitation Kraft," which was sold at £11 12s. 6d. per ton nett cash on delivery. The goods were delivered by Hawkes. Ingleton called on me, saw a portion of the paper delivered November 9, 1909, and identified it. The paper was of an unusual colour and easily recognised.

Cross-examined. I had 26 transactions with prisoner. I never suspected the goods were dishonestly obtained. Manufacturers and dealers very often have clearance or job lines of paper from being overstocked, having rejected parcels, or soiled or damaged goods, which are sold at low prices. I have been twenty years in the trade and have known Cooper for ten or twelve years as a man of good reputation. In most instances he asked higher prices than I was prepared to give, and I offered a price which was sometimes refused. He told me Simon and Co. were dealing with other firms. I know Page and Co., Stapletons, Bean and Co., Dyas and Co., as firms of good repute. In one case I claimed and obtained a deduction because the paper was damaged.

ROBERT MILLER , manager to J. and A. D. Grimond, Carey Lane, jute spinners and manufacturers. On July 9 and August 12 I sold goods to R. Snyder amounting to £6 18s. 6d., which were paid for. On September 28, 1909, I received order for 100 dozen twine at 3s. 10 1/2 d. a dozen and delivered 25 dozen as per invoice produced, "25 dozen 1b. W. H.M. twine at 3 7/8"; on October 14, 21 dozen; on October 18, 4 dozen; on October 28, 25 dozen; on November 15, 14 dozen. It was all new string. On February 17 at Goldberg and Co.'s, 74, Hackney Road, I identified 48 packages of string marked "W.H.M." as part of those delivered to R. Snyder on October 18, 1909. Delivery note Exhibit 55, "25 dozen W.H.M., 384, Grimond, 3 7/8, £4 15s. 11d.," is a copy of my invoice. The three last deliveries were not paid for. Had I known that R. Snyder was a minor we should not have delivered the goods.

EDGAR SCHRODER MOORE , director of W. Harrison and Co., Limited, 16, Mincing Lane, drysalters and mineral dealers. Before September 30, 1909, my firm had supplied goods to R. Snyder, which had been paid for. On October 6 we supplied 1/2 ton S150 glue in ten bags, £32 7s.; on October 30 we supplied 1/2 ton small cake glue at 27s. 6d. a cwt, £13 15s. On November 15 we received an order for six tons of S150 glue, which we did not execute. We were paid for the delivery on October 6, but not for that of October 30, issued a writ, and were informed by Barrett and Co., solicitors for R. Snyder, that she was a minor. On February 15, 1910, I identified ten bags of small cake glue at Goldberg and Co.'s as the parcel delivered on October 30.

FRANCIS HUGH STEVENS , director of the Sheppey Glue and Chemical Works, Queenborough, and 34, Mark Lane. On October 27 I received letter produced from R. Snyder asking for samples of glue. Our representative called and brought back an order for 5 cwt. BB glue at 34s., £8 10s., which was delivered. It was not paid for. We received a further order, which we did not execute. On February 17, 1910, at Goldberg and Co's, I identified two or three bags of the glue delivered

in October. We should not have supplied the goods had we known that R. Snyder was a minor.

ISAAC BENDER , trading as Goldberg and Co., 74, Hackney Road. I have known Cooper eight or ten years as a traveller in stationery articles. In July, 1909, he called on me as representative of Simon and Co. and sold me string which I said for. On October 22 and 26 he sold me twine at 3s. 6d. per doz., value £16 17s. 6d., as per invoice produced of "Simon and Co., merchants and job buyers." I paid for it by cheque to Simon and Co. I bought it from a sample. On November 8 I bought 10 cwt. glue, job at 25s.—£12 10s.—which was delivered in bags. On November 13 I bought "One lot glue, job £15"—it was a mixed lot of about 10 cwt. or 11 cwt: Exhibit 57, "Goldberg and Co., 10 cwt. glue £11 15s.; 5 cwt. glue £8 10s.," may be the goods sold to me. I bought several other parcels of goods from Simon and Co., through Cooper. At the end of November Wollman called for me to alter a crossed cheque for £30 into an open cheque. I only knew him as Mr. Simon. I gave samples to the police.

Cross-examined. Some of the string sold to me was not as strong as it should have been. The glue was in broken cakes and was therefore of less value. Cooper has regularly called upon me as a traveller for many years. I gave good value for the goods I bought as job lots.

(Thursday, April 28.)

STEWART MCCANDLISH , managing clerk to Spicer Brothers, Limited, 19, New Bridge Street, paper manufacturers. From January to July, 1909, I supplied goods to R. Snyder amounting to £25 3s. 11d., which were paid for. On July 1 Reece Snyder called and stated she was starting a wholesale business connected with the shop, that she had had a large sum of money from her grandfather, and that she would want further credit. Our traveller visited the shop and we agreed to give her credit to be settled promptly each month. She asked me to allow her to refer other firms to us and I gave her a reference to several firms. We supplied goods which were paid for up to October 21. On August 9 we contracted to supply 45 1/2 tons Kraft brown paper at £14 15s. a ton and 12 tons brown at £9 10s. a ton to be delivered during 12 months. From September 1 to 21 we delivered paper amounting to £71 8s. 9d.; September 21 to October 30, paper amounting to £94 8s. 4d.; and other goods by November 4 amounting to £45 5s. 3d. There is now owing £330 1s. 10d. In December we issued a writ, when an affidavit was filed stating that Reece Snyder was a minor. All the goods supplied were absolutely new.

Cross-examined. Reece Snyder appeared to me to be over 21, to be very businesslike, and I was absolutely deceived by her.

ALFRED FINCH , clerk, Royal Courts of Justice, produced affidavit filed December 17, 1909, in the action of Spicer Brothers, Limited, v. R. Snyder, stating that Reece Snyder was born in Russia on April 3, 1890.

SAMUEL BURNAY , Golden Lane, paper and twine merchant. In June, 1909, Cooper introduced Wollman to me in that name and from June,

1909, to January, 1910, I bought paper, twine, and cord from him to the amount of £504 0s. 8d., which I paid for by cheque in favour of S. Simon and Co., in which name the goods were invoiced. I did not know whether Wollman was the principal or the representative of that firm. The goods were sold as job lots at about 10 per cent. Under market price.

Cross-examined. I have known Cooper for 12 years as a traveller in the stationery trade; he travels for me. I knew Wollman's address—10, Beaumont Square. The transactions were perfectly open, as far as I knew, straightforward, and in the ordinary course of business. I generally arranged prices with Wollman; sometimes they were higher than I could pay and I made him an offer which he accepted or refused. In one or two cases I have sold the goods at a loss; I have also had allowances for their not being up to sample. On January 22 I had a visit from the police, who told me not to pay for goods delivered; Simon and Co. issued a writ and I paid. I showed the police Simon's invoices and gave them Cooper's address—33, King Edward's Road, Hackney.

Re-examined. I sold the goods as job lines, generally at a profit. There were two or three small parcels on which a reduction was made.

Mr. Travers Humphreys stated that he proposed to call the prisoner Reece Snyder as a witness for the prosecution. She, having pleaded Guilty on the first count (conspiracy), a verdict of Not guilty was returned on the other counts, and she was sentenced to be imprisoned until the rising of the Court.

REECE SNYDER (prisoner). For the past 20 months I have lived at 14, Mayfield Avenue, Chiswick, with my parents and three sisters. I am 20 years old to-day. In November, 1908, I and my father, Bernard Snyder, bought the business of W. Barber at 194, High Road, Chiswick. I and my three sisters attended to the shop; we had five newsboys to distribute papers; my father also assisted. He had previously been a draper. I had met Wollman four or five years ago at a wedding. In April, 1909, he came to tea; my father reintroduced him to me and said he could buy paper and string if we had any of the right kind and at the right prices. After that Wollman called almost daily at the shop; he would go up to the office on the first floor and sometimes father would go up to him. I wrote the letters produced ordering goods from the wholesale stationers at Wollman's dictation or asking for samples. Wollman would call and take the samples away, then come to the office, call me upstairs and dictate the orders to me, which I wrote and which were copied in the letter book produced. Wollman would look through the book to see if I had written the orders correctly and index them up. I identify several entries in the index as in his handwriting. When the goods arrived Wollman, if present, would take them round to the warehouse or my father would, and Wollman would come round in the evening. We took the stable in Chiswick Terrace in May, 1909, and afterwards Kensington Hall in Turnham Green Terrace as warehouses. Wollman would telephone to ask if the goods had arrived, come in the evening and go to the ware-house alone or with my father. Cheques came from Wollman, which

were paid into my banking account at the London and South-Western Bank, Chiswick, who received and paid cheques as agents for Lloyds Bank, Cheapside; some of the cheques were taken direct to Lloyds. I did not see Cooper until a few days before the police came. He used to ring me up on the telephone and ask if Wollman was at the shop—I would then switch on to the office upstairs, where Wollman would be. On January 31 I received letter produced from Wollman introducing Cooper and saw him as he has stated. Delivery notes Exhibit 55, 57, and 58 are in Wollman's writing; Exhibit 56 is in my father's writing.

Cross-examined. I had nothing to do with selling the goods whole sale. Delivery notes were left by Wollman to show what goods had been sold and they were sent off by my father. I generally endorsed the cheques which were signed "Simon and Co." Wollman sometimes made cheques payable to other names—he said he did not want all his cheques payable to H. Snyder. I may have endorsed them; some were endorsed by my father. They were all drawn by Simon and Co. on Wollman's account and were paid into my account. My mother had an account in the London Joint Stock Bank in the name of Lacey, on which I had authority to draw, but I do not remember signing any cheques upon it. I signed all cheques on Lloyds Bank—always on the direction of Wollman or my father. I was first informed yesterday I should be called as a witness. I have given no statement or proof of my evidence. Wollman had nothing to do with buying the business at 194, High Road. He went with my father to view the stable and also Kensington Hall. I went with my father to rent them. I swore the affidavit produced stating that I was a minor on the advice of my solicitor; several actions were defended on that ground. Goods were bought of Edwards and Sons, some paid for and some not. Edwards called on me. I told him I had a wealthy grandfather in Russia and thought I should benefit at his death, and asked him if the death duties in the Budget would affect it. I do not know how much my father received from Wollman. We paid £600 to £700 a month in payment of accounts. I had many inquiries of payment and my father told me to say that I had speculated and had suffered heavy losses—which I did; it was not true. I said to Edwards that my business was good and I hoped to recover myself if he would have a little patience and that he would be the first to receive a cheque. In the early part of 1908 I was in America. My grandfather gave me 5,000 dollars (£1,000) as a dowry. In May, 1908, I returned to England with my father and mother—I then had about £700, which was paid into the London and County Bank, Hawhurst, Kent, where we were staying. The entire family were living on it. When I bought Barber's business I had about £300. I paid £190 in cash and kept about £100 to run the business. I saw Spicer and Co. and told them that out of £1,000 my grandfather had given me I had bought the business and that I was opening a wholesale department.

Re-examined. I drew cheques on Wollman's instructions in payment of accounts. I paid a large number of accounts on the 20th of each month.

THOMAS GEORGE AUGUSTUS EDWARDS , director of W. D. Edwards and Son, Limited, Knightrider Street, wholesale stationers. In July and August, 1909, I supplied goods to R. Snyder. On August 9, I received order (produced) for 9 1/2 tons of Kraft paper and delivered certain quantities. On January 31 there was due £215 18s. I was pressing for payment of £41 14s. 4d., due on the month's account, and saw Reece Snyder. She said she had been speculating in securities, which were worthless at the time, but which she hoped would realise in the future, and that she had large amounts owing to her which she could not get in. We heard from Strong and Hanbury. In February I visited Snyder's warehouse and found about five tons of the paper we had supplied.

WILLIAM GEORGE WARREN , 36, Dale Street, Chiswick, shop boy. In November, 1908, I was employed by R. Snyder. Large quantities of stationery were received and stored at the stable and at Kensington Hall. Wollman used to come to the shop nearly every evening for about four or five months before the police came; he used to go to the warehouse. Bernard Snyder, in Wollman's presence, instructed me to black over or cut out marks on the packages. Samples of the goods were taken by Wollman and B. Snyder.

GEORGE SMITH , 5, Terrace View, Turnham Green, painter. In December, 1909, I was engaged by B. Snyder to unload and unpack goods at the stable and Kensington Hall. Wollman came several times and examined the goods. I scraped the marks off cases.

ROBERT COOPER , manager to F. Hawkes, 18, Goodman's Yard, Minories, carman. From July, 1909, to January, 1910, I have carted about 180 tons of goods for R. Snyder to various places in the City.

SENTHILL WILOX , partner in Bisley and Co., Chiswick, printers. On June 9, 1909, I printed billheads produced for R. Snyder, and at the same time 100 copies of billheads, "S. Simon and Co., merchants and job buyers, 1, Beaumont Square, E." Bernard Snyder ordered both and we were paid by cheque by R. Snyder.

ARTHUR JAMES CLUER , clerk, Lloyds Bank, Cheapside. I produce copy account of R. Snyder, opened on October 7, 1908, with £242 12s. 5d. from the Bank of Liverpool. On January 19, 1910, there was a balance of £7 19s. 11d. The London and South-Western Bank, Chiswick, received cheques and were instructed to honour R. Snyder's cheques to a small amount.

JOHN SHIRLEY LIWA , clerk, London and South-Western Bank, Chiswick. I produce copy of R. Snyder's account with my bank. From June 10, 1909, to January 14, 1910, we received cheques of Simon and Co. on the London and South-Western Bank, Minories, amounting to £1,141 11s. 2d.

Cross-examined. Cheques paid direct to Lloyds Bank, Cheapside, are not included in the £1,141 11s. 2d.

FREDERIC BRIAN WINDELL , cashier, London Joint Stock Bank, Oxford Street. I produce copy of account of Ethel Rose Lacey; her daughter Rachel Lacey (R. Snyder) had authority to draw. The account was opened November 15, 1909, by a payment of £125; further

payments of £235 were made; on February 7, 1910, £400 was drawn out in gold.

LUTHER ROBERT MERTON , clerk, London and South-Western Bank, Minories. I produce certified copy account of Leah Isaacs, trading as Simon and Co. Wollman was the usual person I saw in connection with the account. It ran from June 9, 1909, to February 7, 1910. There was paid in £3,617 1s. 1d. On February 7 the credit balance was £4 16s. 5d.

GEORGE INGLIS BOYLE , messenger, Court of Bankruptcy. I produce file of the bankruptcy of Bernard Snyder: Petition filed by the debtor and adjudication June 8, 1905; liabilities, £4,000 19s. 2d.; estimated assets, £314 6s. 2d.; deficiency, £3,686 13s. I also produce file in the bankruptcy of Tobias Davis Wollman, of 10, Beaumont Square, carrying on business at 36, Charterhouse Square, as blousemaker, in the name of Kutas and Co., Limited; petition filed March 15, 1909; receiving order April 14, 1909; adjudication April 19, 1909.

(Friday, April 29.)

Det.-Sergt. ALBERT EVE, T Division. On February 5 I saw B. Snyder and his wife leave 14, Mayfield Avenue, Chiswick, and proceed to 10, Beaumont Square, where I arrested B. Snyder, and took him to Chiswick Police Station. He was searched; pocket book and letter extract 54 were found on him.

Det.-Inspector FRANK KNELL, T Division. On February 5 I saw Wollman, at 10, Beaumont Square, told him who I was, that I was endeavouring to find Cooper, and I would like a statement from him. He gave his name "Tobias Davis Wollman, trading as Simon and Co., 10, Beaumont Square, merchants and job buyers," and said, "I have known the Snyder family about 12 months, and have been doing business with them 10 or 12 months. On January 7 I paid them a cheque for £14 10s. for paper and twine, on January 13 a cheque for £55, and on January 18 a cheque for £40. I have sold goods to Burnay, Strickland, Page, and Bernstein." He handed three invoices to me, and said "Those are the only ones I have; the others I have destroyed." He handed me a number of samples of paper and twine. He said "The goods I have purchased from Snyder, have been sent by Snyder direct to the firms to whom I have sold the goods. A man named Cooper canvasses for me occasionally. These two balls of twine are those I received as samples from Mr. Snyder, but I have bought the goods I have had from Miss Snyder, and got her. or the assistant to send them to certain firms; I have never given the order to Mr. Snyder. I never purchased any more goods from Snyder after Burnay and Co. refused to pay me immediate cash." I had then a warrant for the arrest of Cooper—after that conversation. I did not attempt to execute it.

Cross-examined. I had a warrant for the arrest of Cooper and the two Snyders. I found two officers at Beaumont Square; they had telephoned me that the man there was not Cooper. I took a statement from Wollman, intending to call him as a witness for the prosecution.

He answered all my questions; produced invoices, samples, etc., and showed me the three cheques. I saw Burnay after Wollman's arrest. On February 7 I got a letter from Wollman's solicitor saying I could see Wollman at their office.

Det.-Sergt. THOMAS HALL, T Division. On February 5, at 6 p.m., I searched at 14, Mayfield Avenue, and found a number of letters. I afterwards searched 194, High Road, Chiswick; there was a telephone in the shop, with a communication with the office on the first floor. I found a quantity of invoices and letters from about 80 firms pressing for payments amounting to £4,000; cash-book, in which the last payment is August 7, 1909, and showing takings from the retail business from November 14, 1908, to August 7, 1909, at from £18 to £35 weekly. I found a bundle of 36 instructions for delivery notes, including Exhibits 55-58. With the exception of Exhibit 56, and a bundle of receipts for delivery of goods, they are all in Wollman's handwriting; the shop was well stocked. At the stable, Terrace Mews, I found the 6 tons of paper identified by Edwards, large quantities of twine, boxes of glue, etc.; the marks of the cases were cut out. At Kensington Hall I found a case of twine, some Brunswick black, scraper produced, and a number of cases, the names on which had been blackened over.

Cross-examined. The delivery of a large quantity of the goods sold to Snyder has not been traced.

Detective ALBERT KIRCHNER, T Division. On February 14 I saw Wollman at Stepney Green close to his house, and said, "I hold a warrant for your arrest on a charge of conspiring with Bernard and Reece Snyder to obtain and obtaining various goods amounting to £210 from Strong and Hanbury with intent to defraud." He said, "Yes, I know all about it; I quite understand. I will come quietly." I said, "I will show you the warrant if you desire." He said, "That is all right as long as you have the warrant. Let me go and see my wife." I said, "That is impossible now; you can communicate with her." I then told him I should call a police officer to take him to the station, and I should search his house. He said, "That is all right, I will stay with you; there is nothing at the house." He was taken to the station: in answer to the charge he said, "I know nothing about it." I found at 10, Beaumont Square a number of invoices and cards relating to the firm of Simon and Co.; no goods and no books. On February 12 I saw Isaac Bender, trading as Goldberg and Co., and received from him a sample of string and invoice dated October 26, 1909, which has been identified by Grimond and Co. On February 15, Moore identified 10 boxes of glue containing about 30 cwt., sold to Bender for £30; also five cases of glue marked "U. B. D." and invoice dated November 13, "One lot of glue £15," afterwards identified by Stephens as sold to Snyder by the Sheppey Glue and Chemical Works.

No evidence was offered on counts 27, 28, 29 relating to Rogers' case; counts 10, 14, 19, 22 and 26 for aiding and abetting Reece Snyder to obtain credit were also withdrawn as against Wollman.


TOBIAS DAVIS WOLLMAN (prisoner, on oath). I live at 10, Beaumont Square. I have known Bernard Snyder for about 12 months since he returned from America. I had seen him some five years previously, but have done no business with him until June, 1909. I was bankrupt in April, 1909, after which my wife carried on business in the name of Simon and Co. and I managed for her. In June, 1909, she opened a bank account in the name of Simon and Co. with a payment in of £75, which she obtained from her father, Simon Isaacs, who introduced her to the bank, he having an account there. She gave her name as Leah Isaacs. All the cheques signed Simon and Co. are written and signed by my wife. Up to that time I had been in the drapery trade and had no knowledge of the stationery trade. A friend recommended me to Bernard Snyder; he said, "He has a business; he is looking out for somebody to sell goods for him." I called upon Snyder at 194, High Road, Chiswick, and he arranged for me to sell goods for him on commission of 5 per cent. and expenses, I to be responsible for all the money for the goods which were sold, whether the customers paid me or not, I to be allowed to continue my own business as a draper and sell in the name of Simon and Co. as I had to collect the money. Snyder said his daughter had the business, that he was an undischarged bankrupt, and that he was managing the business for her. I was to invoice the goods in the name of Simon and Co., but to inform him of all the firms I sold to and to sell only at the prices fixed by him. I had the samples and description of the goods from him. A few days afterwards he gave me samples of paper with the letters of description, weight, etc., and the net prices to sell at. I did not know any firms in the stationery trade and at first sold very little, so, having known Cooper as a traveller in that trade, I asked him to assist me. I arranged to pay Cooper 2 1/2 per cent. out of my 5 per cent. Commission and he proceeded to sell. I forwarded to Snyder notes containing the parcels of the goods sold, such as Exhibits 55, 57, and 58, which are in my writing. Exhibit 55 is "Strickland and Co.," the firm sold to, "50 dozen twine, Rogers, 4s. 4d., £10 16s. 8d."—that is the price at which it is sold to Strickland: "Goldberg and Co., 25 dozen twine 354 3 7/8, £4 16s. 11d."—that is the description and price of the twine as sold to Goldberg; "Bernstein, 76envelopes, duck, at 1s. 10d., £7 0s. 7d."—that is 76,000 envelopes sold to Bernstein at 1s. 10d. I have never seen Exhibit 56; I think it is in B. Snyder's writing. Exhibit 57 is in my writing: "November 12, Goldberg and Co, glue H O, £11 15s.; 5 cwt. Sheppey £8 10s., £20 5s." I do not know what "Sheppey" means—it is the description of the glue; then "Bernstein 148m Costell envelopes, 1s. 10d."; the amount of that is not carried out—I do not know what "Costell" means; it is the description of the envelope. Exhibit 58 is in my writing. "Strickland and Co., 10 reams brown D. I., 14 cwt. 0 qr. 16 1b.; 10 reams ditto 120 casing, 10 cwt. 2 qr. 14 lb., at 9s. per cwt., £11 2s. 10d.; Lloyd's 20 ream 120 D.I. 21 cwt. 1 qr. 20 lb., £9 12s. 10d.; 10 reams, S.P., 120 casing, 10 cwt. 2 qr. 24 lb., 9s. 6d., £5 1s. 11d." (A number of delivery notes

were read.) These are prices at which the goods were sold by me with the descriptions. I did not know the firms from whom Snyder was buying or the prices at which he bought. Reece Snyder's evidence is false. I did not tell her the names of the firms to write to; I did not know them myself; I am a draper by trade. I never saw the letters written to the wholesale firms. Cooper afterwards refused to work for 2 1/2 per cent. commission, and I arranged with Snyder for him to give me 7 1/2 per cent. commission, out of which I paid Cooper 5 per cent.; that was at the end of June or beginning of July, and that arrangement continued to the end. Cooper sold a large quantity of goods to several firms—Strickland, Norberg and Co., Burnay, Brown, Bernstein, Stapleford, Page, and many others. I knew none of them before Cooper introduced them. When Snyder told me the goods were a clearance lot I put it on my invoice or sold them as such. I never asked Snyder where he bought; my customer never asked me where they came from; it is not the custom to ask that. Sometimes the goods were damaged; the paper was wet or torn; we had complaints of its not being up to sample. Snyder explained that his warehouse being part of a stable the wet got in from the neighbouring stables. Sometimes I could not get the prices Snyder asked; I informed B. Snyder that I could not get the price he asked and he instructed me to accept the price offered, which I did. I went to the shop four or five times a week. If the samples were not ready I went with Snyder to the warehouse and got them. I never unpacked anything or examined the goods, or saw marks on cases obliterated. I indexed up the letter book on one or two occasions because B. Snyder said he was pressed with work and asked me to oblige him by doing so. I knew nothing of the letters. Some of the receipts for goods are in my writing; they were returned by the carmen to Snyder. I paid Snyder all moneys I received except my commission and expenses and about £75 paid to Cooper for commission; it was all paid in cheques. Sometimes cheques were made out to Clark and Co. and other names; that was because Snyder said he wanted to pay those people a cheque. Some of the money was paid by bill. The cheques and notes of the bills are all included in the bundle produced. In some cases I borrowed money from Cohen and others, which was repaid. The total amount paid to Snyder by cheques and bills (produced) is £2,466 8s. 11d. The payments go down to January 11, 1910. In January, 1910, I called on Burnay for a cheque, when he refused to pay; he said the police had been to him and he should neither part with the goods nor the money—that there was something wrong with the goods. My solicitors wrote and afterwards issued a writ; then Burnay paid. I took no more samples and sold no more goods after that. Cooper asked me for his commission on the sale to Burnay and, as I had had to pay £3 6s. costs, I referred him to Snyder and wrote to Snyder to pay him. I answered all the inquiries of the police and showed them all the documents I had and offered to give any further information if they would make an appointment. I always had my printing done by Kearstein, but in June, in conversation with Snyder, I happened to mention that I wanted a few

billheads printed; he offered to get them done for me as he would get something out of it, and he printed 100 for me at a cost of 3s. 6d. or 4s.; that was the only order I gave him; Kearstein afterwards did printing for me. I opened the banking account in the name of Snyder when I began to sell for Snyder. It was more convenient not to hand him the cheques as I received them, and I had some use for the money, which was useful to me in my business. My business in drapery was not large and I had no banking account for that.

Cross-examined. From my bankruptcy on April 19 to June 9, when I commenced with Snyder, I was doing a small drapery business for my wife. Up to my bankruptcy I traded in the name of Kutas and Co. as manufacturer of blouses and ladies' underclothing. At the end of April or beginning of May I started in the name of Simon and Co., buying blouses, etc., from manufacturers and selling to hawkers for cash. I cannot remember if I had billheads before June. My wife opened the banking account in the name of "Leah Isaacs" (her maiden name) "trading as Simon and Co." on the advice of her father. I first saw Reece Snyder in May at their own house; no introduction took place because we knew one another; I cannot recollect what B. Snyder said about buying or selling goods. I knew they were in business as stationers, wholesale and retail; they asked me to sell goods for them in the wholesale; it was not for me to ask why this wholesale stationer wanted me, who knew nothing of the stationery trade, to sell for him; it did not strike me as extraordinary, I had been recommended to him by a man named Wisselberg, of 74, Commercial Road, a stationer; he took a few of the goods and paid the price asked. Snyder told me he sold goods in the neighbourhood. I did not know the names of the customers. I saw a lot of goods in the warehouse, and it seemed a large wholesale business. I had no knowledge of the books. Exhibit 55 is my written instructions to Snyder to send the goods to Strickland and Co., and to send to Goldberg and Co. 50 doz. Twine Rogers at 4s. 4d. a doz.—£10 16s. 8d. I swear that is the price it was sold at to Strickland. "Goldberg and Co., 25 doz. No. 354 Grimond twine 3 7/8." I believe that is the price the twine was sold at to Goldberg. It may be the price I was to get for it. That is what I asked for it. I did not know that Rogers or Grimond were the manufacturers from whom Snyder had bought. Invoice produced shows the twine was sold at 3s. 6d. Perhaps an allowance was made. There is no deduction shown on the invoice. I believe 4s. 4d. was the price I sold at to Strickland; it was the price given to me by Snyder to sell at—I took it down from him at the time he gave me the sample. Exhibit 57 is one of my instructions for delivery. It is in my handwriting. The price is what I was to sell at. On the same slip there is "Goldberg and Co. 10 cwt. glue Halls; 5 cwt. Sheppey." I do not know who "Halls" or "Sheppey" are. I will swear I never saw the invoices of the goods sold to Snyder.

(Saturday, April 30.)

TOBIAS DAVIS WOLLMAN , recalled, further, cross-examined. I did not understand that the delivery notes produced at the police

court, were very important documents, and I have not thought about explaining them. I was represented by a solicitor. Exhibit 57 gives £14 15s. as the price at which I was to sell. There should be another slip which I gave to Synder at the time, showing the price at which the goods were actually sold. When I sold goods I filled in another form and sent it to Snyder. The invoice from the Sheppey Chemical works, 5 cwt. glue £8 10s., corresponds with the delivery note in my handwriting. I swear again I never saw any of the invoices. These delivery notes were made out before I sold the goods without the name of the purchaser, which I put on afterwards. I also sent another slip with the description, name of purchase, and price sold at. (A number of delivery notes were put to the witness, each containing description of goods and price copied from the manufacturer's invoice, and the name of the firm to whom they had been sold. No second slips such as were described by him were to be found.) I had about 50 transactions with Goldberg and Co. They were all sold as job lines. I did not know that Snyder was getting rid of his stock, I had only had samples given to me with the price at which to sell. I did not want to know why they were being sold. I was very busy, and had my wife's drapery business to attend to as well. I indexed the letter book because Snyder asked me, as he was very busy, to oblige him. Snyder asked me to make out certain cheques in the name of Clark, and other names, as he wanted to pay the amounts to those people. I do not know why he should not have drawn his own cheque, except that he might have saved a penny. Exhibit 54a shows the amount of goods sold in October, 1909. It is in my writing and amounts to £700. The turnover in my drapery business would be £100 a month. Simon and Co.'s banking account shows a receipt of £3,600; £2,200 was paid to Snyder: about £800 would be my drapery business, and about £600 would represent moneys that I have borrowed from friends and repaid.

Verdict Guilty.

(Monday, May 2.)

Sentence, Bernard Snyder, Nine months' hard labour; Wollman, 12 months' hard labour. For Reece Snyder, see page 22.


(Wednesday, April 27.)

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