DAVID JOHN NICOLL, CHARLES WILFRED MOWBRAY.
2nd May 1892
Reference Numbert18920502-493
VerdictNot Guilty > unknown; Guilty > unknown
SentenceImprisonment > hard labour

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493. DAVID JOHN NICOLL (32) and CHARLES WILFRED MOWBRAY (35) were indicted for unlawfully, in a newspaper called the Commonweal, inciting, soliciting, and encouraging certain persons unknown to murder the Right Hon. Henry Matthews, Secretary of State for the Home Department; Sir Henry Hawkins, one of the Justices of the High Court of Justice; and William Melville, inspector of police.

The ATTORNEY-GENERAL (SIR RICHARD WEBSTER), with MESSRS. SUTTON and HORACE AVORY, Prosecuted; MESSRS. GRAIN and BURNIE Defended Mowbray; Nicoll Defended himself.

ROBERT JOHNSON . I am an officer of the Criminal Investigation Department—on the 12th April last I purchased at No. 145, City Road this copy of the Commonweal newspaper, dated the 9th of April—on the back of it it appears to be printed and published by C. W. Mowbray at 145, City Road—at the same time I purchased the issues of that paper from 5th March up to the 9th of April, bearing the same imprint—145 had the appearance of a disused shed—I saw printing apparatus there—I have seen persons there at work setting up type.

Cross-examined. by MR. GRAIN. I have not an issue of the 16th April here. (A certificate of the registration of Frank Kets and Joseph Nicoll as proprietors was put in, dated 29th July, 1890.)

EDWIN GRAY . I am a police officer—on 16th April I purchased this issue of the Commonweal of that date at 145, City Road—the imprint on the back is, "Printed and published by D. J. Nicoll, 145, City Road."

The ATTORNEY-GENERAL read several extracts from the "Commonweal" of various dates. The following, of 9th April, is the one upon which the indictment is framed:

THE WALSALL ANARCHISTS "CONDEMNED TO PENAL SERVITUDE."The Walsall Anarchists have been condemned—Charles, Battola, and Cailes to ten years' penal servitude, while Deakin has been let off in mercy with five. For what? For a police plot concocted by one of those infamous wretches who make a living by getting up these affairs and selling their victims to the vengeance of the law. Surely we ought not to have to warn Anarchists of the danger of conspiracies; these death traps; these gins set by the police and their spies, in which so many honest and devoted men have perished. Surely those who desire to act can do as John Felton did, when, alone and unaided, he bought the knife which struck down the tyrant. Are there no tyrants now? What of the Jesuitical monster at the Home Office, who murders men for taking a few head of game? What of the hyena who preys upon bodies of hanged men, and whose love of the gallows a few years ago won him the title of 'Hangman' Hawkins?—this barbarous brute, who, prating of his humanity, sends our comrades to ten years in the hell of the prisons. What of the spy Melville, who sets his agent on to concoct the plots which he discovers? Are these men fit to live? The Anarchists are criminals, vermin, gallows carrion; well, shower hard names upon us; hunt us down like mad dogs; strangle us like you have done our comrades at Xeres; shoot us down as you did at Fourmies; and then be surprised if your houses are shattered with dynamite, and if people shrink from the companionship of officials of the law as 'dangerous company.' Justice has been done. Has it, gentlemen of the middle classes? 'Justice!' Was it justice that was done in your Courts of Tuesday, when a cruel wretch belonging to your class bearing the

likeness of a woman was let off with one year's imprisonment for torturing her own child to death, while men who loved the suffering people so much that they dared all things for them are condemned to ten years' penal servitude? Justice it may be; perhaps, too, it will be just when the oppressed strike back at you without ruth and mercy; only don't whine for pity in these days, for it will be useless.—D. J. NICOLL."

JOHN SWEENEY , I am an officer of the Criminal Investigation Department—I know the defendant Nicoll; I have seen and heard him speak at Anarchist meetings, at South Place Institute, Finsbury Pavement, at Tottenham Court Road, and at Hyde Park—I did not hear him speak at Tottenham Court Road; I saw him there—I saw him at a meeting in Hyde Park on Sunday, 10th of April last, and heard him make a speech there—I made a note of it shortly afterwards, within half an hour—I do not write shorthand—he said, "This is the first of a series of meetings to arouse public sympathy against the cruel and unjust sentence on our comrades at Stafford. I do not want to warn Anarchists against conspiracies and death traps set up by the police and their spies, in which so many men have perished. That Jesuit Home Secretary Matthews, Inspector Melville, and Coulon are the principal actors, and two of them must die. What can be our comrades' feeling when they come face to face in the street with Justice Hawkins, or, rather, 'Butcher' Hawkins, by which name he is better known?"—he also said, "We must stand by our comrades, every one must give his individual aid, and strike back"—that came after the words "two of them must die," and after the words" what can be our comrades' feelings?"—I am positive those are the words used by Nicoll in the park on Sunday—I had not read any article in the Commonweal before I went to the park that Sunday, or been told the contents of any article—I was present at the Stafford Assizes—four men, named Charles, Battola, Cailes, and Deakin, were there charged and convicted, before Mr. Justice Hawkins, of unlawfully having certain explosive substances, viz., bombs, in their possession; the first three were sentenced to ten years' penal servitude and the last to five years' penal servitude—Inspector Melville is an officer of the Criminal Investigation Department—he had been engaged in the investigation of the Walsall affair, and was called as a witness at the trial.

Cross-examined by Nicoll. I took the note of the speech within about half an hour—it would have been conspicuous to have taken it on hearing it, in the capacity in which I was engaged—I have not a very good memory, tolerably good—I don't think it possible that I might have forgotten the words, or put some other words in their place; I swear those were the words you used.

FRANCIS POWELL . I am a police officer—I was at the meeting in Hyde Park on 10th April; it commenced between five and six in the evening; I was standing apart from Sweeney—I knew Nicoll by. sight at that time—I heard him make a speech at that meeting, and soon after I made a note of some of the things I heard him say, as much as I could remember; perhaps an hour after, as soon as I could get to a place where I could conveniently make it out and write it—I have my notes here (referring to them)—Nicoll said, "This is the first of a series of meetings which will be held for the purpose of arousing public sympathy against the unjust sentences passed on our comrades at Stafford"; that he did not think it

necessary to warn their comrades of the danger of conspiracies, because they are traps set up by the police in which so many have perished; they must depend upon themselves; that they could see the Jesuitical Home Secretary Matthews, Inspector Melville, and Coulon were the principal conspirators in this plot—"Two must die for our comrades; everyone must give individual aid, and strike back; what must be our feelings when we come face to face in the street with Justice Hawkins, or 'Butcher' Hawkins, as he is called, on account of the number he has passed sentence of death on?"—I also heard Mr. Justice Hawkins referred to as "Hangman" Hawkins in that speech—after he had finished his speech I saw that he had several copies of the Commonweal under his arm, and was crying them for sale—I only heard him call them the Commonweal—I did not buy one at that meeting; I bought one at another meeting in Hyde Park later on, on another day, a later issue altogether—I saw several persons selling them on 10th April, and I saw several sold—I saw a gentleman purchase one just behind me, and I saw the date on it; it was the 9th—I know the premises, 145, City Road—they had been under my observation for some months—I saw Nicoll go in there twice in the early part of the time—I knew the premises—that would be about the 8th of May perhaps—six months before the Hyde Park meeting I saw him go in on two occasions—I can't remember the dates—the last time was on Thursday evening, 14th April—I saw him leaning over and speaking to a person who appeared to be setting up type—it was in the night-time, I well remember—you can't see them in the day unless the gas, or oil, or whatever they use is alight; it was when there was a light there.

Cross-examined by Nicoll. I took a note of the speech about an hour afterwards—I could not do it before; there was no place where I could conveniently take a note—I am accurate—I wanted to hear as much as I could of die other speeches as well as yours—I did not go there for anything particular, merely to see. what occurred—I did not compare the note with Sweeney—I am sure they are the words you used, "two of them must die"; I am positively certain.

RICHARD POWNEY . I keep a newspaper stall at the foot of Westminster Bridge, on the Surrey side—I have been there for a number of years—I have been in the habit for about two years past of selling copies of the Commonweal—I sell all papers—I obtain my copies from agents—I presume I sold copies of the 9th of April—I sell it regularly every week, each weekly issue—I can't say that I have seen the same paper given away at meetings.

Cross-examined by Nicoll. I can't say that I have seen it sold. By the COURT. I suppose I sell about eight or nine copies a week; that would be about the outside.

PATRICK MCINTYRE . I am an officer in the Criminal Investigation Department—on the afternoon of 19th April, in company with Walsh, another officer, I arrested the prisoner Mowbray on a warrant—I had the warrant with me, and read it to him—previous to reading it I told him we were two police officers, and held a warrant for his arrest—he replied, "This is a very bad job; my wife is lying dead, having died this morning"—on reading the warrant to him he said, "I am not guilty; I have severed my connection with them; I do not believe in violence of any kind," addressing Chief Inspector Little child, who stood close by,

that was a little afterwards, he added, "I disagree with the article," meaning the article in the warrant; I had just read the warrant to him—he then took from his pocket a number of letters, documents, and memorandum-books, and a copy of the Commonweal of the 16th, and handed them over to me—Sergeant Walsh found other papers there—he was taken to Bow Street, and in reply to the charge he said, "Very well."

Cross-examined by MR. BURNIE. I have since ascertained as a fact that his wife was lying dead in the house—from inquiries I have made I believe she had been ill seriously for twenty-two weeks, and prior to that in a delicate state of health for some months, she had been prostrate for twenty-two weeks, and I believe he had attended upon her.

WILLIAM MCCLINCHEY . I am an inspector of the Criminal Investigation Department—on 19th April I arrested Nicoll outside his house, 194, Clarence Road—I went in with him—I read the warrant to him—he said, "I wrote an article"—a woman who was present remarked, "But you have not incited any one"—I searched the room—I found a lot of pamphlets and literature and letters—they chiefly related to the case at Walsall; I have them here—I also found some copies of the Commonweal—I afterwards took him to Bow Street—he there wrote this letter and the envelope in my presence—I was present at Bow Street Police-court on 20th April—I heard Nicoll referring to the article of the 9th April, say that he accepted the whole responsibility of its production, and entirely exonerated the other prisoner, Mowbray.

Cross-examined by Nicoll. The letters were solicitors' letters, letters enclosing subscriptions, and entirely of an innocent nature as regards this case, except one leaflet—the letter written at Bow Street was not delivered.

Re-examined. The name on the leaflet was "Fight or Starve"—I do not know that the leaflets were distributed publicly in London.

JOHN WALSH (Police Sergeant). I was with McIntyre when Mowbray was arrested—on that day I searched the premises at 145, City Road—among the papers I found this manuscript of the article of 9th April—also this manuscript on pink paper—I found that partly set up in type in the Commonweal, office. Nicoll: "Yes, that is my writing."

Cross-examined by Nicoll. We took all the set-up type in the office. Nicoll's statement before the Magistrate: "I reserve my defence in the main. I deny that the article was an incitement to murder at all. On the morning of the Walsall conviction, I knew that a good and charitable fellow, Charles had been entrapped by the police; I used strong language such as one uses under the influence of strong feelings; I do not deny that I wrote the article, and under the same circumstances I would write it again."

The following witnesses were called by Nicoll. JOSEPH BURGESS. I was in Hyde Park on Sunday, the 10th—I heard your speech from beginning to end—I heard what you said with regard to Home Secretary Matthews, Melville, and Coulon—you said that the Walsall Anarchist case was a plot invented by Home Secretary Matthews for the purpose of bringing the Anarchists into connection with the Liberal party, and bringing the Liberal party under the obloquy that would attach thereto—he reasoned it out in this way—he said that the

Anarchists were connected, or were allied in some measure, with the extreme Socialists, and that the extreme Socialists were allied with the Social Democratic Association, that some of the Social Democrats were Fabians, and that the Fabians were generally Radicals or Liberals, and by this chain it was the intention of Home Secretary Matthews to fasten the condemnation of the Anarchists on the Liberal party—I did not hear you say anything like this, "I do not want to warn Anarchists of the danger of conspiracies and death-traps set up by the police and their spies, in which so many men hare perished; that Jesuit Home Secretary Matthews, Inspector Melville, and Coulon are the principal actors, and two of them must die"—you said the chief actors were Matthews, Melville, and Coulon, you never said "two of them must die"—you said it must be very unpleasant and embarrassing to Justice Hawkins to meet so many men in the street who he had condemned to death and who were respited—I did not hear you say, "Every comrade must give his individual aid and strike back."

Cross-examined by the ATTORNEY-GENERAL. I heard some language about the Home Secretary being at the bottom of the plot, and Melville and Coulon were agents—I don't remember his speech beginning with, "There are a lot of fresh faces since the last collection"—there was a collection after the speech—I think the collection was made before the speech, but I will not be positive about that—there was only one collection made during the time I was there—I only heard Nicoll make one speech—I should think that was between three and four o'clock.

HENRY BOND HOLDHAM . I was in Hyde Park on Sunday, April 10th—I heard the whole of your speech—I did not hear you say, "Two of them must die; "I heard you remark as to one of the Anarchist men, who was in ill-health and not likely to survive his imprisonment, that he would be likely to die; it was to that effect, but certainly not in the sense mentioned, certainly not about the Home Secretary—as far as I remember, the reference you made to Justice Hawkins was that it had once been said about him that he must have felt very uncomfortable on meeting in the street so many men who he had sentenced to be hanged, the inference being that they had been respited—I was there when the speaker before you had got about halfway through his speech, I imagine, we heard the end of the speech of the man that followed you, and then we went away.

Cross-examined by the ATTORNEY-GENERAL. I should say I was there altogether about three-quarters of an hour—we entered the Park about half-past three, and heard one or two speeches at the Marble Arch and at the Reformers' Tree, and got out about six—I did not hear Nicoll make more than one speech—the impression that he gave me was that this scare, if I may use that expression with regard to the Anarchists, was that it was a scare of the Home Secretary and the Tory party—I have no recollection of what he said about Melville.

W.R. CUPAR. I was in Hyde Park on Sunday, 10th April—I heard the whole of your speech, from beginning to end—I did not hear you say, "The, Jesuitical Home Secretary Matthews, Inspector Melville and Coulon are the principal conspirators in this plot; two of them must die"—I heard you say that someone had said that it must be very uncomfortable for Mr. Justice Hawkins to meet so many persons in the street who he had condemned to death, but I do not remember your

having added anything of that sort that is added to it—I heard nothing like an incitement to murder either of these men, decidedly not.

Cross-examined by the ATTORNEY-GENERAL. He made a long speech—he began by giving us some particulars about Auguste Coulon, and he suggested that the Walsall affair was very likely to be a got-up plot, and very likely it was done with a political intention, to show the connection between the Anarchists and the Social Democrats, and the Fenian Society and the Radicals, towards the Liberal party—that the uncomfortableness caused by the Walsall plot would reflect upon the Liberal party—and further, he denounced, in pretty strong language, the action taken by the police, and Justice Hawkins and Mr. Matthews, and Inspector Melville—I don't remember anything particular about it—as to Justice Hawkins, he characterised him as—I don't know whether he used the expression as his own, or as somebody else's, but he certainly used the expression, "Hangman Hawkins"—I am not quite sure about "Butcher Hawkins"—he might have, but I don't believe it—he said nothing about the Home Secretary which might be taken as inciting to murder—he spoke about his action in the case of the poachers at Aylesbury—he did not call him a murderer; he simply let it appear that Mr. Henry Matthews, at any rate—let me see—no, I can't remember what he said about it—I only heard one speech from Nicoll that afternoon; I can't tell the time exactly, but it must have been between four and half-past five, I think nearer five—I am a Dutchman.

FRED HENDERSON . I was at the meeting in Hyde Park on Sunday, 10th April—I heard your speech—you did not say "Justice Hawkins, Home Secretary Matthews, Melville, and Coulon are the chief actors in the Walsall plot; two of them must die"—I heard another speech before yours, and I waited about five minutes after you had finished—you said something about coming face to face with Justice Hawkins—you did not say anything like individual aid, and striking back—I did not take notes of your speech.

Cross-examined by the ATTORNEY-GENERAL. I only heard him make one speech—I think I can tell you what he did say about Justice Hawkins; it was something rather like what he said, "What must be Justice Hawkins' feelings when he meets so many persons in the street that he has condemned to death, and who have got off since?"—he called him "Butcher Hawkins"—he was not complimentary to Mr. Justice Hawkins—he was generally abusing him, calling him "Hangman Hawkins" and "Butcher Hawkins," but nothing that could in any way be interpreted into a threat or inducement—he was speaking of Melville in the same strain he said he went about employing men to get up plots, spies—I could not say what more—he was talking in that strain—he said the Home Secretary was a party to the Walsall plot—he was speaking about half an hour—I was bail for Charles, one of the Walsall prisoners—I was convicted at Norwich with Mowbray for inciting to riot, for a speech; that was either in 1886 or 1887; I am not sure which—I am not an Anarchist; I regarded them as being Radicals—it was a speech I am not proud of; it was merely a speech—I had not gone to attend this Anarchist meeting—I frequently go to Hyde Park on Sundays—I was rather interested in the meeting, having stood bail for one of the prisoners.

By the COURT. Nicoll spoke at the top of the rising ground, about the middle of the Park, under the Reformers' Tree. By MR. BURNIE. I am now a member of the London County Council. JOSEPH BURGESS (Recalled by the COURT). When I heard Nicoll speak it was under the Reformers' Tree.

H. B. HOLDHAM (Recalled). It was under the Reformers' Tree that I heard Nicoll speak.

W. R. CUPAR (Recalled). It was under the Reformers' Tree that Nicoll spoke.

THOMAS NAYLOR (Examined by Nicoll). I was in Hyde Park on Sunday afternoon, April 10th—I heard your speech under the Reformers' Tree—I am a newspaper reporter—I took notes of the speech; I have not got them here—I do not recollect hearing you say, "The Jesuitical Home Secretary, Melville, and Coulon are the chief actors in the plot; two of them must die"—as a newspaper reporter it would have been my duty if you said anything of that Kind to send it in—we generally select any striking passage to send in—I do not remember you saying, "What must be our comrades' feeling when they come face to face in the street with Justice Hawkins, or Butcher Hawkins, by which name he is better known? we must stand by our comrades, every one must give his individual aid and strike back"—I did not stay to the end of the meeting—I left when the speaker who succeeded you was speaking—the meeting seemed practically over; most of the crowd had gone away; there were not many there.

Cross-examined by the ATTORNEY-GENERAL. I cannot remember what he said about Inspector Melville—I believe he said something about the Home Secretary and Jesuitism; that is all I remember—Nicoll's speech lasted about twenty minutes—I only heard him make one speech that afternoon; that was under the Reformers' Tree.

THOMAS CHARLES POPE . I was in Hyde Park on the afternoon of 10th April, about a quarter past five—I did not hear the whole of your speech—I don't remember hearing any passage like "the Home Secretary, Melville, and Coulon are the chief actors in this plot; two of them must die," or "What must be our comrades' feelings," etc—I was there from just before the beginning of your speech till a quarter-past five.

Cross-examined by the ATTORNEY-GENERAL. I was given to understand that this was just by the Reformers' Tree—I only heard Nicoll make one speech.

JOHN SWEENEY (Recalled by the ATTORNEY-GENERAL). Nicoll made more than one speech that afternoon; there was about an hour's interval between them—his opening remark in the second speech was that he saw a lot of fresh faces—the hat was going round, and the audience was diminishing.

By the COURT. He repeated as near as possible what he said on the first occasion—he mentioned the cruelty of the police, and mentioned Justice Hawkins, Melville, and Coulon again, and said the same words again—I took general notes—I took the notes when the audience was breaking up after the second speech—I made general notes after the two speeches were made—I did not know at the time that it would be the subject of a prosecution.

FRANCIS POWELL (Recalled). Nicoll made more than one speech that

afternoon—I should think they were about an hour apart—two speakers spoke between the two speeches—I took my notes about an hour after the meeting; I should think about eight—the meeting lasted about three hours, it commenced about a quarter to four.

THOMAS E. WARDLE . I am a shorthand writer, and I am connected with the press—I was present in Hyde Park on Sunday afternoon, April 10th, to take a report of the Anarchist meeting—I heard your speech—I did not hear you say, "Two of them must die"—I heard you tell a tale with reference to Mr. Justice Hawkins sentencing men to death and meeting them daily in the street, but I have no recollection of hearing you make a reference to "striking them back"—I was present till the meeting was over—I only heard you deliver one speech.

Cross-examined. I did not take a verbatim note of the whole of the proceedings—I only took what was required for publication—I have no notes here—I have only what was published in the Star for Monday, 11th—only a small portion of what was said was put in the paper—Nicoll only made one speech while I was there, unless they held two meetings—I was there about three, and Nicoll started about a quarter to four, and I got back to my own place about six—Nicoll asked the question of the audience, as far as I could gather, how any Anarchist or anybody could have any respect for the law if it was upheld by certain members, whom he named, Mr. Matthews, Mr. Justice Hawkins, Melville, and Coulon—I am telling you what I remember—the expression I took down was not "hangman," but "Butcher Hawkins," I think—he called Mr. Matthews a papist—he distinctly said that the Anarchist business at Walsall was got up by the police; I don't remember him making a statement about the Home Secretary as apart from the others; I understood that he was included with the others as one of a number who had got up the plot against him; Mr. Matthews was mentioned as being part of the business—there was a statement in which the relation of one party to another was taken into consideration.

Re-examined. The Anarchist business is considered good copy at the present time, and is put on the bills—the Tories make more of it than the Radical or Liberal papers do—by "good copy" I mean it is saleable.

FREDERICK ARTHUR FOX . I was present at the Hyde Park meeting on Sunday afternoon, 10th April, from beginning to end, when all speaking was over—you delivered two speeches—you did not say in either speech anything about the Jesuit Matthews, Melville or Coulon being the chief actors in the Walsall plot, and that two of them must die; nothing of the kind—nothing occurred like that, or that I could put that construction upon—you did not use those words—you did not say, "What would occur if they came face to face in the street with Mr. Justice Hawkins, or Butcher Hawkins? by which name he is generally known; we must do our best; every comrade must give his individual aid, and strike back"—I don't remember anything of the kind, and I should have remembered it—your last speech was repudiating something that had been said, by former speakers, and you said the public were not to take notice of violent speeches made by so-called Anarchist speakers; they were in the pay of the police generally, and not Anarchists at all.

Cross-examined. I am a shop assistant—the first speech occupied about twenty-five minutes I should say, and the second about ten to fifteen minutes—three speakers intervened between the two, so that there was about an hour in between—both were made at the same spot, the Reformers' Tree—he used a little abuse of Melville in the first speech; I could not say what it was—I heard him call Mr. Justice Hawkins "Hangman Hawkins," as the name he was publicly known by, not "Butcher Hawkins"—he called the Home Secretary a Jesuit—I could not give what he really said about the Walsall plot; he condemned the proceedings—I think he said they were a plot by the Home Secretary and Melville and Coulon-that was in the same speech in which he spoke of Hangman Hawkins and abused Melville—I could not say for certain if he said anything about traps set by the police; I daresay he did—I don't think he said anything about his not needing to warn his comrades about the danger of conspiracies as traps set by the police—he certainly did not say, "Two of them must die"—I think I must have noticed that immediately—he said Deakin and Charles were suffering from consumption, and must die; I think it was Deakin and Charles—he generally says the comrades should help in the cause—I have heard him before, not at an Anarchist meeting (I do not attend this kind of meeting), but at a shop assistants' meeting, an early closing meeting.

MR. GRAIN called on behalf of Mowbray

WILLIAM JAMES RAMSEY . I am a printer, living at 14, Brownlow Road, Dalston—I have occasionally machined the issue of the Commonweal—I knew Mowbray as being one of the committee who were engaged in producing the Commonweal; he never gave me any order in regard to it—on 13th April I saw him at the Carlton Restaurant in the City Road, and he was speaking to me of what he described as the foolishness of an article which had been written by Mr. Nicoll; he said he entirely disapproved of any such language, which was very foolish, to take the best view of it, and as easily-scared people might make a scare of it, and it was nothing but bombast, it was damnable (I think that was the word), because people that might be easily scared might take notice of it, and he wished to withdraw himself from the paper, and would do so if any such stuff as that appeared in it—after that I accompanied him to the office of the Commonweal, 145, City Road, just across the road—he had a very heated discussion with some of the people there about what we had been talking about—I machined all the paper of 9th April—I had nothing to do with setting up the type; it is the custom with many small papers of limited circulation to set up the type and send it to the machine—the type was sent to me in a chase, an iron frame, locked up ready to be put on the machine and copies printed off it.

Cross-examined. Before 13th April I had seen Mowbray from time to time, but very rarely—I understood he was one of the committee who managed the paper; I was not particularly interested—the type always came to me set up—I had no occasion to go to the office—I knew nothing of who wrote the articles or set them up—I cannot say if Mowbray's name was on it for many years as printer—I have occasionally seen it; but it had a small circulation, and I Know very little about it—there were other names on it before Mowbray's, many years ago, when William Morris had it—I don't remember any other name than Mowbray's for

four or five years; but I cannot say if he has been the printer for five or six years—I printed the issue of the 16th on Nicoll's instructions.

Nicoll, in his defence, said that he had written the articles when labouring under a strong feeling of indignation at the sentences passed upon the Walsall Anarchists, and he argued that it could not be construed into an incitement to murder.

MOWBRAY— NOT GUILTY . NICOLL— GUILTY .— Eighteen Months' Hard Labour.


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