John Leigh.
16th January 1761
Reference Numbert17610116-5
VerdictNot Guilty

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42. (M) John Leigh , jeweller , was indicted for feloniously and traitorously diminishing one guinea, and one half guinea, of the current coin of this realm, with intent to defrand his majesty's liege subjects , Dec. 15 . +

Thomas Evans . I keep a public-house, the Star and Garter, in St. Martin's-lane. It is about three months since I first saw the prisoner: I believe he used my house about seven or eight weeks in the whole. I have given him change for half a guinea several times. I don't remember changing him any thing but half guineas. I think on the 5th of December last I changed him one; and after he was gone out of the house, I turned it round, and thought I never saw one bent in that manner as it was. I shewed it to some of the company in the house, and then I weighed it.

Q. Had you changed any for him before this?

Evans. Yes, several, and they went as they came, all but one, which I then had by me.

Q. Were they bent as this was?

Evans. I know some of them were; I believe they all were. I found that wanted 14 d. of weight. My wife also told me, she had changed him some bent in that manner, I weighed that which I had by me, that was diminished just as much, and bent the same, and diminished in the bend as the other. Then I was advised to go to justice Welch, which I did. The 10th and 11th, I told him my suspicions: he granted me a warrant. The justice ordered me if he offered me any more such, to bring him before him. On the Monday following the prisoner came again, and drank a pint of beer, and said: Can you change me half a guinea to-night? I said, I believe I can. I changed one, and put it down, and said, Mr. Leigh, you have changed such with me before.

Q. Where are they?

Evans. I have them all three here; they are bent and diminished alike. I said, you must not go, they are short weight. Said he, Are not they weight, I'll change them. I said, no, you have changed too many already: this was about ten at night. I sent for a constable: we took him up one pair of stairs, and searched him, according to Mr. Welch's orders.

Q. What is the constable's name?

Evans. His name is Morgan: we found in his pocket some halfpence, and seventeen or eighteen shillings in silver, and the key of his room. The constable took the key. We took the prisoner and went to justice Welch, where he said he should be, at the Bedford coffee house; and he went with us to search the prisoner's room. This was between ten and eleven at night.

Q. Where was the prisoner's room?

Evans. That was in Holbourn. I knew that before, for I had sent my boy to dodge him home, after I had a suspicion of him, that I might know where he belong'd to. Going along, Mr. Welch said to him, pray Mr. Leigh, what business are you of? Sir, said he, I am a jeweller; but I have had a hurt on my arm, and have not worked for some time; it may be a year, or two years ago; I forgot the exact time. Mr. Welch said; Sir, what do you do for a livelihood? said he, I deal now in curiosities; Mr. Welch asked him where he lodged, and he told him; we went to his room, Mr. Welch, the constable, I, and another person, that followed us from my house, and searched about; the prisoner sidel'd to one part of the room. Mr. Welch observing it, came and searched that part, and in the drawers, we found some gold filings; the drawer had a leather bottom to it.

Q. What sort of drawers were they?

Evans. They were such sort that jewellers use; there was a table and drawers under it. The justice said, he thought there was something

there which the prisoner did not chuse we should see. He put the filings in a paper, and sealed them up immediately, and delivered them to the constable. The justice proceeded farther, and among his gold weights and scales, found two guineas which did not seem to be diminished, and he left them there. There were some tools in another drawer, a crucible, and several files, and other working tools, such as jewellers use. Mr. Welch observed gold in the teeth of the files; he wrapped them up in a paper, and I think slightly sealed them, and delivered them to the constable; I think they were all sealed together at last, but I am not certain. Mr. Welch asked him how the filings came there; he said, they were made in his business. I believe it was past twelve o'clock, or near one, before we left the room; the prisoner was then secured in Covent-garden Round-house. I attended Mr. Welch the next morning; he asked the prisoner a good deal concerning his business, who he worked for, or who he sold goods to; he pretended to say, those things were from a seal.

Q. Was that seal taken care of?

Evans. It was. I believe Mr. Chamberlaine took care of that; that was produced before the justice.

Q. Did Mr. Chamberlaine go to his lodgings?

Evans. He did. I went with him the next morning.

Q. Who else was there?

Evans. There was the prisoner and constable; this was before I went to the justice the second time. The prisoner was asked by Mr. Chamberlaine, what those filings came from; he said, from that seal.

Q. Did he say they all came from that seal?

Evans. He mentioned but one seal.

Q. Did the prisoner produce any other seal?

Evans. He produced but one as I observed. There was a gold watch produced. The prisoner said to Mr. Chamberlaine, have you any suspicion of this gold watch? he answered no. The watch was delivered to his landlady. After this, he went to Mr. Welch's.

Q. Did the prisoner pretend any of these filings came from the watch?

Evans. No.

Q. What is his landlady's name?

Evans. Her name is Mrs. Johnson.

Cross Examination.

Q. When he mentioned to you his present business, did he tell you what sort of curiosities they were he dealt in?

Evans. I cannot recollect that he did; only in general curiosities.

Q. Did you tell him you knew where he lived before he told you?

Evans. Mr. Welch asked him, although he knew before by my telling him; but he did that to know whether he would tell true, and readily. He told us right.

Counsel. Then he made no objection?

Evans. No, none at all about where he lodged.

Q. Were the two guineas found amongst the tools?

Evans. I cannot say whether they were or not; the gold scales were by them

Q. What quantity were there of the filings?

Evans. That I cannot say, there seemed to me to be more than the weight of a guinea.

Q. Did he not say, he had done something to the watch?

Evans. He said he had been doing some trifling thing to it. There were some stones set in it; I had not that in my hand. Mr. Welch said, you said you had not done any business for some time; but by these filings, it seems as if you had been lately doing some thing. He said he had done some trifling things.

Q. Did you understand it to be that watch that he meant by the conversation?

Evans. I am not certain of that. I understood it to be a watch that he had to dispose of.

Justice Welch. Thomas Evans made application to me, I think on the eleventh of December; and informed me, that he suspected a person that used his house, to be concerned in diminishing half guineas. The reason that he gave for it was, that a number of half guineas had been offered to him to change for silver; and he had observed, they were all bent in the same manner. That he had the curiosity to weigh the last he had taken, and he found it was diminished. He weighed another that he had taken before of the same person, and that was bent and diminished in the same manner. I thought it necessary to take him into custody. I then sent for Mr. Chamberlaine, the sollicitor of the Mint; he came, and was of the same opinion, that there was suspicion enough to take the man into custody. Then a warrant was granted, and directions given to Mr. Evans, that he be extremely cautious to keep this matter to himself; and the next time the man came.

to ask any people of the company in his house to change him a guinea for two half guineas, and it that person should do it, if they appeared bent as the others, for him to stop him, and put him in the custody of the constable; and if he did not change the guinea, to wait till he attempted to put off another half-guinea in the same manner. After they had him in custody, and I was going with him to his lodgings, I asked Mr. Leigh, where he lodged; he said, he lodged at Mr. Johnson's. I asked him what business he followed; he said, he was a jeweller. I asked him if he was a working jeweller, he said no, he had not worked at his trade since his arm was hurt, which he said was upwards of a year, near two years ago. When we came to the room, I examined a chest of drawers. While I was looking about, I could not help taking notice that Mr. Leigh seemed anxious about a place that stood on the opposite side the room. I conceived in my mind, that there was something there, that he wanted to conceal. I called to him to attend, and see that nothing was taken away; still he seemed to sidle that way. I did not go through the search of the drawer that I was about, but went to this place, which was a circular kind of chest of drawers, such I suppose as are used in the jewelling way. Upon pulling out the drawers, there was one made of leather; and near the center of it, was a quantity of gold filings, which I took care of; they were put up into a paper, and delivered into the custody of the constable. On searching farther, I found another drawer, in which were files. I plainly perceived gold in the teeth of them; them I also put in papers and delivered to the constable; and in another drawer, were two guineas. If I recollect, they were with the gold scales. They appeared to me not to have been diminished. There were two tin pots, that held about three parts of a pint: in one of them were some gold filings, and some English pieces of gold.

Q. What did you think those pieces were?

Mr. Welch. I had a suspicion they were gold that had been cast from the melting of file dust. I then reminded the prisoner of what he had said of his not working. Then he said, he did not work constantly at his business, but he did some little work; and to convince me of it, he shewed me a gold watch. Then I said I should he glad if he would tell me who he worked for, or where he had delivered any; but he did not chuse to give me any satisfactory answer about that.

Q. When was this, and where?

Mr. Welch. This was the same night, in his room. I secured the key of the room, and reserved that in the hands of the constable, in order for Mr. Chamberlaine to search the next morning.

Q. Do you recollect in what manner the gold dust was secured, when you gave it to the constable?

Mr. Welch. I put it up in a paper. I cannot swear positively whether it was sealed that night, but however, it was sealed.

Cross Examination.

Q. Did you find any diminished money in his custody?

Mr. Welch. No, I did not.

Q. Did he readily go with you to where his lodgings were?

Mr. Welch. He did.

Thomas Morgan . I am a constable, I took the prisoner into custody in Mr. Evans's house. I was sent for there for that purpose. We took him up stairs; there I searched him: we found a key, and some money; the particular sum I cannot be positive to; there were some silver and some halfpence.

Q. How much silver might there be?

Morgan. There might be upwards of twelve shillings, two or three shillings more; I did not count them. We took him to Mr. Welch, at the Bedford coffee-house. Then the justice went with us to the prisoner's lodging. When we came there, I saw the search made. There were some different articles found, which are in the custody of Mr. Chamberlaine. Some filings were found in this drawer. [Producing a shallow drawer, with a leather bottom.] They were first delivered to me, and I delivered them to Mr. Chamberlaine the next morning.

Q. How were they secured when delivered to you?

Morgan. They were put in a piece of paper carefully, and sealed up.

Q. Who sealed them?

Morgan. I think Mr. Leigh himself did.

Q. How did you keep them while you had them in your custody?

Morgan. I kept them under lock and key at home, in a drawer.

Q. Are you sure the paper of filings were delivered by you to Mr. Chamberlaine, as they were to you by Mr. Welch, at the prisoner's lodgings?

Morgan. I am very sure they were; I delivered the files, and every thing as I received them.

Mr. Chamberlaine. I was called upon on the 16th of Dec. last in the morning. I believe about nine o'clock, by Mr. Evans, who told me they had got the man.

Q. Had you any suspicions about him?

Mr. Chamberlaine. I had, I received a letter from Mr. Welch about him. I went to Mr. Welch's. The man, which was the prisoner at the bar, was sent for from the roundhouse to Mr. Welch's. There was a slight examination before we went to the prisoner's lodgings. The prisoner was asked, who he worked for. He did not chuse to name any body. He was asked who worked for him. He did not chuse to answer that. He was then asked, what work he had done. He said that would appear by his book of accounts. He was asked where that book was. He said, at his lodgings. I went to examine his papers, and desired he would go with me. We went, and the constable and Mr. Evans with us. When we came there, I confined my search principally to the papers. I found a table, which had the appearance of a jeweller's table, and variety of tools proper for a jeweller; but looking over the things, either on the table, or in a drawer, I found an assay paper, on which I observed Slade and Co. I found it was an assay paper of standard gold. Then I asked him for that book of accounts; upon which he produced this book. [Producing a book.] In looking over the book I found the last article, Oct. 25, 1760. Rec'd Slade 4 l. 12 s. and 2 d; and here is an article over-against that 3 l. 12 s. and 6 d. to which there is no writing. It does not appear any more than by the dotting. Then I said the book was not to be understood by me. I asked him to explain it to me. He told me he could not, it was Algebra. It appears clearly to be a diary; for there are the initial letters for every day of the week, for a long series of time; and by the writing in it, I imagine it to be a diary. Here I observed is star, star, star, which are the date of the very days he was at the the Star and Garter. Here is also against Oct. 23, Co. G, which appears to me to signify the melting the gold. I asked him as to other articles: he said he could not explain it, unless I understood Algebra. The receipt is Sold Slade; and at the other end of the book is Ree'd Slade. That is to Oct. 25.

Q. Did you ask him whether that book was his hand writing, or whose?

Mr. Chamberlaine. I understood it to be his hand writing. After this, as he was pleased to say the book would explain what work he had done, I said, now we are at your room, I should be glad if you would point out the particular piece of work, from which the filings that were found last night came. He looked into a drawer, and took up two shanks of seals, and a watch set with stones. I desired him to deliver them to the constable. He said, From this watch. I said, this watch has had no work done to it. He said, There is a great deal of work done in piercing for the stones to set them; and the filings, found in the drawer, came from that watch, and these two seals. I secured the seals with a view to have them assay'd. I did not take the watch, because of damaging it; it could not be assay'd without being cut. I left that, and deposited it with his landlady. The seals I took from the constable at the justice's, when we came back again.

Q. to Morgan. Did you deliver the two seals to Mr. Chamberlaine there?

Morgan. I did.

Q. to Mr. Chamberlaine. Were the filings delivered to you by the constable?

Mr. Chamberlaine. They were sealed up, and the files had also been sealed, for there was wax about the paper, and I opened them at the justice's: after that I went the first opportunity to the Tower, and applied myself to the assay-master at the Mint, and desired him to assay the filings, and likewise the seal-shanks, because the prisoner had told me the filings came from them.

Q. What is the assay-master's name?

Mr. Chamberlaine. His name is Alchorne, he is the deputy assay-master: I opened the paper, he said, You need not leave all the filings, a small part will do. Upon opening the paper I observed some pieces of gold that looked large; then we sifted the small filings from the large pieces, and I kept them in two papers ever since, all but what we had. There are on some of the pieces enough to create suspicion, but they will speak for themselves. (produced in Court.) There are the marks of part of half a guinea appears on one of them.

Q. Whether, from your inspection of them, you do believe there is any thing to lead you to think they are the filings or clippings of coin?

Mr. Chamberlaine. If I was to speak as to my belief, I should rather think they are the clippings cut from coin. I can speak with certainty they are cut from coin, because there is the moulding on the edge on one or two pieces, and a border besides. (The Jury inspect the pieces.)

Q. Where are the shanks for seals?

Mr. Chamberlaine. Mr. Alchorne has got them.

Cross Examination.

Q. Can you say they were cut from coin?

Mr. Chamberlaine. I verily believe they were.

Q. Why do you look upon the book to be a sort of a diary?

Mr. Chamberlaine. Here I observe is home, home, home: you may observe that to be put against the Sunday, seemingly to denote he was at home on those days.

Q. Whether any of the half-guineas now produced seem to have been diminished by cutting off the edges?

Mr. Chamberlaine. One of the half-guineas is cut upon the border, but whether it was diminished by filing or clipping does not appear now.

Mr. Alchorne. I am assay-master in the Tower, belonging to the Mint. I was applied to by Mr. Chamberlaine on Saturday the third of January: he brought me two seal-shanks, and some filings of gold in a paper, sealed up. We found in it some pieces of gold; we passed it thro' a sieve; I took some of the filings, and made an assay of them, they turned out very near standard; the others are four carrats one grain and a half under; that is, near about 16 s. difference the ounce between that and standard.

Q. Whether or not the filings that were there could be the filings of these seal-shanks?

Alchorne. I am very confident the filings could be no part of the filings of them.

Q. Would money, that turns out as the assay of the filings, be delivered at the Mint.

Alchorne It would.

Q. Did they turn out standard?

Alchorne. It was something below standard.

Q. What is the value of the gold that guineas and half-guineas are made of?

Alchorne. The finest is twenty-two carrats, and two carrats the alloy: when I speak of standard, I mean that standard we coin of.

Q. Might not the filings be taken from money?

Alchorne. They might or might not: there is a remedy allowed by act of parliament, that this money may deviate a little under or over.

Q. Does this come within that?

Alchorne. It does: the filings were near standard, but something below it; but so near as to be within the act of parliament.

Q. Suppose a number of half-guineas had been filed, might not some have been a little over, and some a little under?

Alchorne. Yes. Upon the whole, the filings would turn out upon an average in that manner. I believe all the money that has been made this twenty years last past would turn out upon an average standard.

Q. Suppose a man acting with his senses about him was to file half guineas, he would file those that are full standard, not those that are under, would he not?

Alchorne. There is a method taken at the Mint to prevent that, the letters are put so near the edge; in the former coin they stood farther off, that is the reason they will take them.

Q. Which do you think weighs most, the shanks of seals, or the filings?

Alchorne. I don't imagine that both the shanks together weigh as much as the filings.

Q. Can you say that none of the filings did make up a part of the shanks?

Alchorne. I cannot say that: we supposed those pieces to be pieces of money, and we compared them with half guineas that we had in our pockets.

Q. Do you imagine those came from coin?

Alchorne. They are such as I suppose might come from coin.

Q. to Mr. Chamberlaine. Where were those pieces found?

Mr. Chamberlaine. They were found in a tin box, I think tradesmen call the box a lemellbox, or a repository for their waste gold.

Q. Where did you find that box?

Mr. Chamberlaine. We found that on the table; here is a piece that appears to be an old mourning ring broke up (producing two pieces of gold, about three or four inches long) the other may be to make a new ring.

Mr. Slade. I have seen the prisoner three or four times.

Q. When was the first time?

Slade. The first time was about three or four years ago; he has brought some ingots of gold to our house.

Q. How are they form'd?

Slade. They are form'd by melting; they are melted and assay'd before we buy them.

Q. When was the last time he sold you any?

Slade. The last time was the date the gentleman mentioned, or within two or three days of it; that is, the twenty fifth of October: there was little better than an ounce of it; it was worth four pounds twelve shillings and eight pence.

Mr. Chamberlaine. The assay-paper is four pounds twelve shillings and two-pence.

Slade. I shew'd Mr. Chamberlaine all that I could make out that I bought of the prisoner.

Q. What did the prisoner say his name was?

Slade. My Clerk says he told him his name was Leigh. When we once come to know a man, we never ask him his name afterwards.

Q. Is it usual for a person following his business to buy or sell gold?

Slade. Both: they more frequently sell than buy, because they are generally paid in gold.

Q. What did you look upon the prisoner to be?

Slade. I looked upon him to be a jeweller.

Cross Examination.

Q. Is it usual to make mourning rings with gold wire?

Slade. It is.

Q. How are they fluted, or notch'd in and out, is that done with files?

Slade. No.

Q. Do they always melt the filings before they sell them to the refiners?

Slade. They do.

Q. What was the assay of this gold?

Slade. It was three quarters of a grain better than standard; that is, about eight pence by our assay. There is a great deal of gold comes abroad better than standard.

Q. How are the workmen generally paid?

Slade. They are paid in gold, that is, gold for gold.

Q. Did the prisoner ever buy any gold of you?

Slade. He never did, that I know of.

Q. Suppose a goldsmith is ordered to make a gold ring, should it not be standard?

Slade. I should think so.

Q. But there are some make their gold under standard, are there not, and so deceive people?

Slade. Yes. For instance, it is so in these seals, there is a defraud of 15 s. in the ounce.

Counsil. You will not call the maker of that an honest man, will you?

Slade. No, Sir.

Prisoner's Defence.

As to jewellers work, there is no act of parliament, nor no rule for a standard, for men to work by, except wedding-rings and mourningrings, such we are under an obligation to work standard gold; but for other fancy-rings, it is left to the option of the workman: there is no law that binds him to any standard. These were filings of mourning-rings, with a great deal of scroll-work, which all jewellers know there is a great deal of filing in making one of them. There was some dust from fancy-rings, which require but a very slight shank to go about the finger, and if the ring is not made hard, the workman gets no credit by his work; for was it made of standard gold, it would bend like a bit of lead upon your finger; this is the reason we make them of a lower standard than other gold rings; let any man contradict me who can. There are several jewellers now in court, I appeal to them all whether I have not spoke the truth. What I have done I can justify, and hope I can make it appear to the honourable court; but as I am deprived of my memorandum-book, it depends on my memory; and through this scandal being thrown upon me, and what with great trouble and grief, my memory is impaired in a great measure.

Court. You may look upon your book. [It is delivered to him.]

Prisoner. I told Mr. Chamberlaine, he could not understand my book, except he understood Algebra. The reason is this: we substitute letters instead of figures, and various other cases. - Now here is, [ turning over some leaves ] some years past, I made my observation of the Celestial Globe, and the Terrestrial, and all the sattellites; and in my room I have marks to those. I am going to publish a book for the finding out true time. I have been seven years in finding out those calculations. Here is the Sun, the Zodiack, and all the motions of the paritcular Stars; the declination and right ascension of the Sun. Here are letters to denote what they mean, intermixed in different parts with business. Now I humbly ask a question of Mr. Slade. Sir, The two last pieces of gold that you paid me for, were they not above standard? The report was fine gold.

Slade. Fine gold, that is above standard; but the last that I bought was not put down fine gold. I paid the prisoner for it three pounds eighteen shillings and six-pence per ounce; but fine gold is four pounds and a crown.

Prisoner. I look upon this to be a malicious prosecution, owing to a dispute that happened in Mr. Evans's house, among some Scotch gentlemen. Don't you remember, Mr. Evans, that there was a dispute there, about the time of your information.

Evans. I never had words with the prisoner in my life.

Q. From prisoner. Are you sure these were all crooked money?

Evans. I am sure these are, and so were some others.

Q. From prisoner. Were they all?

Evans. I cannot be positive that they all were: because I past them soon after I had taken them.

Q. From prisoner. What sort of change did you usually give me?

Evans. Chiefly silver. I believe I might once give him a nine shilling piece.

For the prisoner.

Mr. Blanshard. I am a jeweller, I have known the prisoner near forty years.

Q. What is his proper business?

Blanshard. It is that of a jeweller; he served his time with the most eminent man in England, Mr. Jacob Du Hammil .

Q. Did you ever know that he left his business off?

Blanshard. No.

Q. When did you know him to work last?

Blanshard. I believe within this three months. I saw him filing upon gold [as I imagined.] It was a mourning ring.

Q. Where?

Blanshard. At Mr. Johnson's, up two pair of stairs.

Q. Are the things mentioned, files and gold-dust, generally in the custody of jewellers?

Blanshard. Yes, they are; there is no jeweller that does any work without these things.

Q. Does not there always remain gold dust in the teeth of the files, which is greasy?

Blanshard. There does after using. I can show you many.

Q. What do the jewellers with their gold dust in order to sell it?

Blanshard. That is according to their circumstances. If a man is poor, he will melt sooner, in order to make money, so as to go on with his business. But the better way is to keep it till it comes to a great quantity; for a great quantity is melted as soon as a small one.

Q. What is the prisoner's circumstance?

Blanshard. I cannot tell, he has always lived in great repute. I never heard any man tax him of wronging any body, or doing any mean thing.

Q. What is his general character?

Blanshard. It has always been that of an honest man; and he is curious in his way of work, and a very good workman.

Q. Do you know any thing of his being about publishing a book?

Blanshard. He has been upon a book, which he has shewn me; which I apprehend to be something curious.

Q. Have you been intimate with him lately?

Blanshard. I have; more this two last years, than some time before.

Q. Whether he has had any considerable employment in business during that time?

Blanshard. I never directly asked him. I have known and heard by several in the trade, that he has bought and sold. He will go and buy a picture, a gun, or a jewel, at an auction.

Q. Did he employ a journeyman?

Blanshard. I do not know that he did.

Q. Do you know any thing of his receiving any hurt?

Blanshard. He was very bad for a great while, with an injury he received on one of his arms.

Q. How long ago was that?

Blanshard. I think it was some time in the last year. He was a good while ill, but I cannot say as to what time.

Cross Examination.

Q. Look at this piece of gold that is fastened to this hand-vice; this was amongst the filedust?

Blanshard. [He takes it in his hand.] I see it.

Council. On the edge of it, you will see something like milling.

Blanshard. Here are notches made on it; but it does not absolutely appear to be the milling of money. Neither is it the thickness of half a guinea.

Q. Look on the hollow part of the circle, and see if you do not see fret work upon the flat part?

Blanshard. Here is so me work upon it I see.

Q. Does it not resemble the marks upon a half guinea?

Blanshard. I don't think this piece came from a half guinea; it is not thick enough.

Council. Look at this half-guinea, [taking one out of his pocket.]

Blanshard. This half-guinea is thinner than one I have got.

Q. See if there is not some fret-work on the flat part of that small piece in the vice?

Blanshard. There is something like it.

Q. Upon your viewing it, what is your opinion of it?

Blanshard. Here is a sort of an edge like milling; but I cannot absolutely say it came from a half-guinea.

Q. What do you believe?

Blanshard. It looks to me as if it did.

Q. If such a bit as this was taken from the side of a half-guinea, and the half-guinea had not been bent, but left plain, then do you not think any body would have seen the discovery?

Blanshard. It must be bent; for a round thing st rikes the eye immediately.

Q. Then to be bent in that part, would i not disguise the thing?

Blanshard. Yes.

Q. Look at these three half-guineas. [The three half-guineas that came from the prisoner.] Now if a half-guinea was diminished, and bent in the manner as those are, whether the bending would not tend to disguise the part diminished?

Blanshard. Yes.

Q. Whether you have any kind of work whatsoever, that the edge of it is like that piece in the vice.

Blanshard. We indent several pieces of work, according to fancy.

Q. Did you ever see any work indented as this is?

Blanshard. I can't say I ever saw any exactly done so.

Prisoner. Let me look at it. [He takes it in his hand.] This I cut from a nine shilling piece, that was under weight.

Mr. Johnson. I have known the prisoner sixteen years; he lodged at my house.

Q. What is he?

Johnson. He is a jeweller.

Q. Do you know of his doing any work?

Johnson. Formerly he lived by his business: he always worked: he likewise deals in curiosities.

Q. What is his general character?

Johnson. I always took him to be as honest a man as ever lived, and I never heard to the contrary from any body.

Q. What sort of company does he keep?

Johnson. As to that, he does not go much to taverns: I have heard he behaved well at publichouses: he did not spend money much, but lived very frugal.

Mr. Clay. I have known him 16 or 17 years.

Q. What are you?

Mr. Clay. I am a sadler.

Q. What is his general character?

Mr. Clay. I always took him to be a very honest, industrious, and sober man.

Q. What countryman is he?

Mr. Clay. He is a Shropshireman, I know his relations, they are very honest reputable people.

Mr. Mason. I have known him about 30 years.

Q. What is he?

Mr. Mason. He is a jeweller.

Q. During the time you have known him, what has been his character?

Mr. Mason. He always bore an exceeding good character. I never knew it stained in my life.

Mr. Hudson. I have known the prison nine or ten years.

Q. What is his general character?

Mr. Hudson. He is a very honest man.

Q. Did you ever know him to put off diminished money?

Mr. Hudson. No.

Richard Beal . I am a goldsmith, I have known the prisoner 30 years.

Q. What is his character?

Beal. He is an honest creature as ever breathed; I would have trusted him with half my shop.

Samuel Spencer . I am a pawnbroker, I believe I have known the prisoner 12 years; but I have no: had any intercourse with him for six or seven years. I used to go to his chamber for his opinion upon jewels that have been brought to me to lend money on them. I have seen him go to his desk, and compare other jewels with them, and have seen him at work with things lying on his desk.

Q. What is his general character?

Spencer. I never heard but that he was a very honest, sober, industrious man.

Mr. Cockeron. I have known him ever since he was at Mr. Johnson's house, that is 15 or 16 years.

Q. What is his character?

Mr. Cockeron. It is that of an honest man.

Q. Have you been well acquainted with him and his character?

Mr. Cockeron. I have.

Samuel Stroud . I am an oilman and colourman, I have known the prisoner 10 or a dozen years.

Q. What is his character?

Stroud. He is a very honest man, I never heard any ill of him in my life; he always bore a good character.

Mr. Durnow. I have known him about 30 years.

Q. What is his general character?

Mr. Durnow. It is very good, as far as I know; all his dealings have been fair and honest, as far as ever I heard.

Mr. Duncomb. I have known him about 20 years. I have dealt with him.

Q. What is his general character?

Mr. Duncomb. He bears the character of a very honest man, I have always understood him to be a very honest fair dealing man.

Acquitted .


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