Old Bailey Proceedings Online (www.oldbaileyonline.org, version 6.0, 31 October 2014), Ordinary of Newgate's Account, May 1772 (OA17720527).

Ordinary's Account, 27th May 1772.

THE ORDINARY of NEWGATE'S ACCOUNT of the Behaviour, Confession, and Dying Words of the FOUR MALEFACTORS, VIZ.

SAMUEL ROBERTS and THOMAS BACCHUS for High Treason, in coining Guineas, Half Guineas, &c.

PETER M' CLOUD for a Burglary, AND RICHARD MORGAN for robbing his Master, Who were executed at TYBURN on Wednesday, May 27, 1772.

BEING THE Fourth EXECUTION in the MAYORALTY OF THE Rt. Hon. WILLIAM NASH, Esq .

LORD MAYOR of the CITY of LONDON :

LONDON:

Printed and sold by M. LEWIS, [No. 1.] Pater-noster-Row.

Price Six-pence.

TO THE PUBLIC.

THE design of the present publication is to convince the world by what gradual steps the unhappy sufferers, who gave occasion to it, were brought to their unfortunate end.

It is humbly hoped, that all of the lower class, who may happen to read it, will profit by the intention of it; and SERVANTS in particular will here see the fatal effects of dishonest craft, of ill company, an extravagant mode of living, with a contempt of the principles and practice of religion.

THE ORDINARY of NEWGATE'S ACCOUNT of the Behaviour, Confession, and Dying Words, &c.

BY virtue of the King's commission of the peace, oyer and terminer, and goal-delivery of Newgate, holden for the city of London and county of Middlesex, at Justice-hall, in the Old-Bailey, before the Right Honourable William Nash, Esq. Lord Mayor of the city of London ; the Honourable Sir Richard Adams, Knt. one of the Barons of his Majesty's court of exchequer ; the Honourable Sir Henry Gould, Knt. one of the justices of his Majesty's court of common pleas ; James Eyre, Esq. Recorder , and others of his Majesty's justices of oyer and terminer of the city of London, and goal-delivery of Newgate, holden for the said city and county of Middlesex, on Wednesday the 29th, and Thursday the 30th of April, on Friday the 1st, and on the 2d, 4th, 5th, 6th, 7th, and 8th of May, in the 12th year of his Majesty's reign, seven persons were capitally convicted, and received sentence of death for the several crimes in their indictments set forth, viz.

Joseph Lum, Peter M'Cloud, Isaac Liptrap, Edward Bransgrove, Richard Morgan, Samuel Roberts, and Thomas Bacchus.

And on Saturday the 23d of May, the report of the said malefactors being made to his Majesty, by Mr. Recorder, three of them were respited; namely,

Joseph Lum, Isaac Liptrap, Edward Bransgrove; and the remaining four ordered for execution, on Wednesday the 27th following, and were accordingly executed.

Samuel Roberts and Thomas Bacchus were indicted for high treason in coining of guineas, &c.

1. Samuel Roberts was born at Shrewsbury of honest parents, who, when of age, put him apprentice to a baker in that town, where he served his time, and afterwards came to London, where he served as a journeyman with a fair character.

By the assistance of his friends in the country he opened a baker 's shop in Gray's-Inn-Lane, where he continued in business till he unfortunately fell in company with Mr. Bacchus's father at an ale-house in the neighbourhood: From that time he became more acquainted with him, who told him, that he could help him to a better shop in the Borough. Roberts, thinking that he was a friend to him, accepted of his kind offer, having at that time a wife and four children, and that he should be the better able to provide for them.

He had not long been settled there before he was introduced by his pretended friend to H - ns, Ell - t, and others, who told him, That if he wanted money at any time, they would lend it him. Not long after this proposal was made to him, he had need of their assistance, which he had no sooner made known to Bacchus's father, but he was supplied with it. In a few days after Bacchus told him, That as business did not succeed as well as he could wish for him, if he would engage with him in a business that he carried on, he might, and he never would want money. After he had been told what the business was, he seemed afraid to engage in it; but the thoughts of having money when he pleased, and the bad success in trade, together with the threats of his creditors, tempted him, and he immediately left his house and trade, and engaged with him. From that time he dates his ruin. Being asked what part of the coining business he did? he said, That he never did or could make a Guinea, or any other piece of money, though the evidence had sworn that he had seen him make a guinea; but his chief employ was to put them off: That he had been present when they were made, and had received many hundred poundsworth of their money. Being told that the aiding and assisting in that kind of work made him equally guilty with the maker; he acknowledged it, and said, That he deserved to die, as he had frequently escaped the hands of justice, and that ought to have been a sufficient warning to him.

He further informed me of the qualities and mixture of their money, and at what prices they were sold at, and the assumed characters of persons employed to put them off - which the Reader will find here.

The quality is divided into three sorts: viz.

{Best sort, Part gold, Part silver, Part of the best copper-wire, A small quantity of Eltham brass.

{Middling sort, All silver double gilt.

{Common sort, Copper and brass mixed together, slightly gilt.

Of the first and second sort mixed together, they sell two hundred pounds-worth for one hundred pounds sterling, and so in proportion for any quantity, or quality - That several tradesmen in town and country bought them at the above mentioned price. - The persons employed to put them off, generally appeared at the country markets and fairs as tradesmen, pedlars, horse-dealers, and graziers - that he himself always appeared as a horse-dealer - That it was their business to get good money, clip it, and mill it afresh, having tools with them for that purpose; and that several thousand pounds were bought by commission every year to be sent abroad - and that the press, dye, and implements used for their business, were the same as used at the Mint in the Tower.

This is the general account given of himself, and the manner of his business. It will be necessary to give some further account of him while he was under sentence of death.

His behaviour in general was such as became his unhappy situation, and he constantly attended the duties of the chapel in a decent manner: sensible of the heinousness of his offence, as it did not hurt an individual only, but that it was of great prejudice to the community.

As soon as he found himself included in the death-warrant, he became very serious concerning his latter end. Proper portions of scripture being read and explained to him, his desire was only to find peace with God; and that he freely forgave the persons that had drawn him into that wicked course of life. He was about 35 years of age.

2. Thomas Bacchus was indicted for the same crime. He was born at Stafford, and never served his time to any trade , but was brought up by his father in that trade which brought him to his shameful end. He had many escapes from the hands of justice, though he would not take warning.

Being a perfect master in his business, he had two or three hundred pounds at command, and used to deal in smuggled goods; but having bad success in that kind of way, he returned to his old trade with his father, and continued with him till he was taken up.

He confirmed the account as given by Roberts; and declared likewise that he forgave the evidence against him, as he had never seen him make any money, though he had sworn that he had.

He delivered to me a letter that his father sent him whilst he was under sentence of death, which the reader is presented with a copy of.

May 13, 1772.

" My dear child,

I SEND you these few lines to comfort you: I should have sent you some money before, but I am driven to great distress, so I hope, my dear child, you will forgive me, as you hope to be forgiven in heaven: There you will find a better Father than you have found here. Be as

happy with your fate as you can. You are going to happiness, and leave me behind to be miserable. I hope to see you happy when we shall have no enemies to part us. Put your trust in God, for I hope you will die happy, because you know you die INNOCENT. Thou art now going; I shall soon follow thee; I hope you will meet your dear mother in heaven. As we shall soon part in this world, may my prayers be heard for you in heaven. From

Your loving father, till death,

WILLIAM BACCHUS."

P. S. " My dear love to Roberts, and tell him, if it should be in my power to serve his family, I will, and shall think it a pleasure. May heaven receive you both!"

The reader is left to make his reflections on this LOVING AND MOST CURIOUS LETTER. And I think that his unhappy son's reflection will join in the opinion of the sensible part. "That his father had written to him nothing but LYES, and wanted him to go out of the world as wicked and hardened as he was in it. But, that he should not, he prayed God to forgive him and turn his wicked heart."

When the death-warrant was made known to him, he wept bitterly, acknowledged that he was not fit to live, as he was a dangerous member of society.

He joined with the rest of the convicts in the duties of religion, and seemed to improve thereby into a more composed temper and resignation. He was about 24 years of age.

3. Peter M'Cloud was indicted for breaking and entering the dwelling house of Joseph Hankey, Esq.

Peter M'Cloud was born at Shields; and though he was no more than fifteen years old when he was executed, yet he had been an old practitioner.

Visiting him as soon as I found him under sentence of death, I would have had him give some account of himself, but he would not, pretending that he was innocent, and that he never had committed a robbery. I told him, that I was not to be deceived in that manner, for he had been tried in the February sessions before at the Old-Bailey, and that was sufficient for me to think that he had been guilty of robberies before. He still persisted in not telling me any thing at that time. I set before him the dreadful situation he was now in, and the more dreadful situation he would be in if he went out of the world with a lye in his mouth. Neither my friendly advice, nor the fears of death, nor the awfulness of his appearing before God unconverted and unpardoned, had any influence on his mind at that time. As he could read well, I pointed out to him such passages of scripture as I thought suitable to his hardened state; and desired him to think of them, and pray to God to turn his wicked heart, that his soul might not perish. Mor

gan, his fellow convict, took great pains with him to instruct him in his duty. But his indifference and levity of behaviour obliged me to refuse him communicating with the other convicts at the Lord's table on Sunday the 17th.

The Monday following, I asked him, If he had thought on what I had shewn him, and whether he had any thoughts of dying? He continued still in the same manner, until he found himself included in the death-warrant: - Then he began to weep very much, and to be sorry for what he had done, and asked my pardon for his late behaviour. I assured him of it, and hoped that he would now consider himself as a dying youth, and tell me the truth concerning what he had been charged with: Which was as follows;

"That he belonged to a desperate gang of thieves, whose rendezvous was at Salt-Petre-Bank - that he had been concerned with others in most of the burglaries committed in and about Wapping, Shadwell, Limehouse, and other parts of the town for these three years past - that he used sometimes to go to sea, when he saw himself in danger of being taken up - but when he returned, and found that every thing was quiet, he then went a thieving again - that he had been several times brought before Justice Sherwood, and though he had always the good fortune to escape the hands of justice, yet he would not take warning. He declared that he usually carried a pistol and a knife in his pocket, in case that his pistol should miss fire, he then might have recourse to his knife to clear his way (the knife was found upon him when taken, and produced in court); and went with an intent, if he met with any resistance, to commit murder. Being interrogated, whether it was true what Francis Sellon, one of the witnesses at his trial, had said of him concerning Mr. Hankey, he said, Yes, and if he could have got his knife out of his pocket he would have snigasneed him; or if Peter his accomplice had come when he had called, and given him the pistol, he would have shot him: He said he had one thing more that lay heavy on his mind. I told him, that the intention of doing to Mr. Hankey as he said he would, if it had been in his power, ought to lay very heavy at his heart; and that he ought to pray fervently and incessantly to God to pardon him.

Being desirous to know what it was that troubled him so much, as he expressed, he told me, that one Younger (now a transport in Newgate) an old accomplice of his had, whilst he was at sea, swore against his mother for receiving stolen goods; and that as soon as he returned he vowed vengeance against him.

To accomplish his wicked design, he went and surrendered himself to a justice, and swore that he was concerned with Younger and others in a robbery. Being admitted an evidence, Younger was taken up and tried at the Old-Bailey; but there not being a sufficient evidence to convict, him he was acquitted, and

M' Cloud disappointed in his wicked scheme.

He declared, that if Younger would forgive him he should die happy. I told him that he should see him for that purpose; and accordingly he did, and Younger sincerely forgave him. To such a pitch of hardness and wickedness this youth had arrived at, that one shall hardly hear of in another at twice his age.

He now began to be more serious, and was ready to receive my instructions, and the advice of other christian friends. He wept and lamented much; was filled with sorrow and shame for his past sinful life, and desired that I would admit him to the holy communion. He was duly warned not to dissemble and hide his sins; and being instructed in the design, as well as the blessing of the holy communion, he was admitted to the Lord's table on Sunday the 24th; where he behaved as with a real sense of his crimes, and of his own unworthiness of the least of God's mercies. In this frame and disposition of mind he continued till the morning of his execution.

4. Richard Morgan was indicted for stealing sundry kinds of linendrapery goods, the property of his master.

Richard Morgan was born in the parish of Elsmere, Shropshire, of honest and industrious parents, who gave him an education suitable to their circumstances in life. When he was about sixteen he hired himself to a neighbouring farmer, and continued with him for some time, behaving himself as an honest and diligent servant . In that capacity he had lived in several places in the country, until he came to London, where he lived in service , with a fair character, until he came to Mr. Hodchkin's, a linen-draper near Smithfield-bars.

Speaking one day to him concerning the crime for which he was to suffer, he made no hesitation to discover the whole transaction, and by what means he was drawn in to commit the robbery. From his own narative, the reader is left to pass judgment on the veracity of what it contains.

It is customary for servants to speak and converse with their neighbours under the same circumstances with themselves: Unhappily for him, that those that were nearest to him were of the worst sort, and who first began to steal upon his unguarded mind with fair speeches; and when they had drawn him into the same unlawful ways which they themselves practised, took care not to leave him until they had brought him to the fatal tree. The narrative is as follows:

"One Oli - r Ch - les, a servant of a neighbouring distiller used to ask me to come into the still-house to drink with him. I, suspecting no harm at that time, went, where I heard the other servants talking of going to club that night; and they asked me to go (the time was a little before Christmas last); I told them, that if they did not stay out late, and it was not very expensive, I had no objection. Accordingly I was introduced to it by this Oli - r Ch - les. The club was held

at a public-house in Chis - ll-street, called a four-penny-half-penny club. I immediately became a member of it, and continued so till I was taken up for robbing my master. There it was that I first heard some of them talk of robbing their masters, and selling the goods to one who had formerly lived as a servant at the distiller's. I then had thoughts of leaving the club, and to have nothing more to do with them; but this same Oli - r Ch - les would not let me be at rest, but used to bring me liquors from the still-house, and decoy me to drink in the morning, that I have not been fit to do my business, and used to get me in the evening to carry liquors for him which he had stolen from his master. From that time I gave myself up to their wicked courses. I was introduced to another club of the same kind held at another public-house in the Bor - gh. At both these clubs we agreed to rob our masters, and the first time that I did, was a little before Christmas last. Being asked what he did with the goods? he said, that he sold them to a person in the Bor - gh, who received the stolen goods from the other servants likewise. I knew, said he, that he bought tobacco, liquors, linen-drapery goods, drugs, ironmongery ware, china and glass wares, teas, sugars, and soap.

He was answered, that was a heavy charge against other servants, who perhaps might be innocent. To which he replied, that he had advanced no more than the truth, for he had received such goods of several of them, and hid them in his master's cellar, until they were fetched away by Oli - er Ch - les, and others - and that he had frequently carried goods of that kind to a stable in Durhamyard, in Chick-lane; from whence they were taken away in the night-time: For which purpose there was a false key made to let them in whenever they pleased.

When he was asked in what manner he had seen any liquors sent away? he answered. "That it was usual to carry the liquors in casks, some of which held four, five, and twelve gallons, to a cooper, who found them fresh casks to put their liquors in, and they gave him the old ones, and liquors in lieu of money - that he was to go to Birmingham and open a shop there, and to be supplied with goods from London in this manner. But in this scheme he was disappointed. Such as his narrative is, he confirmed to his last moments.

It may not be improper to speak a little of his behaviour after he had received sentence of death.

When I saw him the day after, he declared that his sentence was very just, but that the evidence had sworn falsely, in asserting before the court, that he told him that the goods were brought from on board a ship, when he knew that he himself had taken some, and helped him to convey others out of his master's-shop. But he sincerely forgave him.

He constantly attended the duties of the chapel, and spent his time in his cell, in reading the scriptures, and in prayer.

His mind was composed, and he was resigned to his fate whenever it

should come. He acknowledged that he had no other hopes of forgiveness for his sins, but through faith in his Redeemer, and he hoped that God would hear his prayers.

Many friends visited him, and to whom he returned thanks for their kind instructions, and desired their prayers for him whilst he was there. A lesson to those who have been concerned with him, to leave off their wicked courses in time, lest they come to an end like his. He was 22 years of age.

MORNING OF EXECUTION.

MAY 27, 1772.

WHEN the Prisoners were visited they appeared chearful and resigned. Morgan, in particular, shewed great signs of unfeigned sorrow for his past sins.

I went up to chapel with them, and other christian friends, who came to assist me in the last office to them. They were severally asked, how they were? They answered, Very easy, and hoped that they should be happy. We joined, in prayer and the communion service, and they were admitted to the holy communion; which they received, and it is hoped, to their great benefit and comfort.

They humbly acknowledged their guilt in general, that they well deserved the death they were going to suffer.

Morgan requested that we would pray for him and his fellow convicts while they were in this world, that when the fatal minute came that would usher them into eternity, he hoped that the Lord would receive their souls.

Before nine they went down to the press-yard to have their irons knocked off. They seemed greatly supported. They were warned against presumption, and to be humble.

Soon after Morgan and M' Cloud were put in a cart, and Roberts and Bacchus in a sledge. They arrived at the place of execution at a little before eleven o'clock, and immediately began to pray fervently, and with audible voices; which they continued during the whole time the executioner tied them up. This raised the attention, and we hope the devotion also, of the surrounding crowd.

M' Cloud desired a friend of his to tell his mother not to trouble herself about him, as he hoped that he was going to heaven.

Morgan exhorted servants to be faithful to their masters, and desired them to take warning by him, and to avoid bad company. He forgave those who had been the means of bringing him there.

Roberts and Bacchus acknowledged that they had deserved to die before; but hoped God would receive their souls for the sake of Jesus Christ. They continued in prayer, after the final blessing, to the last moment.

This is all the Account given by me,

JOHN WOOD,

ORDINARY OF NEWGATE.

A CAUTION TO TRADESMEN.

AS there are many people employed to go about this city to put off bad money, the only method to discover it, is, to have a touch-stone, or a piece of leather well rubbed with Pumice-stone grounded small. By trying the money on the latter, the fraud may easily be discovered.

FINIS.