Old Bailey Proceedings Online (www.oldbaileyonline.org, version 6.0, 19 April 2014), Ordinary of Newgate's Account, November 1736 (OA17361102).

Ordinary's Account, 2nd November 1736.

THE ORDINARY of NEWGATE, His ACCOUNT of the Behaviour, Confession, and Dying Words, OF THE MALEFACTORS, Who was EXECUTED at TYBURN, the Second of this Instant

BEING THE EXECUTION in the MAYORALTY OF THE Sir JOHN WILLIAMS,

Number VI. For the said year.

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Both Volumes containing upwards of Five hundred Trials; among which are upwards of seventy Times for Murder, near Sixty of Whores for privately stealing, uwards of one Hundred for the Highway, about Thirty for Rapes; the rest being for Frauds Forgery, Burglary, Sodomy Bigamy, Shop-listing, Riots Misdemeanors, Receiving Stollen Goods Single Felonies &c. &c. &c.

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THE ORDINARY of NEWGATE, His ACCOUNT of the Behaviour, Confession, &c.

AT the King's Commission of Oyer and Terminer and Goal-delivery of Newgate, held before the Right Hon. Sir John Williams, Knt . Lord-Mayor , of the City of London; the Right Hon. the Lord Hardwicke; the Hon. Mr. Justice Denton; the Worshipful Mr. Serjeant Urlin, Deputy Recorder of the City of London, and others of his Majesty's Justices of Oyer and Terminer for the City of London, and Justices of Goal-delivery of Newgate, for the said City and County of Middlesex, at Justice-Hall, in the Old Bailey, on Wednesday, Thursday, and Friday, the 13th, 14th, and 15th of October, in the Tenth Year of his Majesty's Reign.

Two Men, viz. William Rine and Samuel Morgan; and one Woman, viz. Mary Rempton; alias Campton; were by the Jury found guilty of capital Crimes, and received Sentence of Death.

On Friday Morning, the 15th of October, being the last Day of Sessions, Daniel Malden, who of late had made his Escape out of Newgate twice, while under Sentence of Death, was called down before the Court, and it was intimated to him that his former Judgment must be executed upon He had nothing to say for himself, but that it was his first Fa, he never was before a Court before, and that he had not stole of robb'd any during the Time after he made his two last Escapes; in Consideration whereof he begg'd for for that he was desir'd to apply else-where, their Business being to pro

nounce Judgment. For Security he was kept in the old Condemn'd Hole, and being under Sentence of Death with the rest, I commonly visited him once a Day in that dismal Place.

While under Sentence, they were exhorted seriously to think upon the Evil of heir Ways and Doings and to turn then Feet unto God's Testimonies. I represented unto them what an evil thing it was to depart from God, as is clear from 2 Chron. v. 2. The Lord is with you while ye be with him; and if ye seek him he shall be found of you; if ye forsake him, be will for sake you. And Jer. vi 8. Be it instructed, O Jerusalem, least my Soul depart from thee; lest I make the desote inhabited. When it follows, that they who God Sencerity, God will be found of them; he will be a present Help in time of need unto them; he will be their exceeding great Reward will bless them with Grace here, and Glory preplaing hereafter.

And 2dly, Hence it's observable, they who depart from, or forsake God will forsake them, i e. he them God will deprive of the favourable Presence, of Light of Countenance, which Life; and all the Plea thereof, And 2dly, It's to be that such desperately wicked and evil-disposed People, not only Judgments from Heaven upon themselves, but also upon the Land wherein they live. From these and such like Considerations I exhorted them seriously to reflect upon their preceding Life, how they had dishonoured God, ruin'd their own Souls, and gone headlong in the Paths of Death, in the Way to Hell. Misery, and Destruction and therefore it was high time for them to away out of that spiritual Lethargy, that Sleep of Death, wherein they had been so long detain'd, that Christ might give them light to repent of all their Sins, more especially that crying Guil which had brought upon them such miserable Calamities and Misfortunes, to which they were then most justly subjected. I advised them, in Imitation of the King and People of , incessantly to cry unto God and Night, that he, out his ab Mercy and Compassion, might, take Pity upon them for the Lord Sake. They were instructed in Necessity of confessing their Sins; taking Shame and Confusion Face to themselves, since whosoe aleth his Sins shall not prosper be that confesseth and for alleth shall find Mercy. And lastly they advised to approach God in the bless Sacrament of the Lord's, last Supper wherein they might have the Pardon of their Sins confirmed, and the glorious Hopes of eternal Life deeply routed in their Breasts.

When they had these, and many like Exhortations, all of them behav'd

well, with apparent Devotion and Submission. Rine and Morgan, were most of the time they were under Sentence, very sick and indispos'd; yet for the most part they attended constantly at Devotion, and were attentive to Prayers and Exhortations.

Daniel Malden having been a dangerous Person to keep in a Gaol, as having twice broke out before, was stapled down in the old Condemn'd-Hole, which, since his last Elopement, was repair'd and made stronger than before; and there having his Hands and Feet chain'd, with an Under-keeper attending him Day and Night, I daily prayed for and instructed him: He seem'd at first desirous of Religious Duties, and behaved indifferently well; but because he had not every thing to his Mind, he turn'd peevish and obstinate in his Temper; and as I was going up one time to visit him, he was singing aloud, and very merily; I represented to him how unseasonable such Mirth was, considering his desperate Circumstances: He did not seem much concern'd at that time; but further exhorting him to Patience, Submission, and Resignation to the Will of God, the next time I visited him he was very desirous of Prayers and Instructions, and appear'd very humble, , and submissive.

Upon Thursday the 28th of October, the Report was made to the Queen's most Excellent Majesty in Council, of the four Malefactors, viz. Daniel Malden, William Rine, Samuel Morgan, and Mary Kempton, alias Campton, lying in the Old Condemn'd-Hole, and in the Cells of Newgate, under Sentence of Death, when all of them were appointed for Execution.

Daniel Malden, alias Morgan, otherwise Smith, and Mary his Wife ; John Holburt and Ann his Wife , were indicted for breaking and ening the House of Mary Henshaw, and stealing seven Pair of Sheets, the Goods of John White; eight Aprons, the Goods of Sarah Bishop; three cheque Aprons, the Goods of Sarah Hilder; three cheque Aprons, the Goods of Ann Seal; and one Shirt, the Goods of Thomas Clark, February 29, and Mary Gray, for receiving a Shirt, the Goods of Thomas Clark, knowing it to be stolen, March the first.

Mary Malden, John Holbert, Ann Holbert, and Mary Gray, acquitted Daniel Malden, guilty. Death.

N. B. Daniel Malden was try'd at the Sessions holden at the Old-Bailey, on Wednesday the 5th of May, and on the 6th, 7th, 8th, 10th and 11th of the said May last, convicted, sentenc'd, and included in the dead Warrant with Ward, Tarlton, Freeman, and Francis Owen, who were executed on Monday the 24th of May last; but finding Means to escape on Sunday Night, and Monday Morning, the 23d and 24th of the said Month, the Morning of the Day of Execution, he was re-taken about Rag-Fair two or three Days after; he was at the next Sessions call'd down to his former Judgment, but before the Day of Execution, escaping from the condemn'd Hold, he was re-taken at Canterbury sometime before the last Sessions, brought up to Town, and appointed to suffer with the other three, who were under Sentence, agreeable to the Judgment past upon him.

1. Daniel Malden, 23 Years of Age, of honest Parents in the County of Suffolk, who educated him at School, to read English, and endeavour'd to have him instructed in the Christian Religion; but having been a perverse. Boy he scarce minded any Thing, either of Learning or Christianity, but had almost forgot all. When of Age, he was put to a Sail-Maker , to which Trade he serv'd for some Time, but meeting with Company, he was easily led aside, and seldom follow'd the Employment he was bred to; for falling in with several Women of no good Character, to whose Company he was too much addicted; they put his Mind off all settled Business, which was the occasion of his leading a wandering, inconstant Life. He serv'd in some of his Majesty's Ships , and at other Times in Merchant-Men, and had been at Guinea, in the West-Indies; at Gibralter, in the Mediterranean; Portugal, and at many Places. When at Home, he serv'd Gentlemen and People of Note in Station of a Jockey , and rode Racer for them in several Places of the Country, and was honest in his Dealings, as he gave out. He own'd his carrying away the wet Linnen from Mary Henshaw's House, a Washerwoman , but that he only receiv'd them from another, who took them and delivered them to him, and that he carried them all off; yet he confess'd to the Justice and others, that he was equally concern

ed with the other Man, in breaking open the Woman's House, and stealing the Goods; neither did he vindicate himself in that Affair, but acknowledg'd the Justice of his Sentence; only he alledg'd what is not very probable, that he was not guilty of any Theft or Robbery before. He behav'd indifferently well, and seem'd penitent. He was very sick, and miserably poor, and did not appear so profoundly vicious, as many others of his Stamp.

One of the two Jockeys who took him up at Canterbury, had the Assurance to come to see him in the Hole, he said very little to him, only, That he would not have done so to him, or any Body, and the Reward they expected, there being none for them, and he was very glad they were justly disappointed of.

For the most part he behav'd well, but was buoy'd up with Hopes of a Reprieve, which made him too indifferent in the Concerns of his Soul; but when he saw there was no Hopes of Life, being included in the dead Warrant, he became extremely serious and devout. He was ignorant of Religion, that having been least in his Thoughts, but was always attentive to Prayers and Exhortations. He believ'd in Christ our only Saviour; repented of all his Sins, and died in Peace with all Men.

William Rine, was indicted for assaulting Charles Serjeant on the King's Highway, putting him in Fear, and taking from him a Hat value 10 s. a Silver Stock-Clasp, value 4 s. a Barragon-Coat, value 20 s. a Dimity Waistcoat, value 10 s. a Barragon Pair of Breeches, value 10 s. a Pair of Silver Knee-Buckles, value 5 s. a Pair of Silver Shoe-Buckles, value 10 s. a Silver Spoon, value 10 s. a Pair of Gold Sleeve-Butons, value 30 s. a Pair of Steel Snuffers, value 2 s. a Gold Ring, value 10 s. five Keys, value 12 d a Knife, value 12 d. a Whip, value 10 s. and four Guineas and a half in Money, September 22.

2. William Rine, 36 Years of Age, of honest Parents, in the Province of Munster, in the Kingdom of Ireland, who gave him indifferent good Education, in Reading, Writing, and what was proper to fit him for Business, and had him instructed in their Way of Religion. He was not put to a Trade, but did Country-Work , and liv'd honestly at Home in his younger Years. He took on with the Irish Officers, and went to France, when longing to see Foreign Parts, and there he serv'd in one of the Irish French Regiments for the Space of ten Years, and was in the late War upon the Rhine, at the Siege of Fort Keil and Philipsburg; but as that sort of People are ready to engage in the King of France's Service, so they are equally ready to desert upon every Occasion and Pretence; so that in the last short War, almost the one half of them went off, and came over to England. Among the rest Rine made his way for London, where, being of no Trade, he found it hard to live; but that sometimes he said he did Labouring work, sometimes idling away his Time, and about Drury-Lane, there he ell into bad Company of some of his own Countrymen, and having no way to subsist, they easily persuaded him to go on the Highway, and see what they could purchase by Robbery. Rine, being of a thievish, wicked Disposition, readily concur'd with this desperate Proposal, and with Benjamin Finnegar, and Bryan Darby, assaulted and robbed two Men in the Fields at Islington, and another Man by Hampstead, of Coffee and Tea, and all his wearing Apparel; and on the 22d of September, they assaulted and robbed Mr. Charles Serjeant of Uxbridge, of all the Things mention'd in the Indictment. This having been a most barbarous and cruel Robbery, the Account of the same, as given upon Evidents by Mr. Serjeant himself, and some others, is to the following Effect. On the 22d of September Mr. Serjeant was riding Home from London to Uxbridge, at a pretty swift Pace, the three Robbers stopp'd him, and dismounted him, they led him to a Field a little out of the way, they threaten'd to kill him if he spoke a Word; then they robb'd him of four Guineas and half, stript him stark naked as he was been, leaving him nothing but his Wig: Rine tied a Handkerchief about his Mouth, with two had Knots on the Nap of his Neck, then they his Arms to a Tree with his own Bridle; and in this Posture, enduring the Extremity of cold, he continued from 7, when they robb'd him,

to 9 at Night, when he with Difficulty got his Hands loose, and went to a Publick-House in this pitiful, starving Condition: Rine put on his Breeches before his Face, and coming to Town, and offering to sell Mr. Serjeant's Whip, with his Name upon it, he was taken up upon Suspicion, and found out to be the Thief who committed the Robbery, having most of the Things upon him. All this he confess'd, neither did he deny it before the Justice, but sign'd his Confession; only he endeavour'd to extenuate his Crime, alledging that the Evidence was not right in some minute Points, but upon the main, he could not deny the Truth of every Thing. He was very sick at first, and could not speak much, but recovering pretty well, he appear'd very obstinate in his Temper, and somewhat vindictive. In his Profession of Religion, he said he was a Roman . He attended always, excepting two or three Times, in Time of Devotion and Exhortations, and seem'd attentive. On Sunday last Mr. Serjeant, who keeps the Crown-Inn at Uxbridge, that was robb'd by this Malefactor, (and one Ryley not yet taken) with two or three Gentlemen more, came to the Press Yard to ask him some Questions; particularly, one Gentleman asked him if he did not rob him by Bays Water; he said, He did not. And likewise at the same Time said, nothing troubled him more, that he should be so wicked as to swear against two innocent Persons before the Justice; for he did acknowledge that he never saw them in his Life. He was asked how he could do such a Thing? He said, it was thro' the Instigation of a Debtor on the Common-Side; but would not name his Name. He hop'd for Salvation through Christ, and forgave every Body.

Samuel Morgan, was indicted for assaulting Elizabeth Pullwash, in a certain open Field near the King's Highway, putting her in Fear, and taking from her a Holland Gown, value 8 s. a Pair of Stays, value 3 s. a Callimancoe quilted Coat, value 17 s. a Bermudas Hat, value 7 s. a Cambrick Mob, value 2 s. 6 d. a Dimity Petticoat, value 3 s. a Flannel Petticoat, value 1 s. a Pair of Damask Shoes, value 2 s. 6 d. a Pair of Silver Buckles, value 7 s. a Gold Ring, value 8 s. a Cambrick Handkerchief, value 2 s. 6 d. a Muslin ditto, value 1 s. a Linnen Apron, value 1 s and 9. d. Half-penny in Money, August the 1st.

3. Samuel Morgan, 35 Years of Age, of honest, mean Parents in Somersetshire, who educated him at School, to read English, and instruc- him in Christian Principles. When of Age, he was bred to a Clothier , which Trade he follow'd in his younger Years, while he liv'd in the Country; but wearying of settled Business, he listed in the second Regiment of Guards , in which he serv'd ten Years, to the liking of his Officers and Fellow-Soldiers: He fell into a Quarrel, and was wounded in both the Hands, so that one of them was night cut off; then his Colonel was so good, as to get him to be an Out-Pensioner in Chelsea- Hospital : After his leaving the Regiment, he lived in his own Country for some Time honestly, following the Business of a Clothier , and Country-work ; but not long ago returning to London, he hired a Mare at Hatchbury in Wiltshire, leaving in Place of it a lame Horse half dead; the Owner of the Mare being a poor Countryman, sent Word to Town to enquire what he did with his Mare? He said, he left it at the Inn to be taken Home by the Hatchbury Waggoner; but he either could not, or would not tell the Name of the Inn he went to. He denied his being accustomed to cheat People of Horses. Which he came to Town, he had no Business, and was very poor, and while we was waiting to get into some Way, by Interest of his Friends and Acquaintances, he was was sent to Clerkenwell- Bridewell , upon his quarrelling with, and abusing a Woman; being bail'd out thence, before he was out of the Officers Hands, Elizabeth Pullwash, who had been robb'd and abus'd in a desperate Manner, at the Time of Tottenham-Court-Fair, came in and swore to his Face, that he was the very Man who robb'd and abus'd her in such a barbarous Manner. He, with two others, on a Tuesday, in the beginning of August last, about Ten or Eleven o'Clock at Night, attack'd Elizabeth Pullwash coming from

Tottenham-Court-Fair; the other two robb'd a Man, at a little Distance, while Morgan robb'd and stript Pullwash, left scarce any Thing upon her, bound her down, they threaten'd to shoot or kill them with Pistols or Daggers, being provided with such Weapons, if they cry'd out, or made the least Resistance, and Morgan was the most resolute and outragious of the three; then he ravish'd her with Difficulty, one of them snap'd a Pistol at her Breast twice, she begg'd hand for her Life upon her Knees, he bound her Leg behind her, and after Twelve at Night, having tied both the Feet and Hands of the Man and Woman with Cords, they threw them into a Ditch, where, about Four in the Morning, being Wednesday, a labouring Man going by to his Work, heard the Man crying out aloud, Murder, Murder; he went and reliev'd them out of this miserable Condition, lying upon their Backs, having their Heads and Faces upward, which enabled them to breath; the Woman he took Home, and his Wife put her in their own Bed, having nothing on but her Shift and Stockings, all bedaub'd with weltering in Dirt and Nastiness, so that they thought she should have died, having recover'd her Senses, and Health with very great Difficulty Samuel Morgan own'd his being at Tottenham-Court-Fair; but denied the Robbery, and barbarous, Usage of the Woman, as she swore against him: I endeavour'd to persuade him, by many Arguments taken from Scripture and Reason to make a full and free Confession of his Sins: He confess'd his having been at Tottenham-Court-Fair, but was not willing to acknowledge his using the Woman in so barbarous a Manner, or that he was guilty of any other Robberies. He was miserably poor, naked, and dispirited. He behaved well, was attentive to Prayers and Exhortations, but being very sick and weak, he could give but a slender Account of himself. He kept bad Company both of Men and Women, which made him liable to too many of these Vices, such as Drinking, Cursing, and Swearing, &c. which those abandon'd, unfortunate Creatures are ready to commit. He declar'd his Faith in Christ, as Son of God; and only Saviour of Sinners; that he sincerely repented of all the Sins of his Life; and forgave all Men, as he hop'd for Forgiveness from God.

At the Place of EXECUTION.

THE Morning of their Execution, I read Prayers to them, they all appear'd to be serious and devout. Daniel Malden, about Six o'Clock in the Morning, he was taken out of the Old-Condemn'd-Hole, and was carried into the Press-Yard, where he was put into one of the Cells. After I had done praying by them, they were all put into one Cart, between Nine and Ten o'Clock in the Morning, and Daniel Malden pull'd off his Jockey's Cap, and cry'd out to some Persons, whom he saw standing it the Lodge Door, to God Almighty to Bless them, and hop'd that they would Pray for his poor Soul. He appear'd to be pretty hearty, had no more to add to his former Confessions, and was as attentive and concern'd, as the Disorders, Noise, and Confusions of the Mob, who threw abundance of Dirt, and other Things, would permit him. Samuel Morgan adher'd to what he said before, and forgave all Men, hoping God would have Mercy upon his poor Soul William Rine died a Roman ; and only said, that the Information he gave, (which is mention'd before) against two Men, Benjamin Finnegar, and Bryan Darby, was false, he having never seen any such Persons, and been put upon that Accusation by a Man, whom upon no Account be would name. He express'd his Hoped or Mercy from God. They went off the Stage crying out, God have Mercy upon our poor Souls, and Lord Jesus receive my Spirit.

N. B. Mary Compton, alias Kempton, though included in the dead Warrant with the other three, for stealing several Things of Value from Mrs. Eleanor Knelme, out of the Dwelling-house of William Green, Sept. 16, had her Majesty's most gracious Reprieve for a Month, was sent to Newgate, on Monday Morning last, being the Day before the Execution.

This is all Account given by Me,

JAMES GUTHRIE,

Ordinary and Chaplain of Newgate.

APPENDIX.

DANIEL MALDEN, 23 Years of Age, born near Ipswich in the County of Suffolk, of honest Parents, who gave him a good Education; when he was of Age he was bound Apprentice to one Mr. Scarlet, a Sail-maker , at Lynn, with whom he lived about a Year and a half, then he left him, and went to Sea on board his Majesty's Ship the Greyhound, commanded by Sir Yelverton Peyton, on board of which Ship he continued two Years in the Virginia Station, and came Home in her.

After she was paid off he enter'd himself on board his Majesty's Ship Shoreham, commanded by Captain Storey, station'd at Newfoundland, on board of which he continued one Year and a half, and came Home in her likewise.

When this Ship was paid off, he enter'd on board the Tartar, Captain Edward Peirce, stationed at New-York in New-England, he continued in this Ship two Years and a half, and came Home with her.

After she was paid off, he entered himself on board the Bonetta Snow, Capt. Hogg Commander, belonging to the Royal-African Company, and failed in her to Guinea, from thence to Lisbon, and from Lisbon, to England, where he stay'd about two Months, and then he entered himself on board the Dispatch Sloop, Capt . Thomas Gearish Commander, belonging to the said Company, and went in her to Cape Coast and Whidah, on the Coast of Guinea, from thence to St. Ama, an Island inhabited by the Portuguese, and from thence to England, where he arrived the 17th of November last, from which Time he followed the French Trade , on board the Sparrow Yatch, Edward Sutton, Commander .

As to the Charge against him for being concerned with Thomas Page and Ann Evans (who were both transported) in stealing a silver Mug out of the House of Joseph Silvester, he declar'd he was not concerned in the Fact, and that he knew nothing at all of it.

He acknowledged himself guilty of the Fact of which he was convicted, and for which he was to suffer, but said he did not enter the House himself, though he received the Linnen in the Yard, and that using Sutton's, the Prize-Fighter's House at Islington, he was suspected to be concerned in this Robbery. Sutton's House was searched for this Linnen, and his (Malden's) Wife being there, they took one of the Aprons upon her; upon this she was carried before a Magistrate, who committed her to New-Prison. Then the Magpye Alehouse at Islington was searched, where he happened to be at the same Time. The People who came to search, told him his Wife, was then before a Justice, and desired to speak with him, he went with them to the Justice, in order to see his Wife, and was committed to New-Prison also.

The following is an Information of the abovesaid Malefactor, taken before Richard Farmer, Esq ; one of his Majesty's Justices of the Peace for the County of Middlesex, the 13th Day of April, 1736.

WHO saith, That some Time in the Month of June last, he, in Company with one John Holburt, commonly known by the Name of Country-Jack, in Well-street, near the Glass-house, in the Parish of St. Mary, White-chapel, did stop and rob a Person, who keeps a Sale-shop in Chick-lane, of five Shillings and Sixpence in Money; that after they had taken his Money, they stripped him of all his Cloaths, which Cloaths Holburt pawn'd in his own Name to one Williams, in Kent-street, Southwark, for three Shillings and Sixpence. That on the 9th of December last, about 12 o'Clock at Night he, in Company with the said Holburt, broke open a Cellar Door, belonging to a Dwelling-House, known by the Name of the Jolly Sailor, in Ratcliff-Highway, where they took and carried away two Brass Pots, one dozen of Pewter Plates, two Brass Candlesticks, two speckled Shirts, a Pair of Sheets, and a Woman's Hat; the Brass Pots and the Pewter Plates they sold

to a Broker in Southwark for 17 s. and 6 d. That a little before Christmas, he and the aforesaid Holburt, about Two o'Clock in the Morning, broke open a Cellar-door belonging to the Dwelling-House of one Edward Williams, of St. John, Wapping, and took from thence one Brass Pot, one Sauce Pan, two Brass Cocks, and two Case-Bottles of Rum.

That just after this Robbery (they seldom standing still for want of Business) they broke open another Cellar Door, belonging to Samuel Unwin, of Well-street, aforesaid, and took from thence one large Pot, one Kettle, and some Pewter, which they sold to a Broker in the Borough of Southwark for 11 Shillings.

That after this Robbery, they admitted into their Company one Thomas Grey; and that one Morning about Two o'Clock, they three broke open a Cellar Door, and enter'd the House, known by the Sign of the Elephant and Castle in Kent street, and took from thence 3 s. 8 d. in Money, a Cane, and a Bottle of Gin.

That after this, he, in Company with Holburt and Thomas George, at Kingsland, about One o'Clock in the Morning, did break open the Window Shutters belonging to a House adjoining to the Hospital, and entered the said House: That they took from thence four Harrateen Curtains, half a Dozen of China Cups, eight Knives, and Forks, four China Plates, and sundry other Things which he cannot recollect. That the Curtains, Knives and Forks, were sold to one Lawrence, in Fleet-lane, by Holburt's Doxy, for one Pound and one Shilling.

A genuine Account of the two surprising Escapes of Daniel Malden, taken from his own Mouth (while under Condemnation) in the Old Condemn'd-Hole in Newgate, Oct. 21, 1736.

MY first Escape from one of the new Cells, the very Morning I was to have been executed, which was Monday the 24th of May last. George Ward, who was lately executed, having been confined in the same Cell, he informed me that a certain Plank in the Floor was loose, I found it out; and on Sunday Night between 10 and 11 I began to work; I rais'd up this Plank with the Foot of a Stool that was in the Cell, then I made a Hole in the ar'd Work big enough for my Body to go through, and I dropt into a lower Cell, out of which one Butler, a former Convict, had made his Escape. The Bar of the Window of this Cell still, remained cut as Butler had left it, and out of this Window I got, with all my Irons upon me, into the Press-Yard; I had got my Candle with me not knowing what Occasion I might have for a Light, but when I was got into the Press-Yard, George Ward call'd to me, and desired I would give him the Candle, he let down a Bit a Twine, and drew it up; then looking about me and seeing all Things quiet, I pulled off my Shoes and went softly up into the Chapel, and observing a small Breach in the Wall I enlarg'd it, and pulled the Wall down, and got into the Penthouse from the Ceiling; then I made my Way through the Penthouse, and got upon the Roof of the House, so pulling out one Side all the Way I went for Foot-hold, and another that I might take hold of the Laths in Case I should slip; I got upon the Top of the Cells by the Ordinary's House, having made my Way from the Top of the Chapel upon the Roofs of the Houses, and all round the Chimnies of the Cells over the Ordinary's House, to the next, which had been a Pastry Cook's, but was now empty. I was just going to take out a Sky-Light on the Top, of the Ordinary's House, thinking to get in there, when I observed there was no Foot-hold in the Inside; so I went from thence, not caring to venture in there, to the empty House, there I found one of the Garret Windows down, and I got in at that Window, and went down three Pair of Stairs into the Kitchen; then I put my Shoes on (which I had made Shift to carry in my Hand all the Way I came) and with Rags and Pieces of my Jacket, I wrapp'd my Irons close to my Legs, as if I had been gouty or lame; then I got out of the Kitchen Window one Pair of Stairs, into Phnix Court, and from thence I went through the Streets to Nightingale-lane, I walk'd quite through the City, and pass'd the Watch several Times, this was about three o'Clock in the Morning.

When I was hous'd in Nightingale-lane as soon as I could (about six in the Morning) I sent for a Smith, who knock'd off my Fetters and took them away with him for his Pains; then I got a Man to go for a young Woman, with whom I kept Company, and that Fellow betray'd me; he however had done my Message to the young Woman, for she came, and was very much surpriz'd to see me, but while she was getting me some Breakfast I heard a Noise in the Yard, which alarm'd me, so my Irons being off, I made the best of my Way from this House to Mrs. Newman's, at the Black-Boy at Millbank, there I was kept private and lock'd up four Days alone, and no Soul but myself. On Thursday Night following I ventur'd out about 11 o'Clock, and heard People were in Pursuit of me, so I went to Mrs. Franklin's at one o'Clock the same Night, and lay down upon a Chest in her Room, and when she got up I lay down upon her Bed. Before I rested myself I sent a Shoemaker with a Letter to my Wife in Kent street, desiring to speak with her, and I gave him likewise two Letters to carry to Gentlemen in the City, but instead of doing this, he came directly to Newgate, and betray'd me to the Keepers, and in about an Hour and a half, I perceived the House was beset; I hid myself behind the Shutters in the Yard, and my Wife was drinking Tea in the House; the Keepers seeing her, cry'd, Madam, your humble Servant, where is your Spouse? I heard them, and knowing I was not safe where I was hid, I came out and endeavoured to get over a Wall, some of them espy'd me, and cry'd out, Here he is, upon which they immediately laid hold of me, carried me back to Newgate, put me into the Old Condemn'd Hole, as the strongest Place, and stapl'd me down to the Floor.

The Second ESCAPE.

BEING thus confined again, I resolved to attempt a Second Escape. A Man who was confin'd on the Stairs in the Old Condemn'd Hole, convey'd a Knife to me, on Sunday Night, June the 6th, between 10 and 11 o'Clock, I began to saw the Staple, to which I was fasten'd, in two; I work'd through it with much Difficulty, and with one of my Irons I wrench'd it open, and got loose; then I took down (with the Assistance of my Knife) a Stone in the Front of the Seat of the Vault which is in the Corner of the Condemn'd Hole; when I had got the Stone down, I found there was a Row of strong Iron Bars under the Seat, through which I could not get, so I was obliged to work under these Bars, and open a Passage below them; to do this I had no Tool but my old Knife, and in doing this Part of the Work, my Nails were torn off the Ends of my Fingers, and my Hands were in a dreadful miserable Condition; at last I open'd a Hole just big enough for me to squeeze through, and in I went, Head foremost, but one of my Legs (my Irons being on) stuck very fast in the Hole, and by this Leg I hung in the Inside of the Vault, with my Head downwards, Half an Hour or more; I thought I should have been stifl'd in this sad Position, and was just going to call out for Help, when turning myself up, I happen'd to reach the Bars, I took fast hold of one of them with one Hand, and with the other I disengag'd my Leg, and got it out of the Hole.

Having clear'd myself I considered I had above thirty Foot to drop, therefore to break the Fall, I fastened a Piece of Blanket I had about me, to one of the Bars, and lower'd myself down by it, but it happened to break, and down I fell into a Hole under a Vault below Stairs; into this Hole I fell with some Violence, my Fetters causing me to fall very heavy, and here I stuck fast a considerable Time. While I was here in this Condition, Mr. Alstone came to the Vault to do his Occasions, which he did all over my Face into my Mouth, and almost poison'd me. I found the Hole I had dropp'd into was a Funnel, very narrow and streight; I had torn my Flesh in a terrible Manner by the Fall, but was forc'd to tear myself much worse in squeezing through this narrow Funnel; I verily thought I should have perish'd here, for when I had forc'd myself into it, I stuck fast, and could not stir either backward or forward for more than Half an Hour; but at last, what with squeezing my Body, tearing my Flesh off my Bones, and the Weight of my Irons, which helped me a little here, I

work'd myself through, and found the End of this Funnel opened into the Common-Sewer; I was then in a sad nasty Pickle, and as well as I could I clean'd myself in the Sewer; my Shirt and my Breeches were torn to Pieces, but I wash'd them in the muddy Water, and walk'd through the Sewer as far as I could, my Irons were very heavy upon me, and now incommoned the very much. While I was in these Circumstances, several of the Runners of Newgate were let into the Common-Sewer to look for me, and here I had been taken again, had I not found a hallow Place in the Side of the Brick-work, into which I crowded myself, and they pass'd by me twice while I stood in that : here I continued forty-eight Hours, then I went on till I came under the old Privy ( House-of-Office) in -Hospital, and here a Quantity of the Brick-work fell in upon me, a Tun Weight I believe there might be, which beat quite down to the Ground, and buried me underneath; but I recovered myself, and got out through the Seat of this Necessary-House, which is against the Pump in Town-Ditch by Christ's-Hospital, and hid myself behind an Engine in the same Place over-against the Pump, for I was all over Nastiness, Filth, soil, and Mud. My Concern was now, how to hide my Irons, and remembering I had a Needle and some Thread in my Pocket, I pull'd off my two Flannel Waistcoats, and stitch'd them together like Trowsers, and drawing up my Irons, I made Shirt to hide them within my Trowsers.

In this Place I till about 9 or 10 at Night, and then I found a Piece of an old Spade, with which I drew a Nail of a Lock on the Door of the House-of-Office, and so opened the Door and got out into the Yard, a Woman seeing me there, asked me how I got there? I told her I came in at the other Gate. She said she believed I had hid myself above Stairs all Day. I told her. No, I had not, that I was very sick and lame and was but just come through; I was a little afraid of her, but a Gentlewoman happening to look out at a Window, said, Why don't you open the Gate to let the poor Man go out? Upon which she opened the Door, and I went out into Little-Britain, there I happened to see a Coachman, with whom I was acquainted, he had just then set down a Fare in the Stone-Yard by Town-Ditch, and he asked me if I would stay a Minute and drink, the Footman brought out a full Copper Pot of Beer, and we drank together; I told him I would give him 18 d if he would carry me to - (a particular Place) he did as I desired him, and when I was there, a Man was sent for unknown to me, to knock my Fetters off, which he did, and he likewise had them for his Labour.

The Night following I got away for Endfield, having bought a Suit of Cloaths in Rag-Fair, which cost 45 s and which Money was collected for me by some of my Acquaintance, in and about Rosemary-lane; so being equipp'd in a Scarlet Coat and Waistcoat with Gold Buttons, a strip'd Cotton Pair of Breeches, and a Plain Hat and Wig, away I went for Endfield.

From Endfield I took Post Horses for Yarmouth to my Friends there; at Yarmouth I fell dangerously sick, and continued so a Month, every Body thought I should have dy'd; but I recover'd, and as soon as I grew a little well and hearty, I went to Flushing in Holland, there I stay'd some Time, but being uneasy without my Wife, I return'd to England to fetch her over.

While I was at Flushing, I saw two Merchants that live at oxton, drinking together it the Sign of the Three Dutch Skaters, I went into the House to them, and while I was there in came Turpin and Rowden, I drank with them, and they persuaded me to enter into Foreign Service, but I refused, telling them, I did not care to serve any other Nation than my own.

From Flushing I came to England to fetch my Wife; I came first to Yarmouth, from Yarmouth to Beccles, and there I took Post Horses for St. Edmonds-Bury; from thence I went to New-market, to Bishop Stratford, and so to the Plow at Bow by Stratford, bringing with me two Hares and three Rabits to make Presents of to two Gentlemen. From Bow I came to the Sign of the Marigold, over-against St. Mary Maglen's Church , Southwark; and from thence I sent a young Man for my last Wife in Kent-street, and bid him tell her that a Mate of a Ship wanted to speak with her at a Publick House, this was about Bartholomew-Tide; when she came,

to her very great Surprize she found me drinking in a little Box, by my self; she came in a Coach, in a very poor and miserable Condition; I asked her what was become of her Things? She said she had been in great Want while I had been gone, and had had no Friend in the World to relieve her, or help her; and that she had been obliged to sell some of her Cloaths, and pawn the rest. I sent for the Persons she owed Money to, and I paid them.

After we had been here some time, we consulted what to do, I desired her to go away directly, or as soon as possible, either to Bristol or Liverpool, for I was resolv'd to go to Guinea, and I would have her go to either of those Places, that she might be ready to go with me. She desired first to see her Father, whom she had not seen for 12 Years, and who was Gardiner to - Sawbridge, Esq; at a Place call'd Wye, near Canterbury. I agreed to go with her, and accordingly we went together to Deptford, directly; from thence we cross'd the Water and went to Bow, and so to Barking in Essex; there we took Water and went to a Place call'd Newington, by Gravesend; here we lay all Night, and got to Canterbury the Day following. We were very much tired, and not caring where we lodged (so we could but get any Place to rest our selves in) we went to the Sign of the Three-Half-Moons, and there was our first Habitation at Canterbury.

Now Money began to fall short; my Wife and I therefore agreed to go to Work; and in about a Week's time we got Employment in the Hop Grounds , from one Mr. Firmow, a Brewer there, and fell into a very pretty Way of getting our Bread. I appear'd here pretty well rigg'd, in a Fustian Frock, with Silver Buttons; but the Money which I had brought with me, and which I had got from Friends, being gone before I had got into this Business, I was obliged to demolish my Frock, and make my Wife sell the Buttons for 8 s. 6 d.

When I was settled in this Employment, I sent a Letter to my Wife's Father, at Esquire Sawbridge's, and he came to see us. I was sitting on a Bench at the Door, and he came up and asked me if I could tell him where he might find one Mary Cliff: I did not know him, nor he me; but this being my Wife 's Maiden Name, I told him where she was. When they met they both burst into Tears: I asked him to go up Stairs into our Lodging, and there he treated us with a Bowl of Punch; and after that we went to the Rose and Crown by the Market, and drank with him again before he took Horse to go home. He asked me to come down to Esquire Sawbridge's, and stay a Week with him there: I cannot say whether he knew me or not, for I went by the Name of Smith: tho' I believe he did, because at parting he cry'd like a Child, and said to us, Whatever you do keep yourselves honest: Whatever you do, be sure to know your own. And directing himself to my Wife, he said, Molly, Your Mother always work'd hard for her Living; if you are like her you'll always be careful to know your own, she always did. I gave him a Snuff-Box, which I had before given my Wife, and he was to keep it for our Sakes; he gave us 5 s. and promised my Wife a Gold Ring of her Mother's; and if we would come to live with him, he would do something for us; thus we parted.

While we were at Canterbury, my Wife was always uneasy about me, and was eternally telling me, that I was just in the Condition of a Bird amonst Bird-lime Twigs, and that I should certainly be discover'd: So I took up a Resolution of going to her Father, or else to Deal or Dover, but something or other prevented me when I was in the Mind; and sometimes I declared to her that I would not go at all, but would stay where I was, tho' I was made uneasy several Times, and on many Occasions.

Once in particular, there being a Puppet-Shew in the Town, I must needs go and see it; and I was observed by the Fellow who beat the Drum about the Town for the Shew: This Fellow knew me, and said to my Landlady's Son where I lodg'd, That Man you saw with the Jockey's Cap over his Face, broke twice out of Newgate. When the Boy came home, he told

me what the Drummer had said concerning me. I was very angry with the Boy, and said it was false; but next Day, as I was sitting on a Bench at the Door where I lodg'd, the Drummer came by with his Drum again; I call'd him to me, and asked him how he could report such a Thing of me, he denied that he had ever said any thing like it: I call'd the Boy, and he affirmed what he had told me was true. However, I gave him a Pint of Beer, and bid him at the same time take care what he said, for I assured him I had never been in a Gaol in my Life. I acquainted my Wife with what had pass'd between this Drummer and the Boy, and I and she was very uneasy, and would have had me to have changed by Quarters, for fear I should be blown; but I would not consent. After this, I lay several Nights in my Cloaths, that I might be ready to get off, if I should be surpriz'd in the Night, and was always upon the Watch, thinking the Drummer would sometime or other certainly betray me.

After this, the Running Horses on Barham Downs were sent for to Bridge Hill, to one Peter Hosier's, and he desired me, knowing I was a Jockey , to ride my Lord Portmore's Horse, if the Groom should not come before the Races began. I undertook it, and went accordingly; but just as the Horse was brought out of the Stable, the Groom came so ride him himself, Then Peter, Mr. Hughes's Man, the Horse-courser, asked me to go and drink with him; I went into a Booth upon the Downs and staid a little while with him, and then went home.

Some time after this, he (Peter) came to see me at my Lodgings at Canterbury, and knowing I had made my Escape, and how it was with me, at parting, he told me, he heartily wish'd me well; but going from Canterbury, he met with one Daniel Hopkins, and Jack that formerly liv'd with Mr. Perry at the New-Gaol in Southwark; they all dined together, and while they were at Dinner, says Peter, Who do you think I have and drank with? They asked him who, he told them he had been with me, and informed them where I liv'd, and what Cloaths I wore.

In about a Week after this, I was beset by this Jack, that formerly liv'd with Mr. Perry, and Daniel Hopkins; it was on a Saturday Night after I came from Work. I had desired my Wife to boil me a piece of Salt Fish for Supper; she did so, and after Supper I was undressing, my Cloaths all unbutton'd, in order to go to Bed; but one Mr. Poison's Man Jack came in and asked me to go and drink a Pint of Beer with him; he said he came on purpose to smoak a Pipe with me; I thank'd him civilly, and told

him I was tired and wanted to go to Bed, he told me he would not keep me above a Quarter of an Hour, so I agreed to go and drink with him; he said he must go and fetch his Friend, and I sat waiting for his Return.

When he came back, he brought Mr. Perry's Man Jack, and Daniel Hopkins, and another Man, with him, we drank pretty heartily, and talked about the Races and running Horses; they asked me if I did not know such and such Jockeys, and Jack pulled out two Handkerchiefs, and told me he bought them for a Girl; he asked me what they were worth, I bought them, says he, of Jack Wllee; I asked him what he gave for them; he swore he gave 7 s. for them; if you gave 5 s. says I, it is enough for them, they are only Spittlefields Goods, they are not India well, says he, if I had given 17 s. for them, I should not have cared, for they are for a Girl I Love, at Sittingburn; I told him it was nothing to me what he gave for them; Where there's Love, said I, there's Good Will; so we talked and drank heartily till Jack seemed sadly suddl'd and would go Home; I thought it was pity to let him go by himself, and so suddl'd as he was, so I gave a Cork Cutter (who came from London, and happened to be by at this Time) a Pot of Beer to see him Home, thinking he was in Liquor, but he only shammed it all the while, for about an Hour afterward he came in again with a Constable, and charged the Constable with some of us, but he was at a Loss to know who in particular, there being two or three of us in Company, but at last it fell upon me, I was the Person he said, and told the Constable my Name was Daniel Malden, and that there was 200 l. Reward for taking me, which was false. Upon this I was carried before Justice Jacobs of Canterbury that very Night, and he asked Jack, if he had ever seen me before; he said, No; then the Justice asked him; how he knew me to be the Man? he told him, he knew me by the Description People gave of me; Hughes's Peter, and young Jack, had describ'd me to him, so he took me on Suspicion.

Daniel Hopkins swore what the Boy did he would stand to and justify; then I was committed to Westgate Jail, and the next Morning my Wife went to Bridgehill to see for two Men that were Jockeys, and she met Hopkins and Jack upon the Road; how could you be such Rogues and Villains, said she, to do this? Oh! said they, we did this out of Spite, for Jack one Day when a Soldier was to be whipp'd, got her (Malden's Wife) up in a Room, and wanted to be very rude with her, but she call'd him Rogue, and would not let him; upon which he declared he would be even with her, and he told her now she met him, that he was even with her, and he had done it out of Spite.

On Monday the 13th of September, the Magistrate, who committed me to Goal at Canterbury, sent a Letter to a Gentleman belonging to Newgate, informing him, that he had one in Cu

stody, whom he believ'd was the same Person that escap'd from thence some Time ago. The Gentleman upon receiving this Notice, sent down a Horse and Man, that he might be satisfy'd whether it was so, or not. I was found to be the same Person who was to have been executed, and the News was carry'd to Newgate; upon this Mr. Akerman was sent down with two more Persons, to fetch me up; but while he was coming, I had like to have given them the Slip. For a certain Person having given me a Saw, about a Foot and a half long, with a Set of double Teeth in the middle of the Blade; a Spike, such as is used in splicing Ropes; a Piece of an old Sword, jagg'd and notch'd, and an old Knife, which he had of a young Man, a Stay-Maker, who was confin'd in the same Goal for an Assault! the Report, that these Things were given me by my Wife, is utterly false; she was only privy to my Design, and expected that I should have work'd myself out, the next Sunday Morning, after my Confinement; but it was not to be. Sleep that very Morning so overcame me, that I had no Power to make use of that Opportunity; so I was carry'd to Church; my Wife sitting on my Right Hand, and my Keeper on my Left, in the same Pew: The People all the while standing up, and staring at me; but I fell asleep here, and slept the greatest Part of the Time. When the Service was over, I was carry'd back to Goal.

I had not yet been hand cuff'd and had only a single Fetter upon me, but five Gentlemen coming to see me and a Parson with them, as I sat in a two arm'd Chair by the Fire Side, one of them perceived the End of the Saw sticking out of my Pocket, they condoled with me under my Misfortunes, and said, what a sad Thing it was I should be so confin'd, taking no Notice to me of what they saw, but before they left the Goal they told the Keepers what they had seen he came and searched me, and so I lost all my Tools and Implements, I had hid them behind a Board in the Room where I was confin'd, and if I had been wife eough to have let them there till I had an Opportunity to have used them, they would never have been discover'd, and had I not slept away my Time on Sunday Morning, I might have been some Miles from Canterbury instead of going to Church there.

If I had minded my Business, and what I should have been about, I had now been at Liberty; but when my Intentions was thus discover'd, I was presently hand-cuff'd and put into the Round-Tower, but the Keepers apprehending this Tower not strong enough to hold me, mov'd me into another Part of the Goal, till the Round-Tower was made stronger and fitter for my Reception.

When Mr. Ackerman came to see me, I told him, He had like to have upon a Canterbury Story, but he secured me effectually, and brought me in my Way to London, to the Black-Bull at Shooters-Hill (kept by one Mr. Paul) on Sunday September 26, about 11 o'Clock in the Forenoon; here I staid and dined, and about 3 o'Clock in the Afternoon I set out from thence, guarded by about thirty or forty Horsemen, the Roads all the Way to London, being lined with Spectators.

Thus was I taken and brought to London hand-cuff'd, and my Legs chain'd under the Horse's Belly; I got to Newgate that Sunday Evening, about five o'Clock, and rid quite up into the Lodge, where I was taken off my Horse, then was convey'd up to the Old Condemn'd-Hole, hand-cuff'd and chain'd down to the Floor.

And now having given this Account of myself, it is proper I should declare that my Wife was always utterly averse to my Way of Life, and would never consent to any Proposals I made to her in my Way. She had a Servant to Mr. Cole, the Engraver in Holbourn, a whole Year, but having staid out one Night late, with a young Man that then courted her, she was turned away, and went to live (till she could get a Place) at a Washer-Woman's in Whitechapel, for having disobliged her Friends, she could not go to them.

Here it was I became acquainted with her; I had been at Sea, and in the Passage Home I met a Ship going out, in which was the Husband of the Woman of the House where my Wife lodged, he desired me to carry a Message to her; when I went with this Message to the Woman, I saw this young Woman, who is now my Wife, at the Washing-Tub, among some other Women; I liked my Girl, and came to see her again next Day, and staid with her till Evening, and from that Time I went every Day to her, and desired her to take a Room to herself, but she told me she had ed herself to live with a Player in man's-Fields; I insisted upon her lodging by herself, and the Old Woman spoke to me, and told me, she hoped I had no Design to draw the Girl away; no, no, said I, I only intend to make her my Wife. She was to have gone to her Place on Thursday, but I prevented her, and on the Monday Night she and I took a Walk towards Whitechapel- Church ; as we went along I ask'd her to have me, though I was under some Concern (as she perceived) when I asked her the Question, for I had left a Woman in Maryland, that I had a very great Value for, and had another that I kept Company with here at Home; but though she observed I was under some Confusion when I asked her whether she would have me, yet she answered, Aye, aye, I'll have you; so on Tuesday Morning I went to her, and asked her if she had not forgot what she had said last

Night, she told me she had not, and that she would go with me, and away we came together, and went round about the Town to -Bridge, and at the Corner the Bridge I stood still to consider a little; I was concerned about the other two Women, and she seeing me in this Consternation, told me, if I thought, I could not be happy in her, I had better de before I came to the Fleet, and that I need not have her now against my Inclination.

I stood pausing still, and she told me, if I would go back now, she would come again To-morrow with me. At last I said I was resolved to go on now I was come so far, so I carried her to the West-Country-Barge in Fleet-Lane, there a Man soon ply'd us, with a Do you want a Parson? I told him yes, so up Stairs we went, the Parson came, and were married.

While we were in the House, an old Woman asked me, what I intended to do with that young likely Creature? Why, says I, I will go to Sea, and leave my Powers with her to maintain her till I come back.

My marrying this Woman provoked the other to the last Degree, though I seldom lived with her before I married this Wife, above two or three Days in a Month, for I generally lodged at the Ship in Rag-Fair, and not with her.

I must confess I have not used this very well, for I have frequently in my Cups, declared I married her out of a Bawdy-House, and have beat and abused her, even when she has been with Child, in a sad Manner, for which I am now sorry, but she has forgiven me.

The following is an exact Copy of a LETTER, left by Daniel Malden, for Mrs. Miller, in Brocksford-Street, near Ipswich.

Friday 1736.

My Dowty to All Frends, Mrs. Eliz. Miller, at Brocksford-Strete, in the County of Suffoke, near Ebsebship .

Mrs. MILLER,

I Dsr you would take care of my Wife , Mare Malden, as I a dying Man, Daniel Malden. I desi you

would let hur have what was left me, and not rong hur of anne-thing which was left me. My Dewty to all Friends, living in Brocksford-Strete, in the County of Suffoke, near Ebships.

My Dewty to my Father and Mother, and Respets to my Ant Jouns, and Cozens Couts, and nt Miller, and I desire you would take Care of my dear and loving Wife for my Sake.

Dere Frends, onst more I pray you for my dear and lawfull Wife, has gone thro' a Sea of truble for me, who now lyes in a pore and deplorabel Condishon, and must have been starfed, had it not been for shee whom I love as my Life, as I ought to do, I knowin she returns the same to me. No more, but hoping she will remane your dutifull Dater tel Deth.

Two or three Days before he dy'd he was in a great Agony as he lay on the Floor, and starting up (as suddenly as he could for his Irons) he flew into a violent Passion, and declared, That before he would die on a Tree, he would dash his Brains out against the Staple, which fasten'd him to the Floor.

Which accordingly he did his Endeavour on Sunday Night last, but was happily prevented by one of the Persons, whom was set as a Watch over him.

FINIS.