Old Bailey Proceedings Online (www.oldbaileyonline.org, version 6.0, 30 July 2014), Ordinary of Newgate's Account, November 1725 (OA17251103).

Ordinary's Account, 3rd November 1725.

THE ORDINARY of NEWGATE his ACCOUNT, Of the Behaviour, Confession, and dying Words of the Male-factors, who were Executed on Wednesday the 3d of November last at Tyburn.

AT the King's Commission of Oyer and Terminer, and Jayl Delivery of Newgate, held (before the Rt. Hon. Sir George Merttins, Kt . Lord Mayor of the City of London, the Rt. Hon. the Lord Chief Justice Raymond, Mr. Baron Price, John Raby, Serjeant at Law , and several of his Majesty's Justices of the Peace for the City of London and County of Middlesex) at Justice-Hall, in the Old Baily; on Wednesday, Thursday, and Friday, the 13th, 14th, and, 15th Days of October, in the twelfth Year of his Majesty's Reign, six Men and one Woman were by the Juy found Guilty of capital Offences, and receiv'd Senence of Death.

Of these seven Persons two Men receiv'd his Majesty's most gracious Reprieve. While under Sentence (People of such lewd and wicked Lives generllay having neglected all opportunities of being instructed in the essentials and first fundamental of Christianity) they were taught the nature of Faith in Christ, from these Words, Col, i. 6. As you have therefore received Christ Jesus the Lord, so walk ye in him. I told them, that it was not enough to believe in Jesus Christ, that he suffer'd and died for our Sins, and rose again for our Justification, for the Devils believe and tremble; but that Faith, which is acceptable with God, worketh by Love, bringing forth manifold Fruits unto new Obedience, Holiness and Virtue, for Faith without Works is Dead, being alone. The nature of true Repentance was also explain'd unto them, from these Words, Acts iii. 19. Repent therefore, and be Converted, that your Sins may be blotted out; when the times of refreshing shall come from the presence of the Lord. It was shown to them, that we must repent of all our Sins; and that the greatest Sinner is acceptable to God, if he Repent with his whole Heart; This I prov'd to them from several Scriptures and illustrated to them from diverse examples. I show'd to them the original of Right and Property, and of what dangerous and pernicious Consequence it is, for one Man to defraud and rob another: And because one of the Malefactors stood convicted of Murder, I particularly insisted upon that heinous Sin; and from several Topies show'd him the Unnaturality, Barbarity, Injustice, and Cruelty of it.

They were also instructed in the nature, design, and necessity of the Sacrament of the Lord's Supper, from these Words, Acts ii. 42. And they continued stedfastly in the Apostles Doctrine and Fellowship, and in breaking of Bread and in Prayer.

While they were instructed from these and several other Texts of Scripture, Foster Snow, the Murderer, was always very attentive and apparently very devout in Chappel, excepting sometimes that some of his Acquaintances, Friends, and others, who came to visit him, by privately asking Questions, most officiously and undecently interrupted him in his Devotions and attention to the Word of God. The Woman (one of the filliest and most ignorant Creatures upon Earth, was afflicted with most grievious Sickness, otherways she was abundantly attentive, but incapable of Instruction. Three of them having been young, rude, vicious Fellows join'd in the Workship at Chappel, but did no ways evidence those signs of Repentance, which are requisite in Men in their Circumstances, and approaching so very near to Eternity. One of them, being a Roman Catholick, seldom came to Chappel; but when he did, he appear'd very grave, serious, and attentive, whenever Instructions were given either to the rest or himself. Steele, who is Repriev'd, appear'd always very grave and devout.

Upon Thursday, the 28th of October, the Report of the above-mentioned seven Malefactors under Sentence of Death was made to their Excellencies the Lords Justices in Council, and two of them, viz. William Longmire for a Street Robbery, and John Steele for returning from Transportation, receiv'd his Majesty's gracious Reprieve. If any of the Magistrates on the Bench, any of the Jury, or of Witnesses, who appear’d as Eviden

ces against the said Malefactors, be desirous to know any thing more particularly, concerning their Behaviour, or Confessions before Death, or at the time of it, What for your information, we can farther add, is as fallows.

Foster Snow, of the Parish of St. Giles's in the Fields, was condemn'd for the Murder of Thomas Rawlins, by giving him, with a Knife, one mortal Wound, of the length of tine Inch, and depth of seven Inches, of which he instantly died. He was a second time indicted on the Stature of Stabbing. And a third time on the Coroners Inquest, for the said Murder. The Jury found him guilty of each Indictment; the Murder being evidently prov'd against him upon the Depositions of several Witnesses; neither did he adduce any thing in his own Vindication, but only some who knew him depos'd that he was an honest, peaceable Neighbour.

Foster Snow, about 55 Years of Age, appear'd at his Tryal, and a little after, to be in great perplexity and confusion, so that he was thought to be Crased: The principal Reason of this was, to see himself of such an advane'd Age, who had liv'd so long Innocently and without giving Offence, bearing the Character of an honest House-keeper, and peaceable Neighbour, now in his old Age brought to such signal Disgrace and Punishment, for so very heinous a Crime as Murder. He was exhorted to compose his Mind and prepare for another World, and not to be disturbed for the Afflictions which had befallen him, which were a just Chastisement for his Sins, especially the great Sin of Murder, whereof he stood Convicted, and which he ingenuously confess'd since moreover, whatever Troubles can possibly befal us in this World, the Punishment of our Iniquity is insinitely less than what we have deserved, all which he acknowledg’d, and then recollecting himself, he apply'd with great earnestness to the making up his Peace with God, that his Sufferings in this might not end in everlasting Sufferings in the next World. In order to bring him to a deep Conviction and Sense of his great Sin; he was instructed from the Words of the Prophet Nathan, applying his preceeding parabolical Discourse to King David, in order to humble, and bring him to an hearty Repentance, for the like atrocious Sin, 2 Sam. xii. 7. Thou art the Man. I endeavour'd to discover unto him the heinousness of this Sin, from the Unnaturality, Cruelty, and Barbarity thereof; because it is the greatest Sin we can be guilty of against our Brother, or Neighbour, for which no manner reparation or restitution canpossibly be made to the injur'd Person; because Murder is a breach of the express Law of God, Thou shalt do no Murder; from which taking occassion to show him the difference between accidental Manslaughter (which he did not pretend to be his Case) and Murder, proceeding from prepense Malice; And that if every transgression of God's Law deserves his Wrath, &c. as the Apostile faith, Cursed is every one who continueth not in all things which are written in the Book of the Law to do them, Gal. iii. 10. What could so notorious an Offender as the Murderer expect? And again, because Murder is usurping to our selves a Prerogative peculiar to Almighty God, who is the Sovereign Lord of the Life and Death of his Creatures; Deut. xxxii, 39. I kill, and I make alive, I wound, and I heal, &c. From these and many Considerations of the like Nature, design'd to bring him to a deep Humiliation and true Repentance, as for all his Sins, so particularly, for the crying guilt of Murder, he was earnestly exhorted to fly from the Wrath to come, and to lay hold upon eternal Life; which Exhortations seem'd to obtain their intended effect For.

He confess'd his heinons Sin of Murder, with Many Tears, and on all occasions in Chappel, where he punctually attended Divine Service twice in a Day, he appear'd very Devout, Sighing, Groaning, and shedding abundance of Tears, for his Sins, and that of Murder in particular: And when in private, he was admonisn’d to endeavour after true Repentance, attended with broken Heart and contrite Spirit, which is a Sacrif that God will not despise; he said, O Murder! Murder that is the great grief and Affliction of my Soul; and of the Lord's-Day, when in the Communion Service read the Sixth Commandment against Murder, I observ’d him extreamly mov'd and concern'd, and Weeping very bitterly.

As for his Wife, he spoke modestly of her, and because of slanderous Reports, and upon his Wifes desired it was ask'd, Whether or not he entertain'd jealoe Thoughts of her? to which he Answer'd, I never h Jealousy of her Person, but of her Purse, alluding her trusting Mr. Rawlins with too much Money. H complain'd mightily of his Wifes unkindness, and unnaturality, in not visiting him more frequently, and not supplying him with Money, and other Necessarie while he was in Prison, and under Sentence: But ( seems) something of unkindness occasion'd a fort of in differency between 'em.

He complain'd very much of his Wifes Daughter h said, that she was an undutiful Wife to her Husband who has now left her and gone abroad; that she entertain’d and encourag’d Mr. Rawlins too much about h House, against his Will, and prejudicial to his Interest that some of Rawtins’s Children were kept at his Houses that Familiarity was suspected; that he had been a mo kind Father-in-Law to her, giving to her the charge o his whole House, for which he had been but sorrily

requited. This I do not affirm as a Truth, but only declare ingenuously what he asserted. He spoke also, with very much concern, of his Wifes Grand-child, a young Girl, whom he greatly lov'd, and fear'd that she shou'd be neglected in her Education after his Death: But as to his Wife and Daughter, upon admonition of the necessity of forgiving Injuries, he most frankly forgave any Offence given by them, and heartily pray'd for their Prosperity, not entertaining the least grudge against them his nearest and dearest Relations; solemnly protesting, that he died in Peace with all the World, that he entertain'd no ill Thoughts of his Wife; and although he said, that his Daughter-in-Law was the indirect occasion of the Murder he committed, he pray'd she might prove a good and virtuous Woman, and more free of all Suspicions than formerly she had been; But in general he heartily forgave all the World who had injur'd or offended him, as conscious to himself, that this was a necessary condition, upon which he must expect Forgiveness and Mercy at the Hands of a just and holy God.

He said that he was descended of honest Parents, who had given him Education suitable to his Station; that he was of the same Trade with his Father, a Gardiner ; and that in the said employment, and that of Butler , he had serv'd Persons of great Quality and Eminence, with Reputation; and that since his Marriage, about 14 Years ago, he had been an honest House-keeper in very good Character and Esteem with the Neighbours; But his great failling was, that especially when a little intoxicated he fell into violent and outragious Firs of Passion, which was the only immediate cause of his Murdering Mr. Rawlins, never, having entertain'd in his Thoughts the least design of injuring, much less of murdering him. He said, that Mr. Rawlins had provock'd him very much, by coming into and staying in his House against his Will, and by affronting him with disdainful and undervaluing Language, and several other ways in his own House, while he was owing him Money, and either could not, or wou'd not pay him: It was represented to him, that all these provocations were no ways equal to the direful vengeance he had taken upon him: This he confess'd to be true, and said, that as he was sorry for the great Sin of Murder, so he also repented for the most unreasonable Passion, which was the cause of it; and likewise for any manner of Drunkenness, or other more thatn ordinary Sins he had been guilty of. He deny’d his having been guilty of any other notorious Sins, and affirm'd that he had been at all times of a charitable Disposition to the utmost of his Power, and most ready to perform other good Offices to Mankind. He deny'd that he said, that after having given Rawlins Names, he would make no more to kill him, than he wou'd to kill a Dog or a Toad.

Seven or eight Days before his Death he was grievously afflicted with Sickness, so that he seldom able to come to Chappel. He was somewhat Cras’d which appear’d by his Looks and Gestures, particularly, in Chappel the Sunday before he died, where he spoke a little, too much, and cried out in the time of Divine Service, as if he had been disturb'd in Mind. But he still continu'd Penitent for his crying Guilt , was very thankful for what Advices, Prayers, and good Instructions were given him; declared that he died in the Faith of being sav'd only through the Merits of Jesus Christ, in the Communion of the Church of England, of which he was born an unworthy Member, and in Peace with all the World.

John Whalebone, alias Wellbone, was brought in guilty by the Jury, for feloniously returning from Transportation, before the expiration of 7 Years.

John Whalebone, alias Wellbone, 38 Years of Age as he declar’d, was descended of honest but mean Parent, in the City of London, of the Parish of St. Dionis-back-church, who (according to their ability) gave him good and Christian Education, to read God's Word, Writ and cast Accompts, and afterwards he was. put to Sea, and serv'd as a common Sailor in the late Queen's and his present Majesty's Navy for some Years. Afterwards lie went about the Streets crying old Cloaths , and accustoming himself to Idleness, he betook himself to Thieving and Robbing, and for some particular Robberies he was Convicted, and Transported about two Years ago, The justice of which Sentence he own'd, confessing; himself a very great Offender and lewd Liver, for which he justly suffer'd all the Miseries and Hardships that had befallen him: But he inclin'd mightily to extenuate the Crime (his returning from Transportation before the time appointed) for which he died; I told him, that altho' in it self his returning was no Crime, yet since the Laws of the Kingdom assign'd seven Years Banishment from his native Country, as a punishment for his former Crimes, and that if any return'd before the expiration of that time, the Law declar'd it a capital Offence: consequently, he was guilty of transgressing the Law in that: respect, and liable to the .Penalty, which is Death; and therefore that it was a great Sin in him to transgress the Laws of his native Country, and that he ought to submit himself patiently to the Punishment they Prescrib'd: In this he acquies’d and seem’d satisfy’d He complain'd very much of the Gentleman who took him up, calling him Cruel; I told him that he must not reflect upon Instruments, but look upon the Providence of God,which hid justly brought all his Calamities upon him for

his Follies and wicked course of Life, and that, if he thought upon obtaining Mercy from God, he must freely forgive all those who had offended him, which he declar'd frequently, and solemnly he did, with the greatest sincerity, He also complain'd of the hard usage they met with in their Transportation at Sea, and after that in the Country; it was told him, that such treatment was a just Punishment for his former wicked Life, the truth of which he acknowledg’d, bewailing his mispent Time, and vowing, that if he had been to live any longer time in the World, he should, by the Grace of God, live to much better purpose than formerly. I told him that he being a Man of Sense and Understanding for his own Business, was the less excuseable for employing his Time so very ill, which he confess'd to be true, protesting that he was very penitent for all his Offences; that he died in Communion of the Church of England, of which he was an unworthy Member, and in Peace with all the World, expecting, and hoping for Salvation and Mercy from Almighty God only through the Merits of Jesus, Christ.

James Little, of Pancras, was found Guilty by the Jury, for assaulting Lionel Mills, in an open Field, near the Highway, putting him in fear, and taking from him three Keys, a Turnover, a Handkerchief, and 16 Shillings in Money, on the 28th of August last. And on a second Indictment for assaulting Richard Hatton Evans, in an open Field, near the Highway, and taking form him a Cane, three Keys, and 20 l. in Money, on the 7th August last.

James Little, of Pancras, as he said, near 17 Years of Age, descended of honest Parents, who gave him Christian Education suitable to bit Birth, and put him to an Employment as soon as he was of Age, to which (it seems) he did not much apply himself, but came to understand his Father's business of Painting indifferently well, so that (as he said) he could gain 12 or 15 Shillings a Week: But falling into bad Company, he turn'd very Vicious, addicting himself to Drinking and Whoring. The first Person (he said) who advis'd him, to turn a Highway Robber was a Soldier, who was hang'd with Jonathan Wild, with whom having spent a whole Lord's Day, drinking to excess in an Alehouse, the said Soldier advis’d him to go out to the Highway and Rob; and Little, by the time, being so Drunk, that he knew not what he was doing; they went out straight into the Fields, and not far from the Highway, the Soldier being arm'd with a pair of good Distols, rob’d one or two Men, Little standing by without any Arms whatsoever, and so besotted with Drink, that he knew nothing of what was done. He went no more with the Soldier, who, a little after, was taken up and hang'd. But it seems he had not Grace to resolve against such a wicked course of Life as he had begun, but went and made himself acquainted with the famous John Sheppard's Mistress, and such infamous Women, who hurry'd him headlong to his Destruction. He confess'd that he had been a very great Sinner, that he had been a very wicked and disobedient Child, that he had employ’d his Youth in the Devil’s Service himself wholly to the pleasing of his sensual Appetites and vile Lusts which war against the Spirit. He acknowledg'd the justice of his Sentence, and that the Calamities which befel him were a just Judgment form Heaven upon him, for such notable Breaches of his baptisinal Vows. He was desirous of a longer Life, if it had been the pleasure of his Superiors but when he saw that there were no farther expectations of a Reprieve, then he apply'd himself in earnest to the working out of his Soul's Salvation; for before, both he and Whalebone, with the Boy that is Repriev'd (as others told me) were very careless and remise in their Duty, and sometimes in the Chappel, and also in the condemn'd Hold, show d too much of youthful Levity and Inconsideration altho' to me they always show'd abundance of Respect, and were very thankful for the Prayers and godly Advices which were given them, and pretended that the only thing they minded was Death and Judgment, and that these who said any other thing of enmisrepresented them. They did not appear to be broken-hearted and so deeply concern'd at or affected with their miserable and dangerous Circumstances, as they ought to have been; but whether that was to be imputed to their Youth, or the habit they had contracted of living without any due Sense of God and Religion upon these Spirits, I shall not positively determine; for they solemnly declar'd, that they repented of all their Sins, particularly those of which they stood Convicted, and in such a Cafe, we ought to judge upon the most Charitable side. When they were exhorted, in God s Name, to be of a compos'd and grave Temper, considering that it was God and not Man they had to deal with, and that in a very short time they were to enter upon a new and unknown State, an eternity of Hippiness, or an eternity of Misery, and that therefore it highly concet’d them to choose that better part which should not be taken from them. Tey declar'd, that they minded nothing but God and Eternity, and no ways thought upon this World and the Pleasures thereof. Little said, that he believ'd only to be sav'd by the Mercy of God, through the Merits of Jesus Christ; that he died in Communion of the Church of England of which he was an unworthy Member, and in P with all Mankind.

James Carter, alias Barry, was found Guilty by the Jury, for stealing a Silver Tankard val. 81. the Goods of Edith Barwell, and Coat and Wastecoat val. 4 l the Goods of William Cash, in us House of Edith Barwell, April 27th.

James Carter, alias Barry, as he said, was 21 Years of Age, Son of a Country Farmer in Munster, in the Kingdom of Ireland, of the Romish Religion , had no School-Education, and could neither Read nor Write. He said that for 5 Years past he had been with some of his Relations in France; he came seldom to Chappel, keeping still down in the condemn'd Hold; but when he came, he was very grave and attentive both to the Prayers and other Instruction which were given them, altho’ of a different Communion; as also in the condemn'd Hold, when I visited Mr. Snow when he was grieously afflicted with Sickness. He confess himself to have been a great Sinner, tho not so wicked as most of the common Malefactors are He said that he absented from Church in France and Ireland sometimes, and that he was guilty of Drinking and Whoring, but n often. He appear'd to be broken and tender-hearted for his Sins (when I visited them in the Condemn'd Hold the Night before Execution) shedding Tears in great plenty, acknowledging the justice of his Sentence, and that he deservedly suffer'd for the many Sins of his Life. He was ignorant and illiterate, but declar'd that he believ’d in Jesus Christ as the only Saviour of Sinners, expecting eternal Life and Salvation by the Mercy of God only, through the Merits and Satisfaction of Jesus Christ, that he died in Communion of the Church of Rome, wherein he was Born, and hearily forgave all Men who had offended him, as he hop'd for Forgiveness from God, dying in Peace with all Mankind.

At the place of Execution.] They all declar’d that they were truly Penitent for the Sins of tireir Life, Particular those great and einous Sins for which they Sfer’d. Foster Snow was allow’d the privilege of a Morning Coach; e dher’s i his former Confessoions, said that he had no more to add and that he had never him guilty of any capital Crimes, but that one for which be Suffer’d Whabone app’d very Penitent, Shedding plenty of Tears, and all of ‘em seem’d very serious in their Life Devotions; Cter did not cocr in the Worship, but always pray'd that God w have Mercy on him, that Christ would receive his Soul into Heaven, and two or th such short Expressions

This is the real Account given by me James Guthry, Minister of Newgate.

London; Printed by John Applebee, in Black-Fryers.