THE ORDINARY of NEWGATE'S ACCOUNT of the Behaviour, Confession, and Dying Words OF FIVE MALEFACTORS, VIZ.
Capt. JOHN TUNE, who suffered the 8th of December at Execution-dock, for Piracy; JOHN SMITH and JOHN IRWINE, for Robbing on the Highway; AND NICHOLAS CAMPBELL and GEORGE BARBER, for Forgery; Executed at Tyburn on Monday, February 2, 1761.
LORD-MAYOR of the CITY of LONDON.
NUMBER I. for the said YEAR.
Printed and Sold by J. DIXWELL, in St. Martin's-Lane, near Charing-Cross, for the AUTHOR:
Also Sold by M. COOPER, in Pater-noster-Row.
THE ORDINARY of NEWGATE'S ACCOUNT of the Behaviour, Confession, and Dying Words, &c.
BY virtue of his Majesty's Commission of Oyer and Terminer and Goal Delivery, for the High Court of Admiralty of England, before the Right Worshipful Sir Thomas Salusbury, Knt. L. L. D. Judge of the High Court of Admiralty ; the Rt. Hon. William Lord Mansfield, Lord Chief Justice of the Court of King's Bench ; the Hon. Sir Richard Lloyd one of the Barons of the Court of Exchequer , held at Justice hall in the Old-Bailey, on Thursday the 30th of October, 1760.
JOHN TUNE was convicted for piratically and feloniously boarding a ship called the Guilaume upon the high seas, within the jurisdiction of the Admiralty of England, about three leagues distance from Folkestone in the county of Kent, and assaulting and robbing Bartholomew Moy, the master thereof, of 104 pieces of white linen, value 140l. and thirty-four rolls of painted oilcloth, value 8l. on the 5th of August, 1758.
It appeared on the trial, that the said ship was bound from Hamburgh to Bilboa and St. Sebastian. It was now two years since the piracy was committed; in which time, several material circumstances had slipt the memory of the principal witnesses; as Moy, Wyland, and others, for the prosecution: they deposed, however, that the privateer, of which John Tune was Captain, had fired a gun to bring to the said ship, and had sent a boat three times, with eight or ten men, t examine their papers and plunder their goods; to which they could not, or would not make resistance, being a free or neutral ship, and having on board only six men and a boy. The Goods so piratically taken, were partly seized by the Custom-house officers at Dover; and the Guilaume being forced by contrary winds into the same port, discovered the pirates, and brought some of them to Justice; the Lieutenant of the Young Eagle, William Sterrick, and some of the men, were admitted evidence against the Captain, who was also said to be quarter owner of this little sloop, of about twenty tuns, carrying only six guns, of which four were swivels. The Captain, according to the witnesses story, would have sent his men yet oftener with the boat to bring away more goods; but they seem'd to have more honesty and refused to go again. They were assisted in this piracy by a man or two belonging to another small privateer, in company, commanded by one John Johnson, who would not join them, nor be concerned in this affair; while Capt. Tune is proved plainly to have been consenting and active in it, both before and after the fact, by seeing, receiving, and stowing away the goods when thus stolen; and also sharing them as prize among the captors and himself. Five sacks
of goods were taken; two of which were made seizure of, and three saved and shared by the Crew. It seems as if none of them were apperehended and confined for this fact till a considerable time after this, tho' quickly known by the discovery of the ship's crew. John Tune having been kept prisoner aboard for several months, it was not till Sept. 19, or thereabouts, that he was brought to Newgate, in order to take his trial; where, on several occasions, the following account of him and his Behaviour was collected from himself and others.
When he first attended divine service on Sunday the 21st of Sept. he seemed to behave awkwardly, neither reading the Psalms, nor making any responses, had therefore some proper advice and directions given him, particularly, as he could not read, that he would employ the leisure of his present confinement in learning to read; in which a brother tar, and fellow-prisoner for piracy, readily promised to help and instruct him; but neither of them seemed to regard the performing this promise, being more inclined to other amusements, neither so innocent or useful. He was now in the thirty-third Year of his age, a Maltese by birth, taken prisoner in his childhood by the Turks; and from them he escaped to the French, and again from them he was taken by Capt. (now Admiral) Geary, being then at the age of 13 Years, and has ever since been in the English service in different capacities, and conformed to our Religion. As he said he had served in his Majesty's navy all the last war and part of the present, He was ask'd why he quitted the service? to which he replied, that he was young and foolish, and had a mind to try for himself. He married a wife at Dover about 11 years since, by whom he had several children, two still living, a girl of 10, and a boy of 8 years old. His wife took pains to instruct him in the principles of the Christian Religion; and would fain teach him to read, but he did not apply himself to it; she got him, however, confirmed by the Archbishop of Canterbury at Dover. After he had incurr'd the danger of this prosecution, his wife was taken ill of a nervous fever (thro' grief, as supposed) which affected her head and made her delirious, under which she languished, till death released her on the Wednesday before he was apprehended for this fact, which happened the Sunday following at Dover; where, being put into a tender, he was carried to the Nore, and put aboard the Princess Royal. After some months, he was moved to the Monarque, and then, after five months, removed to the Princess Royal again, and thence to Newgate, as aforesaid.
Here a woman, who passed for his wife, often attended and abode with him, till a little time before his exit; and till the sister of his deceased wife, a decent and well-behaved woman, came up from Dover to solicit and manage his business; who, finding he was not married, at last prevailed on him to dismiss this temporary wife, that he might the better prepare for his death. During his confinement on ship-board, Lieutenant R - ts would persuade him to impeach his officers and men, by the proffer of impunity and rewards; but rejecting this proposal, he was ordered into irons because (as the Lieutenant express'd it) he had offended him.
Affidavits were made before his trial, that two material witnesses on his part were gone to sea, and that therefore his trial might be put off till the ensuing sessions in March next: notwithstanding which, it is said, he was persuaded to let it come on at present, as being an hopeful time for mercy, on the accession of his Majesty.
It must be owned, that during his confinement before trial, he did not seem to think seriously of his situation, as his behaviour was rather negligent, and his regular attendance at the chapel often omitted or interupted; whether to be imputed to his own careless temper, or the insinuations of the company he kept in the prison, whose inmates, unhappily for themselves, and the public, (and to the indelible reproach of what and whom I cannot say) being obliged to no regular duties of industry or piety, are sure to grow worse, in a constant ratio to the time of their confinement therein; so that the oldest prisoners can scarce escape falling into the state and temper of fiends, or what the French term Les Enfants perdues.
Little remarkable happen'd from the time of his conviction till the death-warrant, or rather a message for his excution was made known about November 21, and this coming thro' different channels and by some mistake, two different days, at the distance of a week or two, being named, gave occasion for the report of a reprieve being granted him, which had no other foundation, as far as I could learn.
But the certain report of his destiny shocked and surprized him at first, as much as the change of the day puzzled him for some time; because he had suffered himself to be buoyed up with hopes of pardon from various quarters and surmises, insomuch, that he had hitherto shewn less thought or care for preparation than he ought. But now he became more attentive; desiring proper books to be lent and read to him, and duly attending prayers and instruction; he had timely notice and proper assistance given, to prepare for receiving the holy communion.
In this interval, his halting between two opinions, appeared by a visit which he received some days after his doom was fixt, from a person whom I found with him, and who, under pretence of being his countryman, and that the Prisoner did not understand our language, was admitted to his cell, as if to interpret to him; but whose business in reality, was to seduce him, to the Church of Rome: But, when it was urged to this pretented friend, that he had professed himself a Protestant from the age of thirteen; that he had married into a protestant family at Dover; and under that character, had enjoyed the freedom of that town for several years; that his children, to the number of seven or eight were all baptised in the Church of England; and lastly, that it is against the laws of this realm to seduce a protestant to the Church of Rome; this new intruder into our charge, thought proper to renounce his purpose, and declare that he would give no more umbrage in this respect.
The prisoner afterwards made an apology for encouraging this visit; that he had hopes, by his means, to have intercession made for his life. After this, he went on without interruption from that quarter to prepare for his approaching dissolution; in order to which, he received the holy sacrament, with serious devotion on Saturday, December 6, being to die the next Monday; for that there was no intention to respite him appeared pretty strongly, from an assurance I had the Monday before, that his chains were made: a circumstance of horror, which, in tenderness, was carefully concealed from the prisoner. Being asked one day whether he slept well, and how he employed his nights, he answered that he slept very little, but it was no matter, " he should sleep " enough by and by."
Dec. 8, 1760. On the morning of execution, when visited, he appeared ready and chearful to do his duty, went up to chapel with alacrity, said he was well in health, and resigned to his punishment, joined in the service, and again received the holy communion with devotion and comfort; he expressed no signs of murmuring or complaint, though his devotion seemed to be sometimes interrupted with messages to hasten him out, which seemed to alarm him with some hopes and fears, whether it might not be a respite; concerning which, some evil minded persons had applied to him the preceding day, for a sum of money to be employed for obtaining such a favour; making no scruple to trifle with this most serious affair at this important period, provided they could, make any little advantage out of it to themselves. One would be almost tempted to wish that such inhuman merciless monsters could be made to change circumstances with the poor criminal, whose love of life (so naturally and wisely implanted in us all) they abuse to such sordid and wicked purposes.
This morning having performed his duty, he declared he was greatly supported and comforted. He heartily thanked God for it; and added, with a seeming spirit and resolution, " he was as willing to die as to live."
He was put into the cart a little after nine, and when he heard the expressions of pity and compassion from the multitude around, he behaved with intrepidity, and said, " I hope I shall soon " be happy."
Two of the runners had sat up with him, read to him, and prayed with him; they both agreed he had behaved so well, that no man could behave better.
When brought to the place of execution, and tied up, he still kept his countenance serene and calm; and when asked by me how are you my good friend, he answered, never better in all my life: he was reminded, however, to think of his situation, and humble himself in a manner becoming his present severe chastisement, to make this death a means of true repentance; pardon, peace, and deliverance to himself, and a loud warning to others; for which purpose he desired the surrounding multitude to join in prayer with him; having first intreated them to be warned by his suffering, not to covet or desire any other people's goods, but to learn and labour truly to get an honest living, and to do their duty in their several stations. We then prayed for mercy, charity, and all the graces necessary for a dying person.
When applied to by me to acknowledge the justice of his sentence, he uttered a complaint, that his trial had been brought on when he had a fair plea to put it off, on account of his witnesses being at sea; but that he was encouraged, notwithstanding, to hope that it was a time of mercy, and that he should not suffer, though convicted; a matter of which he had frequently before complained. However that be, he was prevailed on now to suppress it, and to declare his forgiving all injuries, whether real, or only apprehended. He was reminded that he had before acknowledged fairly his share in the guilt, by consenting to the fact; and though he denied he was any gainer by the piracy, he was silenced, by being reminded that was not his fault, but owing to the seizure of what had been thus unjustly plundered.
He was again reminded, that the honour and justice of the nation required this exemplary punishment to be inflicted, in order to deter others from ever again attempting such piracies, so infamous and dangerous to the nation. He acknowledged the truth of this, and that he had often thought of it before now: he again earnestly joined in prayer, confessed the articles of the Christian Faith, was recommended to the divine mercy and protection; and then having made a thankful acknowledgment of the services done for him, we parted, and he was consigned to eternity.
By virtue of the King's commission of the peace, and Oyer and Terminer, for the City of London, and at the general Sessions of gaol delivery of Newgate, holden for the City of London and County of Middlesex, at Justice Hall in the Old Bailey , before the Right Honourable Sir Matthew Blakiston, Knight, Lord Mayor ; Sir Richard Adams, Knight, one of the Barons of the Exchequer ; Sir Willi&am grave; Moreton, Knight, Recorder ; and others of his Majesty's Justices of Oyer and Terminer of the City of London, and Justices of gaol delivery, &c. on Thursday the 4th, Friday the 5th, and Saturday the 6th of December, 1760, in the first year of his Majesty's reign, John Smith was capitally convicted for a robbery on the highway.
And by virtue of his Majesty's Commission of the peace, and Oyer and Terminer for the said City and County, holden at Justice Hall in the Old Bailey , before the Right Honourable Sir Matthew Blakiston, Knight, Lord Mayor ; Sir Thomas Parker, Knight, Chief Baron of his Majesty's court of Exchequer ; Sir John Eardley Wilmot, Knight, one of the Judges of the Court of King's Bench ; the Honourable Henry Bathurst, Esq; one of the Judges of the Court of Common Pleas ; Sir William Moreton, Knight, Recorder ; and others of his Majesty's Justices of Oyer and Terminer of the City of London, and Justices of gaol delivery of Newgate, on Friday the 16th, Saturday the 17th, and Monday the 19th of January, 1761, in the first year of his Majesty's reign; John Irwine, for a robbery on the highway; Nicholas Campbell, for a forgery; and George Barber, for a forgery, were capitally convicted.
And on Wednesday the 28th of January, 1761, the report of the said four malefactors was made to his Majesty, and they were all ordered for execution on Monday the 2d of February, and then executed according to their sentence.
2. JOHN SMITH was indicted a second time, for that he on the King's highway, on Thomas Sherman did make an assault, putting him in corporal fear and danger of his life, and taking from his person one shilling, his property, and against his will, September 30.
From the trial it appears, that this charge was proved to the satisfaction of the court and jury, and he was found guilty.
When brought to the bar to receive sentence, being demanded what he had to say why sentence of death should not pass against him, he only begged that as he had served his Majesty 15 or 16 years, his life might be spared to serve him again, for that he had been but a few months on shore. To this no particular answer was made; but in the solemn admonition, and summing up of his guilt before sentence pronounced, he was reminded by the court that he had added a new crime on his trial to that for which he was to suffer, viz. the suborning a young woman of his acquaintance to swear falsely, that he had been with her from six till eleven o'clock in the evening during the time the robbery was committed; and therefore he had this to examine himself on, and severely repent of, as well as his other crimes; and also that there is sufficient reason to believe he was guilty of the first robbery he was indicted for, though acquitted, as much as of the last for which he was convicted; he was warned therefore not to flatter himself with the least hope of this life, but prepare himself for that eternal state to which he was now devoted, and must speedily be consigned.
Though it proved to be near two months before he was executed, and he was by the honourable court expressly recommended to my care, in a manner that might be expected to have made some impression upon him, yet he never could be prevailed on to come near our chapel from that day to the day of his death. Some other person or persons being constantly admitted to visit prisoners there, who seem to have more weight and influence with them, than either courts or clergy of our constitution as by law established. - How justly we may appeal to reason and scripture, and the laws founded thereon to determine.
As he had received sentence on Saturday night, I visited him on Sunday morning, when he professed himself to be (what he called) a Catholick, and therefore would not come up to chapel. To this he was answered, that we are of the true catholick church; he said he did not deny it. Why then do you refuse to hear and be instructed by us? You are committed to my special care, and it is intrusion and a transgression of the laws of the land for any other pretended guide to forbid you to hearken to my instruction, and accept of my
assistance, which I now make a tender of to you; and you are seriously to consider how you can answer the rejecting of it. He scarce staid to hear so much, and made no farther answer to what he did hear, but withdrew; and henceforth by absence, or in sullen silence, avoided the opportunities of converse with me.
In this temper he persisted, till one day having heard of my asking a few questions relating to him of one Clarke, a gardener, from Isleworth, one of his witnesses: he strutted up to me in the Press-yard, with a stern visage, and his hat cock'd, with an air of authority, demanding ” what business I had to enquire any thing about him; “ for that himself was the proper person to be “ applied to, and he was able to answer me.” But I found, by experience, that as he was not willing too, I must go without an answer.
It may be collected from his own witnesses brought to his character, that he was but a short time, and little known even to them; given to flit from place to place, as Isleworth, Brentford, Whitechapel, Gravesend, &c. And that though he pretended he was but a short time ashore, he had a lodging near a year ago in Dark's-alley, Whitechapel, and was also known at Brentford as long since.
His birth, parentage, and education, are involved in obscurity, or uncertainty at best; some asserting, on his own authority, that he was the son of a linen-draper, born in Cheapside; others are willing to give the honour of his birth to Ireland, and that Smith was but an assumed name. By his own account he could not be much less than 35 or 36 years of age; he was a robust well-built man, of a temper sturdy and resolute, capable of being much better employed for the benefit and protection of society, had he been equally well inclined, or happy in his applications and attainments.
It is said he had served both in the army and navy , at home and abroad, for near 16 years; in the former he was in the dragoons in England, and a Lieutenant in the province of New York: but by what vicissitudes and temptations he became an adventurer on the highway, as he was not communicative enough to explain, must for the present remain a secret.
Few or no words passed between us during a month, till the day after the death warrant was come, seeing him walk in the Press-yard, I advised him to make good use of his time, and acknowledge the justice of his sentence. As to the former, he said, he made the best use of his time he could, but did not explain in what manner; and as to the latter he was sensible, he confessed, of the consequence of telling a lie at this time; and he never would own that he had robbed the man of that shilling for which he was cast. “ If “ said he,” “ I had been cast on the former trial “ for the watch, &c. I would not now deny it;" but that he would deny this robbery to his last breath. Mean time, whoever looks into the trial, may see that nothing can be more positively proved, if we believe the evidence; and against which there is no ground of suspicion.
3. GEORGE BARBER was indicted, for that he having in his custody a bill of exchange, with the name John Sharp thereunto subscribed; purporting to bear date the 2d of November, 1760, at Manchester, directed to Mr. Rigby, merchant , in Gracechurch-street, for the payment of 50l. and that he on the 5th of December did make, forge, and counterfeit, and caused to be made, forged, and counterfeited, and readily acted therein, a certain order by the name of John Rigby thereunto subscribed, to Messrs. Honeywood, Fuller and co. for the payment of the said 50 l. contained in the said bill; and for publishing the said order, well knowing it to have been forged.
Besides the ignominious death to which this crime of forgery is exposed; and that it is acting counter to every moral and religious principle with which the mind of man is imbued, both in his early education, and progress through life, in a fair trading nation; the malignity and sting of this transgression is strongly touched and described in the matter and form of this indictment, as may be better seen by an attentive review of the parts and clauses of which it consists.
The trial gives the rise and progress of the detection of this rash deed, for which the delinquent has paid so dear. When he first appeared at chapel, after commitment, his behaviour was so humble, attentive, and becoming his sad situation, so much better than the common criminals who come there, that he at once excited my compassion and attention, to give him what assistance and consolation my duty, not more than my inclination demanded of me.
He was committed to Newgate on Saturday Dec. 6, being the last day of sessions. When asked the next day, after service, what are you charged with? He answered with forgery. As I talked to him in general terms of this crime, without demanding of him particularly whether he was guilty or not; he interrupted me, and said, “ I am guilty to be sure." You would not,
I presume, say so now, but that you are aware it can be proved against you; he answered, " I apprehend it can." You have the more need to quicken your pace in your repentance and returning to your duty; and may God assist you.
He had a Common Prayer Book, with a Testament and Companion to the Altar bound up with it, in his hand, which he said he now made use of daily. Happy were it for you, applying myself to him, had you made a right use of these good books before you fell into these sad circumstances! his tears gushed out afresh at this, and he earnestly wished it had been so with him. He acknowledged he had been too fond of going to plays, which betrayed him into other irregularities, and debts, which led him into his present crime, of which he wished again and again he had thought better of the sad event; promised, however, to prepare for a change, which he hoped would be for the better: though he seemed to have some glimmering hope to escape death for this crime. Being particularly asked, he said there was a time when he used regularly to attend the service of the church of England, in which he was educated while he lived in the country, but owned he had neglected his duty, in this respect, since he came to London; expressing, at the same time, an hearty sorrow for this omission, and promising his constant attendance on the duties of the chapel for the future, and that he should be always glad to be called on and admitted; the rather, as his fellow prisoners in the same ward generally behaved in a manner very unbecoming their circumstances, rioting, drinking to excess, swearing, card-playing, and promiscuous company; which could not be very favourable to serious purposes. And this, perhaps, is one of the heaviest afflictions of a gaol, that the penitent and well-intentioned are out-numbered and overborne by the hardened wicked ones, who will not suffer them to be well employed if they would.
To prevent which, some gentlemen of experience have observed, that, in well-planned prisons abroad, the prisoners are all kept separate, so as to have time for reflection, and redeeming the time; by which means the evil and impenitent cannot corrupt nor disturb those who are not so abandoned as themselves.
And thus they actually are kept in general with us, after conviction; but in capital cases only; except by express order from Authority. And perhaps it would be difficult to assign a good reason why they are not kept apart in most, or all cases; as several of them, who can pay for a room, really are.
Barber had proper books and instructions given him, which he made good use of, and duly attended divine service: he now began to wish and hope to be admitted to the Holy Communion, on which occasion he was reminded of making Restitution to all injured parties to the utmost of his power. Being asked if he had received the cash on the forged bill, he said no. - That they discovered it to be forged before it was paid; and therefore the contrary report mentioned in the news-papers, was false. It was now added, happy is it for you, that you have not received and mispent a sum which you are in no capacity to make restitution for, tho' your intention is never the less criminal; to this he assented. He was farther reminded to look on himself as a dead man from the hour this fact was known to be designed and attempted, and the interval as a time of patience and forbearance; which the divine mercy, as well as the happy lenity and justice of our laws afforded criminals, in order to sue for peace and reconciliation with Heaven, which I hoped and constantly prayed he might faithfully employ for that purpose: he answered that he was sensible of his great iniquity in this design, but that he had done, and would continue to do his utmost to repent. He had been confirmed, but never was a communicant.
In discoursing to him on the design of God in correcting sinners, he was asked, whether he had not reason to believe, that, if he had gone on and prospered in his wickedness, it must have tended to harden him against repentance, and bring him to utter ruin? He answered, he was convinced of it, and truly sensible of the divine good-will and gracious purpose in chastising all sinners, himself in particular, to bring them to repentance and salvation, and should endeavour to fall in with his merciful design, and draw this precious benefit from it.
To give one proof of his repentance, as public as his crime is now made, and to prevent the misrepresentations of ignorance or ill design, he was prevailed on, though with some difficulty, to write the following brief account of himself.
" I was born at Rotherham in Yorkshire, of very reputable parents, my father was an apothecary, and was possessed of an estate of 300l. per annum, but he died in my infancy; and soon after his death I was sent to an uncle and aunt, with whom I lived for the space of twenty-five years; during which time they brought me up with as much tenderness and compassion as if they had been my father and mother, and gave me a very liberal education, and brought me up in
their own business, which was a dry-salter , and at proper times sent me to school till the age of eighteen years, for which care and tenderness over me, I gave them the following recompence, which I pray God may be a warning to all young men, not to be disobedient to their parents, which has brought me to this untimely and ignominious death; had I followed their precious directions, and been obedient to their commands I might have been a great man in the eyes of this world: but instead of that, I gave myself over too much to my own sinful and corrupt ways, in keeping loose, idle, and profane company, and giving ear to their wicked ways, which caused me to yield to all my inclinations in the pleasures of this world, and in staying out by whole nights, in the sinful enjoyments of them; and alas! too often was I the orderer of them, but especially in dancings, and music-meetings, not regarding the cost I was at, nor thinking how I came by the money, as I had liberty to go to it at any time, by having part of the business committed to my care.
At the age of 27 years I came to London, and got a very good place, in which I was about three quarters of a year, during which time I might have greatly improved myself had not my evil thoughts had too much power over me, and thereby tempted me to commit those great and heinous crimes which have brought me to this untimely end. I pray that this my miserable and untimely fall may be a warning to all young men, not to follow my unhappy steps, in being disobedient to their parents; in despising their counsels and rejecting their advice; for it is written, they shall not live out half their days; and further, the eye that mocketh at his father, and despiseth to obey his mother, the ravens of the valley shall pick it out, and the young eagles shall eat it.
After the day of his execution was fixt and known, being particularly questioned about his inward state, he said, he found hope and consolation in his prayers more than ever, and was wonderfully supported, even under this heavy and trying stroke of the death-warrant. He spent a great part of his nights in prayer, and in the day-time attended the chapel, which he seldom or never missed, and behaved well. On Saturday January 31, he was admitted to the Holy Communion.
4. JOHN IRWINE, (or Urwin) was indicted, for that he, on the King's highway, on John Jay did make an assault, putting him in corporal fear and danger of his life, and taking from his person 1s. 6d. his property, Dec. 22.
It must be owned this poor old Soldier, by his protestations of innocence, and that he had no design to rob, but to beg, greatly moved my compassion, and had almost induced me to believe he was wronged by the witnesses swearing too hard against him; however, this I did not let him know, but objected to him the concurrence of two witnesses (strangers, who casually met on this occasion) to this fact of his, and endeavoured to persuade him on all occasions and by every motive, to be true and sincere in his confession and repentance, considering the extreme danger of playing the hypocrite in his last stage and scene of life. And yet, alas! there is but too much reason to suspect that he suppressed or disguised some part of the truth even to his last. At his Leisure, he wrote the following account of himself, and gave it me with his own hand; which the reader is desired to accept of and excuse, uncorrected and unfinished, as the sudden issuing of the death-warrant, and a more necessary care obliged him to leave it.
Newgate, Jan. 23, 1761.
The true life and character of John Irwine, born at Taunton in Somersetshire, of very worthy, honest parents. His father died in the year 1715, and left a plentiful estate behind him to his family, near 200 l. per annum, besides some thousands in book-debts and ready cash: he left me in the full trade of a wholesale linen-draper ; but I bing then but fifteen years old, full young to take such a charge of business in hand; however, I went on too fast as most young men do. I soon married a wife, a gentleman's daughter of 700 l. a year, of the same county, who gave me a tolerable fortune with her. I had by her four children: one is now a serjeant in the Hon. Col. Irwine's Regiment, now abroad; the other three died, and my wife died also. I followed on my business for some time; but people breaking in my debt, at length occasioned me to do the like. Then I went to Boston in New England, after one Blackstock, who owed me 170 l. at which place I met him; who paid me every penny, and gave me what credit I required, and more. I then bought a vessel, about 200 tons, loaded her, and came to London, and sold her and Cargo, which was pitch, tar, rum and rice, and some barrel staves, went over again, and, as a trading gentleman, traded to and fro for some years; and once in my passage, being then from Bristol to Boston, lay to a little, for my own diversion, to catch a few cod, which is usual with most shipping when we cross the banks of Newfoundland.
While I was below eating some cod sounds, which is the hard and soft roes, one of my men called down, and said, 'Sir, come up, for here ' is something hard by you won't like? I then went upon deck, and saw two sloops making towards us, and seeing the black flag at their topmast-head flying, took them to be what they really were, Pyrates: one was commanded by Capt. Low, a Westminster man born, as I was informed by one Dr. Kencade, a surgeon, whom they had forced on board them sore against his will. However, he was admitted a king's evidence, and those who he impeach'd as to heinous crimes were condemned to die, to the number of thirty-eight. The other sloop, while we boarded Low, made the best of her way, and got off. He went by the name and title of Capt. Lowther. I then made the best of my way I could to Boston, and made a report of my passage to the then governor, who immediately gave orders to Capt. Peter Soleguard, then commander of the Greyhound man of war, to go with my direction to seek after them. The commanders of most of the vessels then in Boston harbour went as volunteers with us towards the banks, where I left them: we had not been long there before we espied them both, and they the day before took a Bristol vessel, and then having intoxicated themselves with Bristol beer, came headlong without thought up to the Greyhound, and soon found their mistake; for, after two or three broadsides, we boarded them, and bound them secure, carried them into Rhode-island; there they were tried, and 38, as I mentioned before, were executed at Newport. Then I came home again to England in a vessel of my own, and as I lay in Shadwell dock to be cleared, my creditors hearing of it, came and seized her as their property. Then for farther shelter, as I then thought, entered in the foot-guards, and continued in that station until the year 1744, at which time my Colonel gave me Chelsea hospital, the out-pension; but war breaking out with France, my Colonel gave a good recommendation to the Lords of the Admiralty, who gave me a warrant to go master at arms of the Pearl man of war, Capt. F - g then commander, where I staid Capt. F - g's time, about twelve months or something more, without any success, he being a peaceable Captain. Then Capt. H - k had the command of the Pearl, another peaceable captain, who loved Women more than fighting: For once as the Pearl lay at Anchor, and bumboats plying, as is customary in those places, I speaking to the woman that belonged to the boat for half an anchor of brandy, and ordered her to come down to my cabin, and would pay her for it. She complied with my request, and Capt. H - k being on the quarter-deck, took notice of our freedom one with the other; called me on the quarter-deck, and said, ' master at ' arms, you seem to have some influence with ' that woman; conduct her down to my cabbin, ' and I will order a bottle of wine on the table ' for you, and I will fall in by accident.' But my answer was, ' I came not for that purpose; I ' came to fight the enemy.' These words nettled Capt. H - k, he running the day before from a vessel of smaller force, which he took to be French; but when we came into the river Humber in Yorkshire, it proved to be one of our own ships, and the two captains went ashore to drink together, and make up the mistake. However, I sent a letter to the Lords of the Admiralty to acquaint them with his ill conduct. Soon after a letter came from the Lords of the Admiralty, with a severe check to him, with orders for him to go convoy to the East Indies! as soon as he had received his orders, he called me upon deck, and said, 'You have sent to the admiralty, have ' you not, you rascal?' with many other opprobrious words, mixt with some blows, and saying, ' You shall not live much longer,' put me in irons, and we were under sail for the East Indies, and got some way to the eastward, when there was a boat espied coming after us from admiral Vernon, who hoisted a signal at the masthead for us to shorten sail, which Capt. H - k did until they came alongside, with orders for the master at arms from the admiralty immediately to be sent on board the Admiral's ship to be tried by a court-martial; but when I came on board the Admiral, a close examination I went thro', and was very much commended for my behaviour, and gave me a warrant for another 40 gun ship, the Ambuscade, without any trial, saying, ' My captain deserved to be tried more ' than me.' Soon after I was turned over to the Norwich, a 74 gun ship. I tarried - Here his narrative broke off.
He mentioned to me, that while he used the New England trade, he was once cast away in Milfordhaven in a hurricane of wind, the day after he sailed from Cork for Bristol, by which he lost the value of 1500 l. in one night, and the greater part of the ship's crew, only 10 out of 25 being saved.
His behaviour, for the short time he was under my care, was apparently regular and serious; he often declared to me, that he made the best use he could of the books which I lent him, and the daily exhortations and openings of the scriptures directed to him; that he prayed earnestly day and night for the pardon of all his sins; and about three nights before his death, he felt an unusual joy and comfort, which filled his soul, and gave him a foretaste of final peace and reconciliation. This same remarkable thing he repeated to his friend and townsman, who visited him, and reported it to me after his death. He appeared calm and undismayed at the news of the death-warrant, and so continued to the last.
5. NICHOLAS CAMPBELL, was indicted for feloniously and falsely making, forging and counterfeiting, and causing and procuring, and willingly acting and assisting, in making a certain promissory note, for the payment of 1350 l. with the name of Joseph Pearson thereunto subscribed; purporting to be signed by the said Joseph, Jan. 19, 1758; and for publishing the same, well knowing it to have been forged, with intent to defraud the said Joseph, &c.
Several strong outlines of the prisoner's character and behaviour were collected from his trial and otherwise; such as that he was a pensioner at Chelsea seventeen or eighteen years ago; that from keeping a chandler's shop there, he had found means to raise himself by degrees to an usurer of the first rank, in a place lately so infamous for living on the blood of those veterans; by this he had acquired wealth enough to purchase some estates and houses; one or two of which situate near his own dwelling, a public house in Wilderness-row, he set up to sale by auction some time in July last. The prosecutor being at the sale, and inclined to purchase one of the houses, got an acquaintanee to bid for him; but being out-bid, it did not fall to his lot. Some time after the prisoner acquainted the prosecutor that he might have the house at the price he had bid for it; and on this condition got him to lend, or advance, at different times, the sum of 74l. 10s. for which Campbell gave his note of hand, till the writings and house should be made over to the purchaser, and the residue paid. But it appears Campbell meant no such thing, only to defraud Mr. Pearson of the sum advanced; for which purpose, at one of those meetings which these two had on this business, Campbell did fraudulently and feloniously burn the said note of 74l. 10s. and wrote another of only 7l. 10s. in the place of it; while he asserted, before witness, that he owed him no more than 5l. This assertion, (with others of the like kind) implied a confession of his being in Mr. Pearson's debt, and helped to prove, that the forged note in question, of 1350l. did not then exist, about the 16th of December last, tho' dated near two years before, as in the indictment.
It appears also, that the prisoner had locked up the prosecutor in a room with him at a publick house in Tufton-street, Westminster, and threatened his life, in order to deter him from doing himself justice against this insidious invader of his property, character, and life. In two days after, Campbell had taken out a writ, and actually arrested Mr. Pearson on this forged note, having made affidavit that it was a real debt, as he often asserted to me after his conviction, and that he had lent Mr. Pearson the whole sum.
But in this whole affair he seems bereaved and forsaken of common sense, and given over to the Grand Deceiver to over-reach and deceive himself, the very note in question carrying the marks of a forgery on the face of it; being such, as to the writing of the body of the note with the supposed lender's own hand, and the manner and place of signing on the left side of the paper, as no man so long practised in lending money, and taking securities, could be supposed capable of accepting for so large a sum.
It is therefore justly believed that Campbell intended this also as a farther motive to deter Mr. Pearson from a prosecution for destroying his note of 74l. 10s. aforesaid.
It farther appeared, that the prosecutor and the prisoner had no mutual intercourse or acquaintance till a year and half after the date of said note in question.
After an impartial, candid, and patient trial of five or six hours, from before twelve at noon till after five, he was brought in guilty by the jury without hesitation.
Here the plan of his defence, which seems to have been entirely of his own framing, on an imaginary acquaintance between the prosecutor and himself, from the year 1756, and his lending him the several sums of 800l. 400l. and 150l. at different times and places, and the plausible harangue which he pronounced at the bar, not being supported by the witnesses which he had prepared and tutored, but were somewhat disconcerted by a separate examination in court, this plan failed him, and he found himself under the new odium of subornation of perjury, which added greatly to the horror of the charge of
forgery and felony, in the minds of others at least, however sear'd and insensible he carried himself. For it must be confessed that throughout his trial, he even overacted the courage of a fixed integrity: he appeared well-dressed in his regimentals of the Middlesex Militia , of which he stied himself Lieutenant and Adjutant, and behaved with a soldierly resolution worthy of a better cause.
In speaking his defence he advanced and fell back alternately with a graceful military step (which, when convicted, brought to mind a little simile of Shakespear.)
- " like a poor player
" that struts and frets his hour upon the stage
" and is no more." -
together with that more serious observation of a far higher authority. Man walketh in a vain shadow, and disquieteth himself in vain, he heapeth up riches, and cannot tell who shall gather them.
But his intermixing some ill-grounded and scandalous aspersions against his prosecutor, and uttering a most dreadful imprecation on himself, that he might never obtain mercy if he did not speak the truth, gave too much cause to fear that he should die under a judicial hardness of heart; and to confirm the report, that he had long practised, the dreadful trade of forging certificates of the lives of pensioners who were actually deceased, supporting such certificates with false affidavits and defrauding the Government. But now it happened that in the net which he hid privily for another, his own foot was taken.
On Sunday morning Jan. 18, the day intervening between his trial and sentence, when visited, he demanded of me with sufficient assurance before several prisoners, whether I did not think on the trial that he must be acquitted? to evade giving him a shocking answer, he was told, " I had various thoughts which I could not now recollect or explain." He then added with seeming hopes, that " he must prepare a petition to the King" - on which he was earnestly advised to prefer his petition to the King of Kings; for to speak sincerely to him without reserve or flattery, such was his case, that there must be his only hope. He, with the other convicts, had a proper exhortation applied to them with prayers for persons under Sentence, tending to excite them to lay hold on this precious opportunity of repentance. At the same time the Psalms of the day, Psalm 90, 91, 92. were brieflly opened and applied, together with the lessons, Gen. i.v.26,27. And God said, let us make man in our own image, after our likeness. So God created man in his own image. And St. Matthew xvi. particularly v. 25, - 27. Whosoever will save his life, shall lose it: and whosoever will lose his life for my sake, shall find it. v. 26. For what is a man profited if he shall gain the whole world and loose his own soul? or what shall a man give in exchange for his soul? 27. For the Son of man shall come in the glory of his father with his angels; and then he shall reward every man according to his works.
It was pressed on them to consider the vanity and uncertainty of this life, the value and duration of a future state; the immortality of the soul, as being the image of God's eternity; and the alternative necessity of being either transformed to his likeness by renewing their minds to his holy will: or being wretched for ever. Chiefly the necessity of truth and sincerity, in order to be entitled to the least hope of divine mercy and favour.
Campbell did not seem to relish these applications at present; and the rather, as he had seldom or never come near the chapel before his trial, but generally made an excuse of company or business for absenting himself. In the like indifference he went on for two or three days after his sentence, saying he was able to instruct himself: however he came up in prayer time on the 23d of January, and in speaking to the prisoners I took an opportunity of laying home to them the danger and absurdity of dissembling with God; lent him also a Compassionate Address to Prisoners, which he promised to read, and make good use of. Next day, the twenty-fourth, he attended divine service more readily than usual, and then told me with seeming seriousness, that he had spent the night before in reading over the book I had lent him which he found very good and seasonable; and hoped it would prove a blessing to him. He continued to come to chapel daily, but not without being sent for by me to his cell, into which he was put since his conviction, instead of a room he was indulged with before that. In each of them he was daily visited and closely attended by a likely young woman whom he and the rest of the prisoners called his wife; but was the same whom his son, and the mother of his children, being his supposed wife mentioned to me under an opprobious name, the former having told me in plain terms she was his father's w - re; and the latter asserting she had been her servant. Soon after this, as I daily exhorted him to acknowledge the justice of his sentence, both openly and privately, it was added that my wish, my duty, and earnest solicitude to endeavour that he should be presented faultless before that last and awful Tribunal, where he and all must appear,
obliged me to mention any thing in his conduct, that might be a bar to his happiness, or an offence to others; and therefore I must say, that it would appear more becoming, that his wife should attend him in his present circumstances, than any other woman: he answered short, " that was to himself," adding several expressions of regard and acknowledgment for the kind behaviour of this young woman; and that he had left her something as a reward of her services.
Again he was told, that whatever his offences had been, and whatever steps he had taken to cover and conceal them, all these were pardonable, and might be imputed to human frailty, and the fatal blindness which the passions indulged cast over the human mind, if he would even now retract and confess his criminal proceedings. His answer at first appeared ambiguous; that, by what he had learned and could collect from the scriptures by his own observation, to confess his guilt now, would be to make bad worse; - after a pause, he added, supposing he were not guilty. He then persisted to utter the most solemn protestations of his innocence, as he usually did, and that he was wronged; that Mr. Pearson, had all the money for the note of 1350l. that it was defaced in that suspicious manner, in which it appeared to the court, by some other hand, after he had delivered it up to the care of the magistrate; that if he had 40,000 lives at stake, he would persist in this assertion to the last breath, and lay his all upon the truth of it. He was then reminded that an eternal life infinitely more valuable than a million of temporal lives was actually staked on the truth or falsehood of his repentance.
January 28th Mr. Campbell being called from his cell, to attend the chapel on the first sad morning after the death-warrant was made known, came down attended by his young son, and his favourite hand-maid, with his usual countenance, rather chearful than otherwise.
In both services of the day opportunities were taken to lay before these sons of death, from the proper scriptures chosen for this trying occasion, the necessity of coming duly prepared to the Christian passover, not with the old leaven of malice and wickedness, but with the unleavened bread of sincerity and truth. And from Psalm 32. v. 1, 2, - to v. 6. it was proved to them that the blessing of the forgiveness of sins is plainly limited to the spirit without guile, and the tongue that confesseth its sin, and acknowledgeth the divine justice.
Campbell still persisted to give proofs of a close and impenetrable secrecy, not only as to his crimes, but every particular relating to his birth, life, and character, which he could conceal, cautious to evade any questions on these heads; saying he would have no books wrote about him after his death; when it was answered him that he could not avoid it, for his trial was already published in part, he made light of that. And it now appears that all his vigilance and caution was eluded, since he could not prevent a spurious account of Nicholas Campbell: nor the more vociferous last and true dying speeches of the Grubean Heralds from ecchoing his odoriferous same before he was well cold.
He little considered that his name must be transmitted to futurity, in more records than those of Justice-hall and Chelsea-college.
And if a little folly taints a name that is famous for wisdom; what effect must a great degree of it have on the very different character of craft and subtilty?
Tho' he did not confess his injuries against his prosecutor or others, he affected to declare he forgave and prayed for them, though they had unjustly taken his life: he added, his hearty thanks and prayers in return for the pains bestowed on him, and the care taken of him by me, and did me the honour to acknowledge, that tho' he was acquainted with the clergy of all persuasions, in the course of his life both at home and abroad, he knew none capable of doing him more service, &c. The recital of this testimony from him will not I hope be imputed to pride and vain-glory, when it is added, that I am persuaded no clergy or other man could be of any service to him without the superior assistance of divine grace with his own endeavours. My earnest prayers therefore were again and again offered up, that my poor labours might be blessed to him, and be instrumental to his salvation; he in return thanked and prayed for me with a countenance full of acknowledgments; while I assured him that the only authentic and acceptable commendation he could give to my endeavours would be to hearken, obey, and be wise for himself.
Tho' he strenuously concealed his parentage, he said he was a native of North Britain, that he was allied to a noble Earl of that country, and to another of Ireland, to whom he said his mother was nearly related, and was half sister to the late Governor Kane of Minorca. His con
versation of this kind tended to shew that he highly valued himself on the reputation of family and wealth, and that he was intitled to a personal inheritance at Carrickfergus by his father, who had sold it before he attained the age of 18 years, and therefore the sale was void, and he would attempt to recover it by law, were he to live. When he mentioned Carrickfergus, I said, you are of that country perhaps? he said, no.
He spent many words (not very clear and consistent) to explain away his guilt, and assert his innocence to all that saw or visited him; to an officer whom he familiarly saluted by the name of Major, he declared they might as justly prosecute and put him to death.
When he came from his cell January 29, with his female favourite, who was going to chapel with him, he took me by the hand with a chearful freedom, saying he had read thro' half the book which I had lent him, viz. (Bishop Wilson's introduction to the Holy Communion) but that he was acquainted with that subject before, having been a communicant on other occasions.
From others about the same time I heard a very bad account of him, that he had several women whom he called his wives, that the elderly woman who is the mother of his children, has another husband with whom she lives, having got all she could from Campbell who made what he had, by usury, &c. The runners who tended him, said they never saw him open a book; and on enquiring of his young woman whether she read to him, or assisted him in his preparation for death, as I observed a prayer-book in her hand, she seemed to blush and hang her head, and only answered, " she did nothing to hinder him."
In the forenoon of January 30, he was visited by that elderly matron-like woman, whom he acknowledged to be Mrs. Campbell; for when I still doubted of his innocence, he took out a letter, and said, here is a proof of it. How so? this is my last letter to Mrs. Campbell my wife, asserting my innocence as a dying man: and can you believe I would tell a lie on that occasion? I answered I hope not; but let that be your care. When he went on to talk in the same strain as he did in his defence at his trial, adding other circumstances to induce belief, he was advised by me to commit his vindication to writing, his answer was, that his son had waited on his R - H - the D. of Y - k, and the E. of H - ss, with a petition; setting forth these facts. That they were before made known also to Col. C - ke whose interest in his favour had been interrupted by the other M - b - r for the county of M - d - x in regard to the prosecutor. As I still expressed my doubts, adding that it would avail him nothing, though he could persuade me to believe him innocent; he then gave a plain hint of his drift in this scheme of gaining my belief of his innocence, by wishing he had some one that would fairly represent his case to his Majesty, looking wistfully toward me. My answer was, it is impossible for me to be of any use to you in that way, for many reasons.
However he went on the next day January 31, in the like way of talking, altho' it was the appointed day for administering the Holy Sacrament to the prisoners; to all which plausible pretences, this plain answer was given him, that I most heartily wished that the evidence which appeared against him on the trial, could permit me to believe him innocent; as it could not, I did not think myself at liberty to admit him to the Holy Communion, till I could find him in a better disposition to confess his guilt, which I prayed God to give him. He asked me again, as he had on several such occasions, would I advise him to tell a lie? no by no means. But your conduct in other respects has been exceptionable and dark. He answered in general terms, that he had lived a moral life, and was a good man, paid every one their due, and had been kind to the clergy of his parish, where he lived in credit, and like a gentleman for 17 or 18 years; but I might do as I pleased. I then assured him it was a very great grief to me, to be obliged to repell him for such a reason, and on this occasion. He went away much chagrined, and continued to say that if he should live a thousand years he would assert his innocence to the last. It seemed best therefore to say little more to him on this subject. He came up to morning and evening service on the next day, being Sunday; sometime after each was begun, was visited by his wife and son, to whom I complained (in hopes they might help to influence him) of the absurdity and danger of of his persisting to assert his innocence, when no one did or could believe him. She answered, he was a man of sense and knowledge, and should best know how to judge for himself, as he only was conscious whether he was guilty or not.
One serious observation drawn from this account, will it is hoped, be excused, and kindly
accepted by the public, as it follows naturally from the subject, and is of the highest consequence to all mankind.
How just, how proper, how necessary is the latter part of that conditional form of Absolution, which is pronounced in the daily morning and evening prayers of our church, to all them that truly repent and unfeignedly believe God's holy gospel. Wherefore let us beseech him to grant us true repentance and his holy spirit, &c. Since without this divine grant all human means and labours are lost and vain.
It was not mentioned in the proper place that two or three days before Mr. Campbell suffered, he came up to me with seeming joy, and said he had agreeable news to tell me. What is that I pray you? Why, that I am as willing to die as to live. I answered, I hope you are on a good foundation.
The Morning of EXECUTION.
Barber and Irwine came down from their cells soon after I went in to visit them.
Barber said he was easy and resigned, had been in bed three or four hours, and spent the rest of the night in prayer, in which he found great comfort and hope.
Irwine being asked what was the effect of his petition? answered, he believed, it went too late, but he was resigned to Death; tho' he still asserted his innocence, both now, at the communion, and at the place of execution; where I reminded him, that he was now in Sight of the place where the fact was committed, and bid him recollect whether he had not used threats and violence to the Prosecutor? He declared he had not, nor had no more thoughts of robbing him, than he had of robbing me that moment, his hands and neck being then tied up; and he added, God forbid I should tell a lie now! this was but a few minutes before he was turned off.
He and Barber had joined in the prayers, and received the holy Sacrament in the chapel this morning with Devotion; Campbell, also came up to chapel after them, when I again exhorted and besought him in the tenderest terms, and most earnest manner, by all his hopes of mercy to acknowledge his guilt, and not compel me to refuse him the blessed means of pardon, and peace, of grace and consolation.
He still withstood all instances and intreaties, continuing to assert his innocence, endeavouring several times to confirm what he said, with the evidence of one Barlow, who appeared for him on his trial, and (as he represented it) proved the sending of 800l. to the prosecutor; this I denied on my best remembrance; because, tho' he might have casually seen a note for that sum in Campbell's hands, he was not present either at paying the cash, signing the note, nor did he seem to know the Prosecutor, or his hand writing.
As Mr. Campbell could not be persuaded to give any proofs of a sincere repentance of this crime, of which the evidence appeared to me so strong in many views, I concluded not to admit him.
He persisted in the same temper and assertions at the place of execution, answering my Questions with another: what do you think I came here to tell a lie? He had a New Testament in his hand, in which he was then reading, and had read with his head uncovered, in his way from the prison to the place of execution. I told him that book in his hand was full against him, if he did not confess his guilt; sure you will not, you do not deny it to the last! don't I said he, with some emotion, but I do. When I urged him yet more, he put his book up to his mouth and spoke more faintly, as if he would suppress his words from the hearing of others, and desired I would ask him no more, but pray for him. He seemed to attend to, and join in our prayers, and to have some secret reserved opinion in his breast, that he could make his peace with God (as he often declared he had) without acknowledging even this open and notorious guilt, or the justice of his sentence; but on the contrary denying it. This I had often warned him was inconsistent, but he did not seem convinced; he readily owned in general that he was a great sinner, but not in this particular; he resented his rejection from the sacrament this morning by a palpable fals-hood in saying, that had I let him have known it before, he would have provided another clergyman to administer to him; whereas I had not only refused him on Saturday, for the very same impediment which still subsisted, but also
warned him that this confession of the justice of his sentence was a requisite condition from him, and in his case, as a proof of his repentance, from my first application to him after his conviction; but which he never complied with to his last breath: concerning which every reader will form his own opinion about the true reasons of his conduct.
As to Irwine, his case appeared to me quite different.
He did not deny the fact of having received 18d. from the prosecutor; but said he had begged, and received it as an act of charity, because he had lost and spent his pay; this was not improbable, or at worst, was a matter in which there might be a mistake or misrepresentation on either side, of which it was not in my power to arrive at a moral certainty, as in the case of Campbell. Poor Barber, when I said to him, You have acknowledged your guilt, answered, " I have, and guilty I am." He shewed a steady seriousness, attention, and hope. When I spoke to Smith to join in prayer with us, and to acknowledge the justice of his sentence, he kept repeating his own prayers for some time, and at last desired I would ask him no questions.
They set out from the prison about nine; Irwin and Barber in the first cart; Campbell and Smith in the second. In an hour after they came to the place of execution; and, having spent half an hour or more in prayer, and recommending their souls to God, we parted about a quarter before Eleven: three of them returned thanks for the good offices done them, and all four were quickly after turned off.
They were attended by a vast crowd of foot, horse, and coaches, most of whom behaved with a becoming seriousness. Campbell seemed to cast his eyes around him with too little concern or attention to the moment of his last change.
This is all the account given by
Ordinary of Newgate.