THE ORDINARY of NEWGATE'S ACCOUNT of the Behaviour, Confession, and Dying Words OF THREE MALEFACTORS, VIZ. Captain WILLIAM LAWRENCE, Who was Executed on Wednesday the Ninteenth of December, 1759, for PIRACY, at EXECUTION-DOCK; AND OF THOMAS HARTSHORN AND PETER HOPGOOD, Who were executed at TYBURN, On Monday the Eleventh of February, 1760, for HORSE-STEALING.
LONDON: Sold by M.COOPER, in Pater-noster-Row. 1760.[Price SIX-PENCE.]
O LORD, are not thine eyes upon the truth? Thou hast stricken them, but they have not grieved; thou hast consumed them, but they have refused to receive correction: they have made their faces harder than a rock, they have refused to return.
Therefore I said, Surely these are poor they are foolish; for they know not the way of the Lord, nor the judgment of their God.
I will get me unto the GREAT MEN, and will speak unto them; for they have known the way of the Lord, and the judgment of their God: but these have altogether broken the yoke, and burst the bonds. Jerem, v. 3 - 5.
It is a sad reflection on the perverseness and obstinacy of human nature, to observe how little force and influence the most frequent and solemn warnings, the clearest convictions, the loudest calls, and the most striking example have on men to reform them, and this, though attended with heavy afflictions and severe chastisements, extending even to death.
This is what the pathetic and zealous prophet here lays before us, Thou hast consumed them, but they have refused to receive correction: they have made their faces harder than a rock.
Resolution in a good cause is great, generous, and noble: but stubbornness in a bad one, is as rebellion and the sin of witchcraft; that is, 'tis rebellion against God, and taking part which the arch-rebel, making a league and confederacy with him, and fighting under his banner.
Though such stubborness was not the apparent temper of any of the offenders, which are the subject of these papers, in their last extremity, yet it certainly is the character of too many who survive them, and will not be warned by their unhappy fate.
Our prisons, by means of this obstinacy in them, and neglect of discipline in others, instead of being houses for the correction of vice and reformation of manners, for reducing and inuring the idle and vicious to habits of industry, virtue, and piely,
are become sinks of sloth and vice, of iniquity, impiety, and every abomination; directly contrary to the design of law-givers and laws, in confining and punishing offenders; and these infect their fellows, till the infection spread for and wide. Whereas if every prison contained in itself an Ergastulum, a workhouse or bridwell, adapted to every prisoner's strangth and talents, under good masters and regulations, together with a diligent, serious, and good instructor, in plain, sound principles of true religion and morality; both which employments of work and instruction, should be carefully attended to by the prisoners at proper hours, on pain of enforcing the apostles rule, He that will not work neither let him eat, we should soon see another face of things both within and without our prisons.
And this, I may venture to advance, would be truer charity both to the souls and bodies of prisoners, than suffering them under the chimeric notion of enjoying a liberty, which they have lost and forfeited, to languish and perish in sloth and ignorance; only taking their turns to beg at the grate, being a dead weight on wellmeaning charity, and mispending the rest of their time in bad schemes, filtby conversaiton, and vicious practices: not one in ten, regarding the call, either of industry, or devotion, perhaps during the whole time of their confinement, before or after their trail, till transported, or delivered.
This evil neglected fills our streets, and peoples our colonies, with pests of society, practised and bardened in every sharping trick, and art of villainy, in those schools and seminaries of wickedness and vice, our present prisons; which, if well governed and regulated, would become hospitals for healing and restoring the mind and monners to a good state of moral and spiritual health, as orginally intended, and as by all law and reason they should be; and as the other excellent foundations of hospitals, restore health to their bodies.
Nor is the evil confined to prisons; it extends itself to some of every rank and degree, too long left at large, and more formidable in proportion to their power and inclination to do evil.
It was so, at least in the days of one of the greatest, the wisest, and wealthiest of king. And moreover, I saw under the sun and place of judgment, that wickedness was there; and the place of righteousness, that iniquity was there. Eccles. iii. 16.
If this mighty monarch saw this under his own eye, that neither courts, temples, nor tabernacles, were sanctuaries from iniquity, much more are we forbidden to wonder or repine if it proved as bad, or worse in distant conquests and colonies.
If thou seest the oppression of the poor, and violent perverting of judgment and justice in a province; marvel not at the matter, for he that is higher than the highest, regardeth, and blessed be God, that there be higher than they, Eccles. v. 8.
For men, however exalted in place and title, honour and dignity, are still but men; and happy it is for the governors, and governed, when the King of kings inspires their hearts with the fear of him, that they may know themselves to be but men: - mortal and fallible at best, subject to like passions, prejudices, and infirmities with others.
The greatest monarch, no less than his vicegerents, may be more ennobled and exalted, by paying a due regard to this inspired admonition.
Then would it no longer be indifferent to the injured and oppressed poor man, whether he groans under the oppression of an insolent, obstinate, unrelenting, and purse-proud conspiracy; or be excluded from a legal redress, by suppressing of evidence under undue influence, or for want of wealth and interest, to open the way for white-robed truth and justice, to appear in his favour, and dispel those black clouds of obloguy, with which malice and misrepresentation had overcast, and weltnigh overset him.
Well spake that sage who compared human laws to cobwebs, which catch flies and lesser infects, but let the wasps and hornets break through. But with the divine laws, it is quite otherwise; for mercy will soon pardon the meanest, but mighty men shall be mightily tormented. Here therefore, O ye kings, and understand; learn ye that be judges of the earth. Wisdom vi. 6. &c.
The case of one of these criminals is somewhat singular: he was robbed of his wife by a man in his own low class of life, for which he could have no restitution or satisfaction. Being unable to sue the wicked offender at law, or apply for a bill of divorce, and leave to marry again, he was obliged to submit to his loss, and its consequences, to which be imputed his sad fate; how truly I will not determine. He himself stole a horse, and rode him away, and being quickly pursued and apprebended, the horse was recovered and restored, but the thief was banged.
Though I do not wish to see the maxims and civil polity of the Jews adopted in all points, and engrafted into our constitution, yet may we gather some useful hints therefrom. By their law the stealing a beast was not capital; but, the seducing and stealing a man's wife was punished with death.
When the most pious and valiant kind that ever reigned in Israel, but thur transgresed, and was in a parable, finely adapted, and addressed to him by the prophet Nathan, drawn in to condemn himself, in the person of another, though less offender, with his own mouth to death; yet when struck with self-conviction and remorse, be humbled himself and said, I have sinned against the Lord; his repentance, known to the searcher of hearts to be sincere, entitled him to the divine indulgence, and express remission of his sin: but the obdurate impenitent goes on to treasure up to himself wrath against the day of wrath.
By our laws and customs, on the contrary, the petty villain who steals your ox, or your horse, nay even a calf or a lamb, has a gallows for his portion; but the monstrous wretch, or subtle villain, who seduces your wife, or child, loads you with slander and infamy, in order to screen his crime, and secure his possession, and by various means, and artifices, evades the law, how often does he enjoy the theft with impunity, and triumph over the injured, perhaps murdered husband and family.
So that it seems as if the property in a beast, were deemed, in some countries, more valuable than that in a wife or child, in proportion as the one is better secured, and guarded than the other.
Almost insensibly have I fallen into these reflections, by the case before-mentioned, which occurs in the following account of one of these unhappy offenders, who ever since his conviction asserted, that a bad wife, seduced by a fly villain, sober, honest, in other respects, and, perhaps, pious to outward appearance, was the beginning of his misfortunes; in may be so. On the other hand, it is said, he provoked her first; the dying man said otherwise: be that as it may: the miscreant who invaded his right to his wife, is certainly guilty beyond excuse; as he robbed the husband of her aid and solace, and excluded them both from all hope of reconciliation and repentance, by detaining her from her husband; and yet he lives, and triumphs it the possession of the widow, who perhaps was the occasion of the husband's death.
When thus incorrigibly wicked was the temper of the Jewish nation, through every rank and degree, in the days of the prophet Jeremiah; the distemper drew to a most dangerous crisis, which quickly ended in their invasion and conquest, by a foreign power, and their captivity and slavery in a strange land.
Let us be warned by their example, and by the many instances of the divine goodness and forbearance, and long suffering towards us, be led to repentance; and I trust and hope there is a fair prospect of this. This divine almighty band hath lately appeared for us, to rescue and save us from a confederacy, which, in human account, was TOO MIGHTY FOR US. Sensible of this, and all his other mercies and deliverances, it is hoped, we resolve to be a grateful and faithful people, in the general course and tenor of our conduct; the fewer exceptions the better; yet some exceptions there will be, such as give occasion to the following account.
But to the honour and happiness of our nation, let it be remembered that there is no crying evil prevailing among us, which when properly laid before our most excellent and worthy superiors, is not most willingly and effectually redressed; no want which, when made known to the great, the good, and the wealthy, is not most readily and chearfully supplied: witness the many private as well as public and national charities, already exerted, and still promoted, even in favour of our captive enemies; how much more toward the children, the liege subjects, and happy natives of this bless isle; blessed above all other spots on the globe, with a king,
princes, and nobility truly great, and noble; bless with her severa ranks of gentlemen, truly adorning that character, and as directly opposite to, as for excelling that of the degenerate Jews then besting to decay, as the Christian is better than the Jewish dispensation; the subjects of which, even the great men, who had known the way of the Lord, and the judgment of their God, yet even they had altogether broken the yoke, and burst the bonds.
But it is our felicity to reflect, and be conscious that this nation in general, is by the mighty and miraculous band of God, turned back again! Restored by a series of manifold mercies, and providential monitions and deliverances to a right sense of its dependence on the Divine Being and Providence, and that its safety is under the shadow of his wings; willing and zealous to resume the easy yoke, the light burden of Christian duty and obedience, become yet lighter since restored to its pure and primitive standard by our happy reformation, which may the Divine Power and Goodness enlarge and extend to the utmost bounds of the British empire, even from the rising of the sun, to the going down of the same! Glorious design! worthy of the best thoughts and labours, of every Christian, every subject of Great Britain. Be this her Decus & Tutamen, the ornament of grace about her neck, the protection, and stability of all her lesser, (because temporal) blessings, privileges, and enjoyments. Thus may we all join in that song of the inspired poet, The Lord is king, the earth may be glad thereof; yea, the multitude of the isles may be glad thereof. Psalm xcvii. I. None so truly and cordially as this happy isle of Britain, and her dependencies; who will thus be made happy instruments of promoting the accomplishment of the same glorious design of his adorable providence, recorded by the same inspired penman, All the ends of the world shall remember themselves, and be turned unto the Lord; and all the kindreds of the nations shall worship before him; for the kingdom is the Lord's, and he is the governor among the people.
To promote this great purpose, we have good laws subsisting, if duly executed by the proper department (as I am informed). "That no ship carrying one hundred men, shall go to sea without a chaplain." And even our transported convicts, if duly regnlated, as before proposed, by being employed and instructed while in prison, are not unconnected with this good design, which when transported in their present corruption of mind and manners, they disgrace and prevent.
THE ORDINARY of NEWGATE's ACCOUNT of the Behaviour, Confession, and Dying Words, &c.
BY virtue of his majesty's commission of Oyer and Terminer, and Goal delivery, for the high court of Admiralty of England, held at JusticeHall in the Old-Baily, on Monday the 29th of October, 1759, before the right worshipful Sir Thomas Salusbury, Knt . L.L.D. Judge of the high court of Admiralty ; the honourable Sir Edward Clive, Knt. the honourable Henry Bathurst, two of the justices of his majesty's court of Common-Pleas ; and other his majesty's commissioners, &c.
A bill of indictment was found by the Grand Inquest against William Lawrence, Samuel Dring, William Goff, and Hendric Muller, late of London, mariners , for piratically and seloniously boarding a ship called the Enighadt, belonging to persons to the jurors unknown, upon the high seas, within the jurisdiction of the admiralty of England, about three leagues from the North Foreland, in the county of Kent, in this kingdom, and assaulting Christian Van Aften, then master thereof, and robbing him of six guineas, his property, and twenty deal boxes, value 40s. and three bales of cambrick, value 700 l. and two bales of bed-ticking, value 100 l. the goods of persons to the jurors unknow, April 3, 1759.
To this indictment they pleaded Nor guilty; and for their trial put themselves on God and their country.
The issue of this trial was, that three were found guilty, namely, Lawrence, Dring, and Muller; and one, namely Goffe, was acquitted.
The evidence for the crown were Christian Van Asten, master , Fedy Olford, mate of the said ship Enighadt, Henry Welch, a passenger therein, and Thomas Seal, first lieutenant of the Pluto privateer cutter, of six carriage, and ten swivel guns, and of which Lawrence was captain . The witnesses all agreed that Lawrence was one of the first four or five that boarded the Dutch ship or dogger. Most of them agreed, that he, or some of his company with him, demanded shot-money, and received first two guineas, and then four, or three and a half; and the lieutenant, Seal, proved that Lawrence returned without any goods, but left two or three of his hands in the Dutchman, and sent the first lieutenant with about six more back to them, without any particular orders; but that they, well knowing their errand, did not come back empty handed, but brought the goods charged in the indictment, and that the captain received them on board his privateer; that they were put ashore at a place called New-Harbour, two miles from Rye, then sold, and the money divided. Capt. Lawrence offered nothing in his defence, but that he was locked up in his cabbin by the lieutenant, when the goods were brought along-side; the others made no defence.
When visited after their conviction, they all behaved themselves with humility and seriousness, daily attended the chapel, and received and complied with such instructions as were given, proper for their sad condition. Dring and Muller pleaded innocence, as acting under the command of their officers, to whom they could not refuse obedience. But they must have been sensible that this was no reason, nor sufficient authority for them to transgress the laws of God, and their country, and incur the penalty of death. Lawrence never attempted to disown his guilt, on the whole matter, as having received the goods on board his cutter, but denied several particulars of Van Asten, the Dutch captain's evidence against him, as that it was not he, but Hendrick Muller, who demanded the papers, and looked at them, and that one of his crew demanded and took the shot-money; owned that he fired a two pounder three or four times to bring him too; denied that he had any of those liquors to drink, which the Dutch captain said he gave him, or that he blacked his face, or otherwise disguised himself, or that he struck Van Asten, or any of his men, when on board him; or that he was present when four guineas more, besides the first two, were demanded and taken, or when the captain and crew were locked up in the cabbin; by all which he would shew, that the Dutch captain was too forward and hardy in his evidence against him. Mean time several endeavours were used by his friends to save his life, but they met with no countenance or hope, much less success. He was however indulged with a very favourable length of time, to prepare and make his peace, which it must be owned, he seemed all along disposed to make the best use of he was able, and it is hoped to good purpose.
He gave the following account of himself, that he was born at Hastings, on the coast of Sussex; his father was a fisherman there, who used, and bred him up to the mackrel and herring fishery , and is now dead, but his mother and two sisters are still living; he has left two children, one of nine, the other of seven years of age, in the care of their grandmother. He appeared to be about forty years old, was married at Rye, ten miles east of Hastings, about eleven years ago, and lived there with his wife and family, using the coasting trade , and carrying corn from thence to London. In the year 1757, being mate of the St.
George, a brig, belonging to Hastings, bound from Newcastle to Portsmouth with coals, in company with two other colliers, they were met with, off Shoreham, by a French privateer of twenty-four nine pounders, May the third, and after an obstinate engagement of three hours and a half, they were all three taken and carried into Havre; they were detained prisoners some time at Honfleur, opposite to Havre, at the mouth of the river Rhone, and from thence were conducted to Denain, where they lived much better, their allowance being mended. In about six months they were exchanged, and brought to Jersey, to which 150 prisoners belonging to that place and Guernsey, forced the cartel ship to go and land them. Twelve of the prisoners passed over to Guernsey, and thence to Poole in a small sloop, whence he got a passage to Portsmouth, and from thence went by land to London; where, in two or three days, he entered a volunteer , as gunner on board the Anson cutter, a tender, carrying ten three pounders, in which they cruised on the coast of Holland, among the men of war looking after the French frigates that lay in Dunkirk road.
From this station, he was moved to the Either cutter, as gunner, carrying ten four pounders, a tender, which cruised in the Bay of Biscay during the summer of 1758, between the fleet commanded by lord Anson, and the squadron under commodore Howe, employed to alarm, annoy, and make descents on the French coast. Their duty was to carry letters and intelligence from one fleet to the other: he was ten months in this cutter.
On the return of the fleet under lord Anson to Portsmouth, in November, 1758, he quitted the Esther, being disgusted at receiving only six months wages out of ten due, the residue left unpaid by order of the lieutenant, who commanded her. Lawrence now went a privateering , being first lieutenant in a small cutter called the Lark, of fifteen men, and guns answerable, out of Dover. By this adventure, he said he was ten pounds out of pocket, having no wages, nor taken any prize, though they were about two months in her, about the beginning of winter 1759, cruising in the narrow feas, between Dover and Calais, till a gale blew them into Margate; where the whole crew agreed with the owner of the Pluto of that place to go in her, a little before Christmas, 1759, in order to cruise in the narrow feas, as before. In this cruise they took two Swedish ships, one bound to Malta, with pitch, tar, plank, spikenails, and other naval stores, which they carried into Malta; another laden with flax, they conducted into Dover; but neither of them proved lawful prizes. He assured me they meddled with no goods, nor had any complaints against them on account of these ships. They also met several Dutch ships, but never had any objection against them on their accounts, nor from the Dutch dogger, mentioned in their trial to have been spoke to by them on the same day the piracy was committed. She was a North-seaman, bound for salt to Tudos, but they did no illicit act to her, captain Lawrence himself having boarded her.
It is evident, that on this occasion, Lawrence's lieutenants and crew being irritated by their repeated disappointments, and hungry after something to bear their charges, and pay their trouble, sell into this act of piracy, now in question; of which one of the condemned men gave me the following account in writing, soon after his respite, and before the execution of capt. Lawrence. It seems, when compared with what was proved on the trial, and confessed by Lawrence, not quite true and impartial, but to bear too hard upon lieutenant Seal, who was one of the witnesses against them, and somewhat to favour himself.
An ACCOUNT of the affair for which I was cast.
"We failed from the town of Margate the last day of March, and after we had been three days at sea, we brought too a Dutch hoy, bound from Ostend to London, about three miles from the North-foreland; whereupon captain Lawrence, myself, and three others, went aboard of the said Dutch hoy; but when we found from whence they came, and where they were bound to, captain Lawrence ordered us to put him aboard of his privateer again, which we did accordingly, and captain Lawrence went to lie down to sleep; and then lieutenant Thomas Seal, myself, and about seven or eight men, boarded the Dutch man a second time, and I and the lieutenant went down in the cabbin, and overhauled his papers, and found by them that he was a free man; whereupon the lieutenant demanded shot-money, but the Dutch captain having none, was obliged for to borrow of a passenger two guineas, and gave the lieutenant, but the lieutenant was not satisfied therewith, therefore the Dutch captain was obliged for to borrow of the same passenger four guineas more, and gave them to the lieutenant; but he not being satisfied, told me, and some of the rest, that he intended to take some of the cargo; whereupon I told him, I believed it was English property, and I hoped he would not rob his own nation; where-upon he struck me with a cutlass he had in his hand, and ordered me to go in the small boat alongside, which I did, and then drove all the Dutch vessel's crew and passengers down in the cabbin; and he and the rest that were with him took out what they pleased, and then lest her, and came aboard of our privateer, and then broke all the boxes, and heaved them overboard, and put the goods in several bags, and stowed them in the hold, which was done without the knowledge of captain Lawrence, for he was asleep in his cabbin*; and then we sailed to a place called New-haven, or New-harbour in the trial, and then the goods were ordered ashore in the night-time, and lieutenant Seal, and another man sold the goods, and the money was shared among our privateer's crew; and then in a short time after, myself, and several more were taken up, about the 7th of may, and were tried on the oaths of the Dutch captain, his mate, and a boy, and lieutenant Thomas Seal."
* The lieutenant swears that he, the captain, received the goods, and the captain owned it to me.
About the 9th or 10th of December the death warrant came down, by which Samuel Dring, and Hendrick Muller were respited, and William Lawrence ordered for execution, to the great relief and consolation of the two former, but not so much to the dejecting of the latter as might be apprehended; for when spoken to, and conversed with on that trying occasion, he seemed to bear it with Christian fortitude and patience, saying "He had laboured day and night to prepare himself to bear this shock; and God had graciously given him a heart to bear his afflictions; and for this he would strive yet more and more." And as he spoke, so he performed, for such a firmness and serenity of mind, is rarely to be found in persons in his unhappy circumstances, as was observable in him to the hour of his death.
Being asked whether his wife had been to visit him since his imprisonment, he declined saying much of her, but prayed God to forgive and bless her; and added, that out of a tender regard, and for fear of shocking her too much, he had not insisted on her coming, nor sent for her.
When he was reminded to warn his friends, and brother sailors, against committing any further crimes of this kind, he answered that all his acquaintance of Hastings, Dover, and that coast had lest off the busi
ness of privateering some time before he was taken up, except one cutter of ten carriage guns out of Dover.
The better to support and confirm his earnest endeavours and good resolutions, notice of the intention to administer the holy communion, was again given about eight days before the intended time, for which preparative instructions and devotions were again added to the daily morning and evening service, to all which he seemed seriously to attend, and devoutly to join in them; insomuch that the other convicts, even such as had been of the most abandoned and profligate life, well-nigh consumed and wasted away piece-meal in their sins, seemed touched with a deep sense of their wretchedness, and willing, by a true repentance, to renounce and forsake their sins: this hopeful beginning in them also was encouraged and assisted, by all possible means, and particularly with proper small tracts, catechisms, and prayer books, given by the venerable society for promoting Christian knowledge, which those that could not read, having first attended to, when read by their fellow prisoners, began zealously to learn to read themselves, and in a few weeks could read intelligibly.
While Lawrence was thus visited, he appeared daily more composed and resigned, and even chearful; thanking and blessing God, for that he vouchsafed him grace to seek his peace and reconciliation, and to have his pardon sealed in heaven.
Mean time, to guard him against presumption, the heinous nature of his crime of piracy was laid before him on proper occations, with the aggravations and evil consequences of it. A crime perpetrated on that unruly and outrageous element, where dangers and death almost perpetually surround men; and should not only deter them from such attempts, but also where humanity and common danger, which makes the strongest alliances, should engage them to all possible acts of mutual assistance; a crime too, which might provoke the friends and allies of this nation to become its enemies, and kindle a new was against our country, already involved in a most hazardous and extensive one against the most powerful of our neighbours. This he heard with due attention, and seemed touched with a deep sense of his guilt and danger. But though cast down, yet he did not, he could not despair; so powerful, so divine were the consolations poured into his foul: and when daily asked about his health and state of mind, he still answered, he thanked God he was hearty and well, so as to sleep well, and eat his morsel; and thus he daily attended his duty with serious devotion.
December the 17th, being about this time questioned how he came to be discovered, and apprehended for this fact, he answered, that lieutenant Seal having been impressed into the navy the latter end of April, soon after turned evidence for the crown against himself and the crew, and that in consequence, he was apprehended the 7th of May, when ashore at Margate. He now again denied that he ever struck Van Asten, or saw any one strike him; but if he had been so struck, it must be after he had left the ship Enighadt, on which he had not been aboard above fifteen minutes; and when I read the indictment to him again, on this occasion, he denied that the six guineas therein charges, were taken by him, or one Doit, nor did he ask for any, but believes they were taken by lieutenant Seal and his company, as also the several other goods therein charged; and that the cambricks therein laid at 700 l. were by them brought aboard him, and quickly after sold by the said lieutenant, and another man, and then shared, among the ship's crew, to the amount of 225 l. or thereabouts, of which he declared he had no part; but the other men sold the bed-ticks, charged
100 l. value, and brought the price, and threw it down to him, which he kept to pay the charges of sitting out and victualling the vessel. Being examined whether he was ever concerned in smuggling? he said never, farther than when he sold oysters of fish on the French coast, he might bring a little goods for his own use.
December the 18th, he declared himself as easy and hearty as before he was apprehended. This day he received the holy communion, 'tis hoped, after a due preparation, with reverence and devotion; he continued on his knees at his private devotions, sometimes after the service was ended. Being afterwards asked whether he received hope and consolation, he answered, "he was never easier in all his life," for which he heartily thanked God. His two men that were respites, and some other prisoners, did also communicate with him, and declared their resolutions to live a new life. As for him, he looked more chearful and sprightly than usual: on this day he was again exhorted to hold fast this beginning of his considence stedfast to the end; yet avoiding security and presumption, but striving earnestly in prayer for patience to endure the last conflict with the powers of darkness, and to press forward to the high prize of our calling; and with the penitent thief, to look up to Jesus Christ, saying, "Lord, remember me in thy Kingdom." He expressed great satisfaction when told that the holy communion should be again administred to him the next morning, before his execution; and that I would be with him at the place, to do him all the service in my power; he answered, with pouring out an earnest blessing on me, for what had been done, and was farther intended to be done for him.
When visited again in the afternoon, after prayers, and the application of proper Psalms and portions of Scripture to him, we fell into a little conversation; wherein he own'd that he lamented his having quitted the king's service to go in a privateer, but had been over-presuaded by two or three of his acquaintance, in hopes of mending their fortune. He denied, however, that he was ever concerned in taking any thing from any other ship whatever; nor did he take this, but his lieutenant, contrary to his advice and caution, for that he said to him, go take a few hands and fetch back and men that are left aboard. On this day he had two letters written in his name, and directed one to his own, and the other to his wife's mother; both to the same purport as follows:
Hon. mother, "I In my last moments do dutifully send these lines, informing you that I have made a preparation for death, which I am to undergo that dreadful sentence to-morrow. I desire the favour of you to read the xxiiid chapter of St. Luke, and be a father and mother, as well as a grandmother, over my dear and tender infants, in whom, I hope, that God may graft such honest principles and morals in their hearts, that they may never be led, or go astray, or do any thing that is offensive to God or man, but to follow the rules of christian piety and moral honesty, which is the sefvent prayer of,
"P.S. Pray desire all persons to take warning by my example, to keep God's commandments, and observe his laws faithfully, and to serve their king and country, and do their duty in their sta
tion with diligence and honesty. May the blessing of God rest on you, my children and friends."
On the morning of execution.
December the 19th, when visited about seven, he appeared chearful and composed, with an unexpected vivacity in his looks; he went up to chapel, heard, and joined in the Litany, the Communion Service, with some other proper prayers, and with two other convicts, received the holy communion. When I parted with him in the chapel, I said to him, I pray God, support and comfort you! He answered, "I hope he was supported me in spirit, soul and body, and God Almighty bless you." He went directly down to the Press-yard, where the officers of the Admiralty waited to receive him; his irons were knocked off, he was put into the cart a quarter before nine, got to the usual place of execution in an hour, and spent about half and hour in prayer, confession of his faith, and speaking a few words to the people. When he repeated the Belief, being asked, dost thou stedfastly believe all this, he answered, "I hope I have it in me," adding, that he was easy and resigned as a lamb.
Between the times of prayer, he warned the people to avoid such facts and ill practices; as brought him to this untimely end; and not to die in the place of others, who had turned king's evidence, and have his men cleared or respited. He acknowledged however the justice of his sentence, hoped he had made a good use of his time, in a true and hearty repentance, and now felt the comfort of it, for that he had peace within, trusting his pardon was sealed in heaven, for that he felt it within him.
He warned the numerous crowd of spectators to live in the fear of God, and to keep his commandments, and be diligent to do their duty in their several stations; he added, that he would say more, if he knew how to speak to them. The people near-hand joined with him in prayer, were much affected, and several particularly a yound lad, wept a shower of tears. He prayed for, and blessed them, beseeching them to take warning by his example, and to continue praying for him as long as he had life; of which, after an affectionate farewell, the scaffold being withdrawn, he was deprived in a few minutes.
Being earnestly applied to, and properly exhorted immediately after his conviction, he seemed to take it to heart, wept bitterly, and set himself seriously to prepare for his expected change, attending the duties of the chapel daily when called upon, and behaving, himself regularly and decently therein. He never denied his guilt, as he had in effect owned the fact, and begged for mercy when convicted; but he did all along assert that he never was guilty of any other capital crime, and was drawn in by company and liquor to commit this fact.
Of his birth, parentage, and life, he gave the following account:
He was born in the city of Worcester, where his father lived sometime, was a shoemaker, and died at Gloucester about the year 1740. In his early days he went to school at Gloucester, and learned to read and write a little, and was bred up to labour and service : he first wound quills for the weavers at Gloucester, and then at Uxeter in Staffordshire. About the age of twelve years he came up to London, and lived at the Wheatsheaf in Holy-well-street, at the back of St. Clements, one year; then lived with
a button-maker in the Strand; from thence he became a waiter at the Bell-tavern in Friday-street, not quite a year; and then went in the Princess of Orange privateer , about the year 1746, for thirteen months, as captain's steward : he left that ship and station at Antigua, and returned to London in the Charming Sally, merchant-ship, the next year, 1747. He then hired himself as footman to a counsellor at law, in Gravelstreet, Hatton-garden, where he married the widow Marshal, whose ill behaviour, as he says, turned him into bad courses; but they had lived together about five or six years, and then she endeavoured to get him pressed into the sea-service, but could not. However, not being happy, he voluntarily went to sea in a tender, at Tower-stairs, and so aboard the Litchfield, capt. Barton. They sailed to Hallifax in North America, in the year 1755, when he was at the taking of fourteen French ships, of which some were ships of was, as the Alcide, and two others, the rest were merchantmen, for which no prize-money has ever yet been paid to him or any other of the captors; being taken, as we may suppose, before war was declared.
He was about twenty-seven years of age, has left a wife and one daughter of ten years old; but his wife had lived with another man, a tobacco-cutter, in Drury-land, ever since he went to sea, about five years ago. She has visired him but once or twice since he was in prison; once she brought two men with her, and gave him six-pence. Another time she brought his daughter, who read a chapter to him out of St. John's Gospel, to his great pleasure and comfort.
of his family difference, with regard to his wife, the following account came from a neighbour or two who may be supposed impartial.
It is remarked, first, that while Hartshorn and his wife lived peaceably and honestly together, they both got money, throve a pece, and lived decently and comfortably, having several useful household goods about them; but when one, or both, broke off this good course of life, they were soon reduced to poverty, and consumed in their vices.
A strong confirmation this of that divine admonition against domestic jars and quarrels, and especially against giving cause for them on either side, in high or low life, because, if a house he divided against itself, in cannot stand." Mark iii. 25. For where strife is, there is confusion, and every evil work." James iii. 16.
It seems she is old enough to be his mother, and when they disagreed, she had him before the justice for ill-treatment; he quitted her partly, and loitered about the town in various occupations; sometimes he used to porter , or deal in fowls and fruit, wholesale and retail; he then set up a barrow with greens and fruit, to supply which his wife used to give him reoney in a morning, and he brought little or no returns at night, till at last he sold stock and block, became bankrupt in this branch, and so the business dropt. He then went to sea , first as a volunteer, and then was impressed: during his absence, his wife took up with Matt L - n, tho' he had a wife and six children elsewhere.
When Hartshorn returned from sea, he had thoughts of recovering his wife, for which purpose, he made his approaches with proper caution, to her cellar in Drury-land, where she still lives; and having first reconnoitred the place, and made proper enquiries, he attempted to take it by surprize; with this design, down he went, with a full charged pot of beer in his hand, and drew near to salute and drink to her; but she, abashed at this unexpected return and visit, put him from her and kept him at bay on the stairs, till the gallant in possession should have time to get off in a whole skin. Ac
cordingly Matt decamped, and retreated the back way up stairs, thro' the house, and carried off his box with him, exulting in this piece of generalship, tho' he left the main body and part of the baggage in the power of this hostile invader: but he, the husband , did not make the best advantage of this success; she quickly found means to disseize and dismiss him that very night; and 'tis not without reason surmised on this occasion, that she had recourse to that all-subduing charm, which the greatest personages do not disdain to offer, and accept of in their turns: for she was seen to convey something out of her pocket to him, on which he ran away up the lane, and was no more seen with her or heard of in that neighbourhood, till known to be in Newgate for this fact.
It is said he was on his travels as an itineratn merchant, vulgarly called a pedlar , when tempted to steal this beast, for which he was convicted; and for which it is said he should not have been brought to trial, much less suffer, but for an unlucky breach of faith he was guilty of, after he was taken; for the owner having recovered his mare, would have made up the matter before the justice, on condition of his going directly to serve the king; which he seeming to consent to, made his escape, but being retaken, had no more the same terms offered him, but was dealt with according to the rigour of the law.
About February 5, the death - warrant came, in which poor Thomas Hartshorn was included; and greatly dejected he was, though he behaved himself like one who had expected and taken pains to meet this dreadful shock. At the same time William Budd, for horse-stealing, and James Brown, a soldier , for a robbery in St. James's park, were respited. Peter Hopgood being also ordered for execution on Monday following, the 11th of February.
Hartshorn was now again examined, whether he had searched his heart, and his life, for every secret lurking corruption and evil inclination, as well as every actual transgression, in order to repent him truly of all his former sins: he answered, that he had earnestly laboured so to do, and had made the best use he could of his time; and indeed from his behaviour there is reason to hope he spoke the truth. He was farther advised to consider how little it could avail him now to conceal any act of guilt; nay, how much it must hurt him in the next life, and at the day of judgment, if he should conceal any known guilt, which the glory of God, the good of men, or his own sincere repentance, peace of mind, and hope of pardon, obliged him to confess.
He still persisted to deny any other fact of this kind, or that ever he was given to pilfering or stealing, but had always kept a good character in his services. Upon this he was asked why then did your friends not appear to your character? he answered, he had a bad wife, which hurt his character, and had also been long at sea; and therefore all that knew him were doubtful, and ashamed to appear for him, having such a charge against him.
A creditable shopkeeper told me he had known him for several years, to be an industrious hard-working man, and never heard any charge against him before this, but blamed him for having given his wife a very bad cause to complain of his repeated ill behaviour and unfaithfulness to her, which gave occasion, though certainly no justifiable one, to her, to take up with another man, who lived with her during her husband's absence at sea, and ever since.
This man is said to be laborious and honest in other respects, but cannot be prevailed to quit this bosom sin of forsaking his own wife, and living with the wife, now the
widow of Hartshorn. But surely he had better be warned in time, than rue it when too late, and feel the punishment of it for ever.
February 10, Sunday morning, before service, and the administration of the holy communion, while I talked in private to Hopgood and himself at the chapel, he shed tears plentifully, being touched, as it seems, with a quicker sense of his past sins, and the sad lot they had brought him to. He joined in the service, and received the holy sacrament; and when he came to chapel in the afternoon, was so changed in his behaviour, that he was rather chearful in his temper, and open in his confessions, owned he had lived a loose and profane life; that he used to frequent neither church nor chapel on the Lord's day, but hired himself out to wait at certain public houses ; as at Hornsey-Wood, Pancras-Wells, and other outlets of these great cities, where too many dissolute persons resort to profane the Lord's day, sunk in impieties and vices. For such a day's waiting, he was allowed IS. 6d. by the house, and sometimes received perhaps as many shillings from the guests. Gold too dearly bought indeed.
But, reader, do not mistake me, as if I meant to condemn all innocent recreation of the mind and body on this holy day; no, far from it; here the evangelic rules take place, "I will have mercy, and not sacrifice:" and "The sabbath was made for man, and not man for the sabbath." The health and condition of sedentary, or labouring citizens, require a relaxation, provided you pay your first honours to the divine command and institutions, and do not rob the Sovereign and Saviour of the world of his portion of time, and his sacrifice of prayer, praise, and thanksgiving, nor defraud your own souls of their spiritual nourishment to life eternal.
But, who that reflects, must not condemn in himself and others, the great abuse of that precious liberty which the lenity of our laws both divine and human allow us; but for the perverse use whereof we are accountable, both at present and hereafter.
I am led into these thoughts, earnestly wishing they may be useful to others, by hearing this poor dying sinner again and again acknowledge, and bewail his mispent life and talents in these respects, when too late, and he had little or no time left to be redeemed and better employed: beseeching others therefore to take warning by him, while they enjoy a portion of that precious time, and while "it is called to-day." And he added, "he should be yet more wicked and inexcusable, if he denied or concealed this part of his mispent life, which might serve to warn others."
But perhaps the worst and darkest side of his character, was his lewdness, promiscuously giving a loose to his unbridles lust without restraint or remorse, and receiving in himself that dreadful recompence of a virulent infection, which was repeatedly communicated to his wife, and at last provoked her to resolve to abstain from him for the future; and in consequence threw her into the arms of another woman's husband, who perhaps had parted from his own wife on occasion of some such like injury.
What scenes of human vices and miseries are here exhibited! what loud lessons of temperance, soberness, and chastity, do they read to every rank? what warnings to conjugal love and fidelity? what praises of lawful and honourable marriage? what wrath and vengeance against adultery and fornication? how strongly confirm that divine threat, "whoremongers and adulterers God will judge."
Scenes like there daily and nightly presented in our streets, houses, hospitals, and prisons, preach better by experience, than the most divine orator can touch this subject. They prove more clearly and strongly, what
woes are treasured up for those, who on any pretence, however plausible, seduce men or women from their wives or husbands, or encourage, assist, or detain them, when seduced, from repenting and returning to their duty.
But it is observable, that malicious and evil-minded persons never want a pretext, for what nothing can excuse.
No good reason, perhaps, can be assigned, why the seducers of husbands, wives, or youth of either sex, from their families and parents, should not be deemed and treated as felons (or, what is worse, men stealers) with or without benefit of clergy, as the case is more or less aggravated.
But if the laws in being are thought too numerous and too sanguinary, may we not reduce the cases mentioned under the heads of stolen, or strayed and detained cattle; for such may they not in fair construction of law be accounted, who are not restrainable by law within moral rules and religious obligations?
It was the Jewish law, Exod. xxiii. 4, 6, 7, 9. "If thou meet thine enemy's ox or his ass going astray, thou shalt surely bring it back to him again." And again, "Thou shalt not wrest the judgment of thy poor in his cause. Keep thee far from a false matter; and the innocent and righteous flay thou not: for I will not justify the wicked." - Also "Thou shalt not oppress a stranger: for ye know the heart of a stranger, seeing ye were strangers in the land of Egypt."
What divine truth and justice, what equity and mercy, shines forth in these statutes and judgments given to Jews! And shall any men disgrace the name of Christians, of Englishmen, and reformed Christians too, who act below, and even contrary to these Jewish laws of justice and equity? What must we think of the miscreant who devises and promotes family breaches, and aggravates the consequent distresses of them; who perverts a distempered brain into the guilt of malice and wickedness, against the unhappy victims of it: if the most malignant corruption of the human heart can be supposed capable of producing such a case! how justly and strongly should the resentment of those deceived and misled, though perhaps well-meaning persons, turn against the flagrant deceiver, who by means of his own malice misguiding another's madness, seduced them to "take part in a false matter," and attempt to "stay the innocent, and justify the wicked."
The severe sufferings, the bitter anguish of many good families in these and the like cases, render these hints both useful and necessary, in order to warn and excite their neighbours, instead of misrepresenting and aggravating their calamities, to compassionate them; and to give and procure them such relief, as their case will admit.
Being convicted on his trial, he begged for mercy of the court. As it was plainly proved that he had owned before justice Welch, not only the taking of this black gelding, but also a grey one at the same time, the property of the same person; and also that he had been tried at the Old-Bailey sessions in January 1759, for a fact of the like kind; so that there was no difficulty afterwards, in bringing him to acknowledge the justice of his sentence: and when visited in this sorrowful situation, he shewed strong symptoms of real concern, and shed tears on several occasions; for he now saw and felt what a pass he had again brought himself to, after some remarkable and unmerited, if not unexpected, deliverances. He now found himself "fast bound in misery and iron, because he had rebelled against
the word of the Lord, and lightly regarded the counsel, and the chastening of the most High." He now found himself consined to a dark and dismal cell, excluded from that light, and deprived of that liberty he had so long and often abused, now under the dreadful sentence of death, every day expecting the report to be made, and the death-warrant to seal his doom.
But whether his grief and dejection of spirit was from a right cause, from a sense of his sins, and for having transgressed the law of God and forfeited his favour, or whether it was from the fear of suffering only, or both these combines, must be left and submitted to the searcher of hearts. Mean time, no pains were spared, no means omitted, to bring him to a true and hearty repentance, how successfully will better appear in what follows.
He never omitted a due and constant attendence on the duties of the chapel, with a serious decency and seeming devotion; and when questioned at several times, he gave the following account of himself.
That he was now about 42 years of age, was born at Hetherdon, three miles from Andover, where his father lived, a farmer; he learned to read and write, and help his father in the farming business till 13 years of age; when he went to live with Mr. Noice, gentleman farmer at Lurgison in Wiltshire, where he tended horses , and drove a team for one year. He next lived with farmer Shepherd at Collinborn, about two miles from the former, and served him above a year as a driver of the team , a thresher , and in other country work. He then lived with Mr. Gilbert, a maltster at Andover, looked after his saddle-horses , and did his business for a year and a half. He was then hired to esquire Cox at Sotne-Eason in Somersetshire, five miles on this side Wells, where he lived three or four years. His next place was to be coachman to madam Cristnor at Epsom, for about two years and a quarter. His next remove was to esquire Lant at Putney, as coachman to him, where he said he had the care of ten black geldings, and lived with him five years and a half. After which he drove for , and lived with Sir Joshua Vanneck, almost five years, from whom he owned he was discharged for some misbehaviour, about five years ago, and has never thriven so well since. He spoke with great respect and gratitude of that worthy gentleman, acknowledged he had given him some just offence, which as appears from one of his fellow-servants, was partly by neglect of duty, occasioned chiefly by unseasonable and excessive drinking; by which means an unlucky accident fell out in his driving the family home from a visit in Kent, which had like to have proved fatal to the postillion; the coachman being in liquor, was wayward and obstinate, and would have gone the wrong road, while the postillion endeavouring to keep in the right way, the horses had a sudden check by the coachman's reins, which flung the poor postillion off a great way forward, and cut his forehead deeply, so that another servant was obliged to take his place in order to drive home.
On his being discharged from this good service, he returned to his principal employer mr. Bishop, in the Old-Baily, with whom he has been off and on ever since, including such services as he had been put into by his means, and with a character from his former places. Among these he mentioned that he had drove for several worthy gentlemen of this city, some of which liked and hired him, as mr. Littler, mr. Le Grand, to whom he was recommended by his good master sir J. V. then returned to mr. Bishop again, stayed about 12 months with him, and had not left him above a week when this last trouble came upon him, for which he was taken up at Hackney.
It was his unhappiness to have the character of being addicted to pilfering among his fellow servants, and others that knew him best; of which there are several instances prior to this fact for which he suffered. He is suspected to have stolen his fellow servants or brother coachman's stockings when washed and hung up to dry in the yard where he was; and to have stolen a watch at the Yellow Lion in the Old-Baily. He was tried at the sessions of January, 1759, for stealing two horses, and though he had the good luck to be acquitted, yet he confessed before his death that he was concerned in that fact, but in what degree, or whether by himself or with accomplices, he would not explain. After his acquittal last year, his former master Bishop, partly out of compassion, fearing, left after such a slur on his character, none else would care to employ him, and partly because he knew him to be a hard-working man took him again into his stable-yard, yet with proper caution, setting him first to work at the anvil in the forge, and as he behaved himself with diligence and apparent honesty there, he put him forward to other work, in which he seemed to go on very well till the beginning of last winter, when he was found tardy in a sack of oats and some hay, which, instead of delivering as ordered, he had sold, and applied the money to his own use.
The monstrous ingratitude and folly turned him adrift, exposed him to necessity, and threw him into his former practice of horse stealing again, which at last brought him under my care and endeavours to reform this obstinate and irreclaimable sinner; for however touched and sensible he was of his sins for the present, it is much to be feared that, had he been spared and liberty, he would have returned to his former bad courses. This was the opinion of those who best knew him; even of some of his fellow servants, one of which superstitiously believed that he could not help thieving; but let all servants and others know, this is quite absurd and ridiculous in any other sense, than that his evil habit or disposition to this crime was so strong, that he found it very difficult to resist the temptations to it, when laid in his way. Whether those temptations sprung from a bad heart, or the unlucky circumstances of necessity he put himself under to feed his other vices and extravagancies, I know not; for it is said he was a company-keeper, and injured his wife in a very provoking manner, by turning her out of his bed, and putting a strange woman in her place: but neither this nor many other of his evil practices did he mention to me; they came from other hands.
When asked how he came to think of committing such a crime as this for which he was to die, he said he did not knew how to answer for that; all he could say was, that he was out of place, and his money ran short. He often expressed his sorrow for having disobliged so good a master as sir J. Vanneck, from whose favourable interposition he still had hopes of a respite, and it was not easy to dissuade him from leaning too much on that hope: however he reflected on himself severely for this bad step of having forfeited that service, and seemed desirous it should be remembered for the warning of others; he supposed he had been in liquor, and, when blamed, gave some pert answer, which farther provoked his master to discharge him, and though he had gone to other places, he never prospered since; he owned it was the common fault of servants not to knew when they are well, and to be content, humble, and thankful for it; "but when they have got a full belly, and money in their pocket, they will not behave themselves with duty or decency to their masters or others:" these were his words or to this effect, and he hoped all servants would take warning by him.
He is reported to have been light-fingered from his early days; and that this last was neither his first or second in the way of horse-stealing, though he pretended to me that this was but the second; however I had it from unquestionable authority, that when he lived at Putney, he offered a horse to sale, but the person, to whom it was offered, told him, "by your price I suspect you did not come honestly by that horse; go, take my advice, let him loose to be taken up as a stray, left you bring yourself to farther trouble:" whether he followed this advice or no doth not appear. He would not own that he began this practice till about November, 1758, when he was charged with stealing two horses of the draught kind belonging to two different persons, taken inMiddlesex , near harrow on the Hill, value 16 or 17 l. for this he prayed for pardon of God, and of the injured parties, beseeching the divine goodness to make up to them in blessing prosperity that which he is unable to make restitution for. The last fact he owned was committed at Raceborough in Buckinghamshire, being a horse stolen from one Cook, but that he committed no other fact between these, nor at any other time; but surely he betrayed himself in this, for it cannot be the same fact laid in the indictment on which he was convicted, the property of one Jones in the parish of Gadsbury in the county of Bucks, where the stole two horses; however he declared that he was guilty of these two facts only, and of the former he was acquitted: supposing it true that he was guilty but of two such facts, it is a lesson to transgressors that their misdeeds will come to light, and be brought to condign punishment. Servants in genera, and coachmen in particular, should be warned from hence, not to begin the habit of purloining and pilfering their masters nay, oats, or other goods, whether under their own care or not, left the practice grow upon them till too strong to be withstood, left they be given over to fall from one wickedness to another, till brought to open shame and suffering; and it is the common complaint, that no fett of men want warning, or lose more by their misbehaviour, than coachmen, especially the drivers of hacks, whose extorting temper, insatiable avarice, and daring insults on their employers (particularly if they think them proper objects, such as gentle belles, beaus, fribbles, or any of the weaker sex), most frequently demand the notice of the magistrate, and correction of the law.
To little purpose was it for me to examine this criminal about the regular performance of his duty of God. Coachmen and cooks are classes of servants that presume themselves exempt from going to church or attending divine service, by the necessity of tending their charge, which they make their common excuse for this fatal neglect, and which exposes them a prey to every temptation to every vice and impiety; but certainly there are times of leisure and liberty, many blessed opportunities of early and late divine service, in these great and opulent cities, and elsewhere, for that most necessary duty to their Creator and Redeemer, if they chose to know and lay hold of them: and we may be convinced no prudent and humane, much less christian masters, would hinder or refuse, but rather encourage, and even insist on their using this most necessary any only sure means of becoming faithful and good servants to God and man.
If they themselves reflect and consider, they must be convinced they are better than the beasts that perish, superior to the cattle they drive, in nature, as in place and powers, made for far higher purposes than any thing in this present world can answer or satisfy; and it is hoped this poor sinner was convinced of this, and much more, before he passed to death and judgment. He joined in receiving the holy communion the Sunday and Monday morning before his execution, and seemed chearful, composed, and resigned.
In the Morning of EXECUTION.
IT was said by the keepers that Hartshorn was somewhat restless and raving in the night, and called for a barber, but when visited in the morning about seven, he answered me rationally, and was composed, and both of them joined in the service, and being properly exhorted, and earnestly recommended to the divine mercy, they were desired to read, in the way, by turns to each other, and were observed to do so as well as they could, but said they were much interrupted by the motion of the cart, and the noise around them.
The usual devotions were offered up at the place of execution. Hartshorn again declared he was guilty of this one fact only; and Hopgood of those two only which he had before confessed: my reason for doubting of this I have hinted before. Each being asked particularly, they both declared they forgave all injuries and wrongs as they hoped to be forgiven; but Hartshorn said he had before warned those who had injured him to repent, and he now again warned them with his last and dying breath: on these terms they joined in a prayer for the forgiveness of those who had any wife offended them.
And since it is declared "except ye repent ye shall all likewise perish." As this is the sole indispensable condition on which we can obtain pardon at the hand of God, may we not say we have a right to except repentance, confession, and satisfaction of those "who trespass against us," in order to their pardon either from God or ourselves. Just before Hartshorn was turned off, he spoke to his brother, and shed tears. They were repeatedly recommended to God's gracious mercy and protection, and we parted. Two hearses, one for each, waited at the place of execution.
P. S. A neighbour, who knew Hartshorn's case as to his crime, and the affair of his wife, visited him the Friday before his execution, when he desired that the man, who lived with his wife, might be sent to him, for he wanted to speak to him: to this his neighbour objected, saying, "I hope you have no thoughts of doing him any mischief," and for what other purpose would you see him? you may employ your time for better purposes; he answered that he did not intend to hurt him: however he was put off it, whether he intended revenge or reconciliation being quite uncertain; or whether a good purpose might not be changed to a bad action on fight of the provoking injurer; to reflect that he should be hanged for stealing a mare which the owner recovered, but that the adulterer, who seduced and detained his wife, and which the husband could never recover, should escape the gallows or gibbet!
HARTSHORN was sometime a servant and waiter in public houses, and Hopgood a coachman, which naturally introduces proper warnings to that numerous class of servants, and other in general, to which is prefixed an Introductory Admonition to persons of all ranks and degrees to lend a helping band to reform the crying abominations of our prisons, and some other evils among us, one, somewhat singular in the case of Hartshorn, by way of preparative to the approaching General Fast.
Fcunda culp fcula, nuptias Primm inquinavere, & genus, & domos: Hoc fonte derivata clades. In patriam, populosque fluxit.
Fruitful of crimes this age first stain'd Their hapless offspring, and profan'd The nuptial bed, from whence the woes, Which various and unnumber'd rose, From this polluted fountain head, Our country and the nations overspread.
HOR. Lib. iii. Od. 6.