THE ORDINARY of NEWGATE'S ACCOUNT of the Behaviour, Confession, & Dying Words Of the FIFTEEN MALEFACTORS Who were executed at TYBURN On Wednesday the 18th of OCTOBER, 1749.
NUMBER VI. For the said YEAR.
Printed for, and sold by T. PARKER, in Jewin-street, and C. CORBETT, over-against St. Dunstan's Church, in Fleet-street, the only authorised Printers of the Dying Speeches.
THE ORDINARY of NEWGATE'S ACCOUNT of the Behaviour, Confession, &c.
BY Virtue of the King's Commission of the Peace, OYER, and TERMINER, and Goal-Delivery of Newgate, held before the Right honourable Sir WILLIAM CALVERT , Knight , Lord-Mayor of the City of London; the Right Honourable the Lord Chief Justice WILLES, the Hon. Mr. Baron LEGGE, RICHARD ADAMS , Esq ; Recorder , and others of his Majesty's Justices of OYER, and TERMINER, and Goal-Delivery of Newgate, holden for the said City of London, and County of Middlesex, at Justice Hall in the Old Bailey, on Wednesday the 6th, Thursday the 7th, Friday the 8th, Saturday the 9th, Monday the 11th, Tuesday the 12th, Wednesday the 13th, and Thursday the 14th of September, in the 23d Year of his Majesty's Reign; JOHN COLLISON, GEORGE ALDRIDGE, JOHN WILSON, BOSOVERN PENLEZ, JOHN MOONEY, JAMES ARNOLD, DAVID BOYD, CORNELIUS DANOVER, THOMAS ROBINSON, JOHN CROSS, PHILIP LACEY, JOHN ALFORD, JOHN GRAHAM, WILLIAM CAVENAGH, THOMAS HASSEATE, or HAZARD, THOMAS MYNOTT, JAMES MCGENNIS, MARY DYMAR, and THOMAS CRAWFORD, were capitally convicted, and received Sentence of Death acordingly.
Since they were convicted, they have behaved for the Generality with such Decency as became their unhappy Case; and tho' HASSEATE and ALFORD were thought to have laid Schemes for an Escape; yet upon being found out, and chained down in their Cells, they were very quiet, and no Disturbance did ensue. The rest constantly attended at divine Service, and appeared devout and penitent. CAVENAGH, MCGENNIS, and CROSS, being Papists , had a proper Gentleman to attend them.
On Thursday the 12th Instant the Report of 19 Malefactors was made by Mr. Recorder to His Majesty; when He was pleased to order the 16 following for Execution, viz. John Wilson, Bosovern Penlez, John Collison, George Aldridge, James Arnold, David Boyd, Thomas Robinson, John Cross, Philip Lacy, John Alford, John Graham, William Cavenagh, Thomas Hazard, Thomas Mynott, James Mcgennis, and Mary Dymar, on Wednesday the 18th Instant.
1, 2. John Wilson and Bosovern Penlez were indicted, for that they, together with divers other Persons, to the Number of 40 and upwards, being feloniously and riotously assembled, to the Disturbance of the public Peace, did begin to demolish the dwelling House of Peter Wood , against the Form of the Statute in that Behalf made and provided , July the 3d.
3. James Arnold was indicted, for that he in a certain Field, near the King's Highway, upon William Whitebread did make an Assault, putting him in bodily Fear and Danger of his Life, 1 Silver Watch, val. 50 s. 3 Iron Keys, 3 s. 6 d. in Monies numbered, the Goods of the same William Whitebread, did steal, take, and carry away , July 1st.
9. John Alford was indicted, for that he, in a certain Field or open Place, near the King's Highway, upon Thomas Lillwall , and him the said Thomas Lillwall, in bodily Fear and Danger of his Life, did put, 1 Guinea and 15 d. in Monies number'd, did steal, from the Person of the said Thomas Lillwall , July 15th.
10. John Graham was indicted, for that he on the King's Highway, upon Saven Nelson , did make an Assault, putting him in bodily Fear, and Danger of his Life, and taking from his Person 3 s. 1 d. the Monies of the said Saven , July 19th.
11, 12, 13. William Cavenagh , Thomas Hasseate, or Hazard , and Thomas Mynott , were indicted for that they in a certain Field or open Place, near the King's Highway, upon Alexander Baily did make an Assault, and him, the said Alexander Baily, in bodily fear did put, 1 Silver Watch, val. 40 s. 1 Brass Thimble, and three Half-pence in Money number'd from his Person did steal, take, and carry away , July 19th.
14. James M'gennis was indicted, for that he, together with Benjamin Looly , and Edward Looly , on the King's Highway, on Paul Gotobed did make an Assault, putting him in bodily Fear, and Danger of his Life, 1 Hat. val. 1 s. 1 Peruke, val 1 s. and 1 Silk Handkerchief, val. 2 s. from his Person did steal, take, and carry away .
15. Mary Dymar was indicted, for that she, on the King's Highway, upon Cornelius Hamiss did make an Assault, putting him in corporal Fear, and Danger of his Life, 1 Silver Watch, val. 3 l. one Peruke, the Goods of the said Cornelius Hamiss, did steal, take, and carry away , July 5th.
16. Philip Lacy was indicted, for that he, together with William Tidd not yet taken, on the King's Highway, upon Henry Applen , did make an Assault, putting him in corporal Fear, and Danger of his Life, 1 Man's Hat, 1 Silk Handkerchief, val. 2 s. and 3 s. 3 d. in Monies numbered, did steal, take and carry away , July 25th.
1. PHILIP LACY , aged 17, was born at Mile-End; being never used to School, nor put to any Trade, was wholly ignorant of all that is good, and living in Idleness for the most Part of his Life, was exposed to every Evil Youth are liable to fall into. The Church he never went to, the Sabbath was spent in an Alehouse, or Gin-Shop, where the Company was as wicked, if not more so than himself. He work'd at a Rope-Walk on Stepney- Cause-way for 7 Years, he says, but 'twas only now and then, not constantly, and lodged with his Parents in the Neighbourhood, from whom he used to pilfer what little Matters he could lay his Hand on, and fell all to bear idle and extravagant Expences. After some time he began to stay away from Home at Nights, and would spend them in Drinking and Debauchery. So that going on from one ill Practice to another, without thinking what he was about, he has brought himself, thro' Folly and Wickedness, to this unfortunate End.
He said, he never committed any Robbery till this, for which he suffers; except only one Day, as he was going to the House of his Parents, he happened to fix an evil Eye on 2 Shirts, as they lay in a Neighbour's House; and no-body being in Sight, he took them away, and sold them for his own Use, spending the Money idly and wickedly.
He says, that he and the rest concerned in this Robbery, had been drinking in the Minories at the Sign of the Golden Lyon ; William Godwin , executed last August, proposed taking a Walk towards Evening, which was agreed. As they went along, he says, they saw a Man lying asleep on a Bulk, from whom Francis Otter, otherwise Johnson , executed also last August, took away his Shoes, which pawning for 2 Pints of Gin, they drank it among them. After this, going towards White-Chapel Mount , they met the Prosecutor driving a Flock of Sheep. One of the Gang ask'd him, whether they were his own, and he answering in the Affirmative, they hoped to make a good Booty of him, attacked him immediately, and fell to rifling his Pockets, But they were disappointed;
for upon Search, they found only a Bag with 3 s. 3 d. in it. Upon an Outcry of stop Thief, they all ran away, and Lacy escaped for that Time, but was taken at Limehouse, August 24th or 25th, and being had before Sir Samuel Gower , Knt . was committed to Newgate, and the Fact being proved against him, was found guilty. He had great Hopes that his tender Years would have saved his Life, said, he was heartily sorry for what he had done amiss, and would never do so again, could he but escape this Time. When he found he must suffer, he begg'd of God to forgive his wicked Life, and appeared very penitent.
2. JOHH GRAHAM , aged 35, was born at Londonderry, in the Kingdom of Ireland, and has given this Account of himself, viz. I came of poor and honest Parents, and my Father dying at Sea, my Mother was left a poor Widow. She being not able to give me Learning, nor to do any thing for me, a right hon. and noble Lord of the Kingdom of Ireland, was pleased to take me, and give me some Learning, until I was fit for a Trade. He would have given me my Choice, but I would fix on no other way of Life but going to Sea. At last, I went to Sea of my own Accord, against my Mother's Will; which I fear was the Cause of breaking her Heart, and has been a Means of helping me to this unfortunate End, because I disobeyed her. When I left her, I went to Dublin, and went along with a Dutch Trader to France, and so continued going to Sea, until now, which takes up the Space of about 17 Years.
I have been but a little while on Shore, and had entered on board another Ship, but coming on Shore was in Trouble, from which Hazard and Cavenagh rescued me; and that same Night this Robbery is sworn to have been done by me; but Hazard and Cavenagh, and others own the Fact, nor was I in Company with them, or ever guilty of a Robbery with them, or any-Body else.
When I was in the East-Indies a great many Years ago, to my great Grief and Sorrow, I was guilty of that foul and brutal Sin of Sodomy, for which and other Sins of my past mispent Life, such as keeping Company with lewd Women, and getting drunk, I am apt to think, it hath pleased God to suffer me to be in this great Calamity. But the Fact for which I am convicted, I never was guilty of; for 'twas done by Hazard and Cavenagh, as was acknowledged by them in Court, before Sentence was passed upon me. However, I forgive my Prosecutor, and die in Charity with all the World.
THese few Lines come to acquaint you of my good Health, and good Heart, both ready and willing to die, and to leave a World not worth thinking of. I have done my best to make myPeace with God, and so shall continue to do, till my Soul takes its Flight to the highest Heavens above, where is no Sorrow nor Trouble, but all Joys for evermore. My Dear, you are all the Thoughts and Care I have in this World, and that you would for sake all your Sins, and repent of them in Time while God offereth his Mercy, is what I desire. For it is a sad thing to be plung'd into Eternity not to be prepared for it. I wish, as you love your Soul, that you would take care of it, and let these Lines take Place in your Heart. My Dear, it is my Duty to leave this Charge with you, which I hope you will accept as kindly and as willingly as I send it you. Don't think of or mind my Misfortune, for it is no more than I justly deserve from God; because I wanted not for Knowledge of Good, but always did Evil against the Laws of the Almighty. However, my Dear, there is a great Comfort left me, and that is, I am not guilty of what the Man swore against me. God forgive him for it, and I hope he will not lay it to his Charge; for as I hope for Forgiveness from God, I forgive him.
'Twas God that thus suffered me to be punished for my former wicked and vile Doings, to be an Example for offending the just and good God. My Dear, I do think myself happy to die in an innocent Cause; for God is a righteous Judge, who will not condemn the Innocent; and for losing my Life now, I hope to have Life everlasting. Remember me to all enquiring Friends, and as I know, my Dear, you can't provide or help my Body to be buried, never trouble yourself about it. So I have no more to say, but the Blessing of God attend you, and keep you for ever. My Dear, I am no more concern'd for my Death, than if I was to live. My Dear, these are the last Lines from your dying Husband, John Graham.
P. S. Keep these Lines and this Paper by you always, which I hope you will think on for your Soul's Sake, and I hope to see you in the Heavens above hereafter.
3. THOMAS HAZARD , aged 24, was born in St. Andrew's, and gives the following Account of himself, viz. I was born of very honest Parents, who did their Endeavour to bring me up in the Fear of God; but my Father dying when I was but seven Years of Age, my Mother brought me to Newcastle, where we stay'd but a short time, and then came up to London, where she liv'd in good Repute for some Time; but I being of a rambling and wicked Disposition, had a Mind to go to Sea ; and a Merchant, who was a Townsman of my Mother's, took me an Apprentice at nine Years of Age; he put me on Board one of his Ships, which was bound for a Trading Voyage; but the Captain using me ill, caus'd me to run away, when up the Streights, and I went to Marseilles. While I was there, an English Lady took care of me, and ask'd me, where my Parents liv'd; I told her, and she sent Word to my Mother, and my Mother hearing of it, sent for me Home. The Lady put me on Board a Ship bound to Porte, in order to go to my Mother, where I met with as bad Usage as I had
done with my Master, notwithstanding my Passage was paid for. This caused me to run away at Porte, and a Friar there took care of me, till I got a Ship: He would have had me turn Papist, but I would not; and so I followed the Sea ever since, which is 15 Years, and makes my Age 24.
In this Time I have done and committed a great many Sins against the Almighty, which, I hope, he will pardon, and wash away, with my Savoiur Jesus Christ's Blood, that was shed for me; and I shall here begin to lay down some of my wicked Doings: The first was, my meeting William Cavenagh and Samuel Hobbs in Crutched-Friars, having been to the Pay-Office to look for Wages. I met with these two Men; having drank with them, one of them (Cavenagh) desired me to come to his Lodgings, which I did not do till some Time after; and when I came there, to my great Surprize, a Woman, who pass'd for his Wife fell into Tears, and to'd me, he was in Trouble, and it was upon Account of a Quarrel, however, a Robbery had been sworn against him, and another whom I did not know. I said I would go and see poor Cavenagh; next Day I did so, and told him, any Thing that was in my Power I would do for him; and he desired me to go to his Landlord, who supply'd me with what I wanted, upon Security of my Wages. Finding my Wages unlikely to be come at, by reason of my being prick'd run upon the Mercury's Books, I left his Landlord for fear of being arrested for what I ow'd him: And this made me think of going to Sea again; but before I could go, William Cavenagh got clear of his Trouble. We drank together, and he said, he was afraid we should both be arrested by his Landlord, and taxed me with going upon a roguish Account: Told him, I did not; neither did I at that Time.
He coming to me several Times, to persuade me to go with him, and another whose Name is Samuel Hobbs: I accordingly did at last, and we set out for his Landlord's House: They left me at a Publick-House, till they return'd back to me, and brought with them Cavenagh's Landlord's Watch, which we sold for, I believe, 2 l. 2 s.
The next Thing we were guilty of, was going to St. Catharine's, at an Organ-House; we met with a Man whom we had seen several Times before, who took us for his Friends, but he found himself greatly mistaken; for we robb'd him of all he had, though I cannot remember how much it was; for which Fact Samuel Hobbs was, in a short Time after, taken up, and Transported.
Then William Cavenagh and I was left alone; and the next Robbery we committed, was upon the Water, on board a Ship along-side the Wharf, at the Hermitage, whence we took a Bale of Blue Broad Cloth, and sold it for 7 l. 17 s. and then we furnish'd ourselves with Fire-Arms.
We have committed several more Robberies upon the Water, more than I can think of at present.
The next Robbery we committed, was upon a Gentleman we met with near the Red-House at Deptford; we took from him a Silver Watch, but the Mob cameso thick and fast, that we had not Time to take his Money.
The next was upon a Gentleman in Rotherhithe, whom we robb'd of one Guinea and an half: Another Man we robb'd on Tower-Hill, of about 3 l. the Man being very much in Liquor, I believe, fell down in the Ditch, and broke his Leg; but that was no our doing. In a little Time afterwards we robb'd a Man, near the Place I spoke of before, of a Silver-Watch, one Pair of Shoe-Buckles, one Pair of Knee Buckles, and some Money. The same Night we robb'd a Gentleman in Houndsditch of about 18 Guineas, some Silver, and a Silver Watch. The next Robbery I committed was with one John Steward, and Cavenagh, upon a Gentleman, of a Silver Watch, and some Money, near the Royal Exchange. Just after we robb'd another Gentleman, in Lombard-Street, of a Pinchbeck Watch, and some Money. A Night after we robb'd a Gentleman of eight Shillings, his Hat, and his Cane; and, for the same Crime, John Steward was executed.
After this, William Cavenagh, and I, and one more, robb'd a Brewer's Clerk of 12 Guineas, a Silver Watch, and some Silver; then Thomas Mynott came into our Gang, and we robb'd a Man of 3 s. near Stepney-Fields; and the same Night attack'd another Man, but were oblig'd to fly for it.
That Night I was taken, and kept in Shadwell Watch House till Morning, when being brought before a Justice of Peace, I was cleared, no Body appearing against me. Immediately I went, and joined my two Companions, and David Boyd, and we robb'd three Men in Stepney-Fields, of some Silver, and went to Gravesend. In our Return, between that and Chatham, we robb'd a Post-Chaise, with two Gentlemen in it, of some Silver, and a Man and his Wife of some more Silver, and then came up to London, and robb'd a Man of a Gold Ring in Stepney-Fields.
We went afterwards on Deptford Road, and robb'd four Men of two Watches, two Pair of Silver Buckles, a Guinea, some Silver, and a Broad-Cloth Suit of Cloaths. Then we robb'd a Norway Man, that we met in a House on Tower-Hill, of half a Crown in Silver, and Seven-pence in Half-pence, for which one John Graham was taken, and condemn'd to dye with me; but he is not guilty, he is innocent. The same Night we went to a Chandler's Shop, and had some Liquor there; but before we left the House, we robb'd the Master of it of half a Guinea, a Pair of Gold Bobs, and one of his Lodgers of a Silver Watch. This was all done in East Smithfield.
The next Place we went to was Wapping, where we went into a Publick-House, and had some Liquor, which we paid for, and went away. Being very much in Liquor, we run soul of a Taylor in Sampson's Garden, and robb'd him of his Watch, three Pence, and a Thimble; for which we now die; and I hope the Lord will have Mercy on my Soul, and that all Men, who hear of my unhappy Fate, will take Warning by it.
He added, moreover, the Morning before Execution, that he had frequently sent for People, and told them of Things he never knew any Thing of,in Hopes to cajole them out of Money; but that he begg'd every Body would forgive him, and he dy'd in Charity with all Men.
4. THOMAS MYNOTT , aged 24, was born at Copenhagen, in the Kingdom of Denmark, and learnt the Trade of a Cooper , with his Father. When his Father dy'd, his Mother's Brother, he says, put him Apprentice to a Ship-Carpenter , to whom he serv'd three Years on Shore, and two more on Board a Ship. His Voyages have been chiefly to Virginia, and the West-Indies, in the Merchant's Service trading in those Seas. He was sometime since at Portmahone, from whence he sail'd, when he came to London last. He was acquainted with Hazard Abroad, but not in England till about a Month before he was apprehended. He came from Sea about four Months ago, with a good deal of Money in his Pocket, which, he says, he spent in a Hurry, in riotous living and drinking, and keeping lewd Women Company; for which he is (not without great Reason) heartily sorry.
He associated with Hazard, he says, upwards of a Fortnight, before he knew he was given to Thieving and Robbery. He was concern'd in many Robberies with Hazard, Cavenagh, and others: Hazard brought him acquainted with Cavenagh, and when Hazard stay'd at Home with his Wife, as he would do sometimes, then he went upon the Patrole with Cavenagh. The first Robbery he was concern'd in, was in Stepney-Fields; the second at Limehouse; and various Robberies he was concern'd in, both with Hazard and Cavenagh; sometimes all three in Company, sometimes with one, and sometimes with the other. He never went with them, he says, to sell what Prizes they got; and out of the Whole, he declares, he never had above two Guineas. He was a poor, ignorant, unhappy Man, no doubt led astray by the other two, who were long us'd to these wicked Practices; and what we may call, in their own cant Term, very knowing; having been the Instrument of bringing others to Ruin before him, as themselves have declared before Execution.
Of this Robbery, for which they are convicted, Mynott was guilty; for he took the Man by the Mouth, after Hazard had robb'd him of his Watch, threaten'd him, and forbid him to call out; and Cavenagh turning out his Pockets, took from him three Half-pence, and a Thimble. He was a surly sullen Mortal, with Difficulty perswaded to do any Thing towards working out his Salvation; but at last, did put himself to the Pains of saying, he hop'd God would have Mercy on his Soul.
5. JAMES ARNOLD , aged 40, was born in the Parish of St James's Clerkenwell, Who, in the younger Part of his Life, lived and work'd with his Father, being a Malster and Corn-chandler , till about the Age of 19,
having fallen into bad Company, he committed a Robbery for which he was tryed at the Old-Bailey, and transported for 7 Years. During his being abroad, he is said to have behaved so very well, having gained the Esteem of those to whose Care he was committed, and of all who knew him, that after his 7 Years of Banishment from his native Country were over, he was offered a Place, to be Surveyor of the Negroes, and other Planters, and Slaves , which he had accepted, and remained there, but for Invitations from London to return home. His Parents, as he had been so long absent, were naturally inclined to desire to see him again, and no doubt, thought it reasonable he should return to their Favour, having purged away the Guilt of his Offence, whatever it was, by suffering the Punishment of the Law. Accordingly his 7 Years being expired, he received a Letter from them requesting him to come Home, and promising him their Protection and Favour, upon his resolving, and promising to forbear unlawful, and wicked Actions, and being a good Boy for the future. This Invitation he, no doubt, received readily, and immediately took the first Opportunity to make the best of his way for England.
Some Time after his return Home, he married a Wife, and his Father put him into a little Shop in Old-Street, in the Corn-chandlery Way, where he lived for some Years, in a tolerable Manner. His decent and sober Behavior gaining him the Esteem of his Neighbourhood. He constantly attended divine Service at his Parish Church of St. Lukes, brought some of his Family with him, and was look'd upon as a Man upon whom his former punishment had a proper Effect, and that he was reclaimed.
However, to his great Misfortune, there were some, who used to resort to his House, that bore too near Relation to him, one would think, to contrive his Ruin; yet however, their Management work'd it for him, or at least, he says, led him to it as effectually as if they had designed it. The pernicious Practice of Gin-drinking, too common now a-days, was introduced into his Family, his Wife's Morals, which heretofore had been Proof against Temptations, were corrupted. His Affairs going backward, tho' himself industrious, he found it would not do, and therefore he resolved to remove from that Habitation, and came to live at Cow-Cross, near Smithfield.
He used to be employed by his Father, while he lived in Old-Street, who supplied him with Goods to carry on Business; but that would not do to maintain his Family, upon account of Extravagancies which had now crept in among them, and he was tempted to have recourse to unjustifiable Ways of dealing with his Father, thro' the Connivance of them of his own House, if not by their Persuasion. He says, he usedto carry away his Father's Goods, and convert them to his own Use, without his Knowledge, or rendring him any Account of them. And if those of a Man's own House prove his Enemies, (as is too often the Case) very dangerousone's they prove to be indeed. Somewhat, however, happened in the Father's Family, which kept the unhappy Son from the House, and his Affairs being become desperate, he scarce knew which Way to turn himself, but turn'd the worst Way he could have chosen; for it turn'd him at last off the Stage of the World. Distress'd as he was, with what few Pence he could pick up, he went down to the Fleet-Market, he says, to lay out to the best Advantage for Provision to supply his Family's Wants. This, he says, was the Design he went down there with, that Evening. But meeting with one Mathew Bedford , they renewed their old Acquantance, and they, together with one John Chambers , who was admitted Evidence upon the Trial, went into the Fields toward the New River-Head, with a Resolution to stop the first Gentleman they met with. Accordingly they met the Prosecutor, and robb'd him as the Indictment sets forth. He owns the Fact, and wishes others to take Warning by his sad Fate, hopes Forgiveness from God, and all Men.
6. MARY DYMAR , aged 22, was born in the Parish of Rotherhithe, and bred to Plain Work . After her Infant Years, she lived some-time with an Aunt, who, she says, was a good Woman, kept her to work, taught her her Duty to God, and Man, and took her to Church with her every Lord's Day. This Aunt, unhappily for her, left the Town, going to reside wholly in the Country, and she was obliged to return to her Parents who kept a Public House. Here she was in the way of Temptation, which before she was a Stranger to; and being but very young, was in a dangerous Situation, and unguarded against the many ill Practices which such Houses too frequently are the Nurseries of, she fell a Sacrifice to wicked Designs. We don't find she was notorious, but there may be a Time when the most cautious may stumble and fall, much more the unwary and such as have not learn'd to look well to their Ways.
About 2 Years ago, she says, she was married to Daniel Dymar at the Fleet, her Father and Mother being present at Solemnizing the Nuptials 'Twas but a bad Marriage; for her Husband kept Company with another Woman, and very frequent were the Abuses offered to this poor Girl, and upon her complaining of it, he thought proper to leave her. About 3 Months past, she says, she has been acquainted with Crawford, who was concerned with her in the Fact. She knew not of his wicked Practices of Thievery, till that unhappy Day, on which was commited the Robbery of which she was found guilty. She and Crawford had that Day been drinking together, and he threatned her Life, if she did not go with him. His Threats obliged her to go with him, and her Life has paid for it; and her Blood lies at the Door of that bad Man. Her Behaviour was with the utmost Decency and Contrition. She greatly bemoaned her unfortunate End: And she seemed to be one of too tender a Nature to have been Conversant in these wicked Practices. But what may not evil Communications persuade the unwary to?
7. JOHN COLLISON , aged 34, was born at Maidstone in the County of Kent, and bred a Husbandman , he says, he followed that Business, and was so industrious in it, that for some Time, 'till within these 2 Years, he kept a Waggon, and a good Team of Horses of his own, and by Means thereof, provided well for his Family, being employed chiefly in carrying Timber. About 2 Years ago, he says, he had a very great Illness, which lasted for a long while, by means of which, and some other Misfortunes happening, he was obliged to part with all, and leaving his Family, went to be a Servant to Mrs. Hersel, in Capacity of attending on the Waggons and Teams. Since he lived with her he had another Fit of Illness, upon Account of which he left her Service, but, when well, returned again; and being acquainted with Aldridge, who was in the same Service, they used to idle away their Time in Drinking, &c. and were both drunk when this Fact was by them committed. Collison says, Aldridge mentioned the Thing first, and said many Things to persuade him to it. He says too, that as they were coming to London, he would have returned Home with the Horse and Mare, but Aldridge would not.
8. GEORGE ALDRIDGE , aged 19, born at Billericray near Rumford in Essex, was bred a Flax-dresser , and followed that Employ in the Parish where he was born, till within this 12 Months; when unfortunately getting into loose and disorderly Company, his Mind began to alter; he could fix to his old Business no longer, but leaving his old Employ, he rambled down to Chatham. Having spent what little Money he had brought away with him from Home, he now thought it Time to look out for somewhat to do, whereby to get his Bread; and very fortunately (had he made good Use of it) he was hired by the Prosecutress Mrs. Anne Hersel, to be a weekly Servant with her at 8 s. per Week, &c.
He says, he lived with her about 9 Months, and was a very diligent and laborious Servant to the best of his Strength and Power; and was the more likely to make a good Servant, because now, he says, he had settled his Mind on driving Horses and Waggons, and liked it very well. However, he, and Collison would, now and then, break loose, and get themselves intoxicated. This was the Case on the 22d of August, when they stole the Horse, and Mare. They had been idling away their Time, and drinking, and were both drunk, when they took the Horse and Mare; with which they immediately rode up to Smithfield, and offering them to Sale for less Money than either of them was worth, 'twas suspected they were stolen. Accordingly the Horse and Mare were stopt, and the Men taken into Custody. Enquiry being made how they came by them, they at last owned, they had stolen them from their Mistress. Upon which they were put into the Hands of a Constable, and being carried before a Justice of the Peace, were committed to Newgate. Upon Notice being sent to Mrs Hersel, she came up to Town,
and owned the Horse and Mare to be her Property. And when she went to see the Men in Newgate, they did not deny the Fact, but said, they hoped she would not appear against them. But in Justice to the Public, and herself, she did indict them for the Theft, and they being proved to be the Persons that stole the Horse and Mare, were found guilty, and suffered Death accordingly. They were two ignorant young Fellows, and pretended not to know the Consequence of what they did: But said, they thought, if they were overtaken in the Fault, the Horses would only be taken from them, but no harm could happen to themselves. Aldridge was so very ignorant, as one Day to say to me, that if he had got any Friend to speak for him at the Time of his Trial, he should not have been condemned to die, for that his Partner stole the Mare, and he had the Horse. They were penitent and heartily sorry, and died resign'd to the Will and Mercy of the Almighty.
9. THOMAS ROBINSON , aged 22, was born in Virginia, whose Mother having Plantations in that Colony he continu'd to work for her, till within about three Years last past, when he took to the Sea; in order to which Purpose, he went to Jamaica, and, as a great Trade is carried on in those Seas, by the Inhabitants of that Island, he got into very good Employ, and earn'd a very good Livelihood, on Board several Merchant-Ship s belonging to Jamaica. About this Time Twelvemonth, he says, there was a Ship at Jamaica, loaden with Sugars, which wanting Hands to sail her to London, offered a great Price, viz. 25 l. a Man, for the Run. Among others, he was tempted, by this Reward of their Labour, to enter on Board her; and setting sail, arrived safe in the River, after ten Weeks Passage, or thereabout. For the Voyage, indeed, he was very well pay'd, but 'twas an unfortunate one to him in the Event, as hereafter appears.
Had it not been for the Sake of such Wages, he might not probably have come to London: He says, he has been very unsuccessful ever since he came: His Design was to have gone Abroad again, and had enter'd on Board a Ship, outward-bound, for that Purpose, and had done a Day's Work on Board her; but the next Day he was prevented from going on Board, by the Small Pox breaking out upon him, which he had very thick, and was in Danger of his Life, and in preserving that, he expended all he had in the World, for Conveniencies and Necessaries. After he had escap'd this violent Attack, and got a little Strength to go Abroad, he went to work, in helping to break up an old Fire-Ship, which was ript up in the River, near the further End of Wapping. Here the Fellow that turn'd Evidence against him, and the Black, became acquainted with him, and seduc'd him to go a robbing with them. Ward seduc'd this young Man, as, he says, he had before done several others, particularly White and Horner, executed at Tyburn, in April last. However, Robinson owns the Fact, and says, he was drunk when he did what he suffers for, and hopes God will forgive him, for that he never did any Mischief to any one; and had not Necessity so urgentlypress'd him, and evil Advice over-persuaded him, he never should have been brought into this Scrape, for his own Thoughts would scarce have prompted him to it.
10. JOHN CROSS , (a Black ) aged 25, was born in Guinea, and, when very young, brought to Lisbon, where he liv'd for some Years, and came over to England in a Packet. He was a Gentleman's Servant for some Time here, but his Behaviour not being such as was proper for one in his Circumstances, he was sent to Sea. he has been in the Service of the Government, on Board a Man of War , for several Years, He said, and he behaved well, because a strict Hand was kept over him; but, on Shore, he was his own Master, and is said not to have been so very regular. When I first spoke to him, after Conviction, he declar'd himself a Protestant; but a Gentleman of the Romish Perswasion coming to speak to him, he immediately became a Papist . He could not but own his Share in the Robbery for which he was convicted, but only said, they swore his Life away for the Sake of the Reward. He struck Mr. Thompson several Blows, and took away his Hat and Wig, for robbing whom, a second Indictment against Cross and Robinson was preferr'd, and the Bill found; but, as their Guilt appear'd upon the Evidence of the first Indictment, the second was passed over, being only barely Mention made of it.
11. DAVID BOYD , aged 24, was born in the North of Ireland, and from his Childhood, he says, bred to the Sea , and followed it, as his chief Employ ever since. He wou'd give no Account of himself, because he did not choose his Relations should be reflected upon. And, tho' he was given to understand that there was neither Room nor Reason in the Judgment of any Man of Sense to reflect upon another, upon Account of any Thing he had done or suffered; yet he persisted in denying every Thing, even to the End.
It seems he lately married, and kept a House in New Ragg Fair, whereto Hazard and his Gang frequently resorted. This however Boyde denyed, as also that he ever knew of any Peoples coming to his House, who were addicted to Robbery, or Thieving. Let this be as it will, I can't pretend to determine the Case; but, when this Fact was committed, for which he suffers, Neway, who was robb'd, was directed to go to Boyd's House to see for those who had robbed him; where he found Boyd, and Dumpsey, who was acquitted. Dumpsey the Prosecutor cou'd not positively Swear to, but Boyd he did; and moreover that Boyd staid and beat him, after the rest were run away, which they did upon his crying out Murder, and a Coach passing by at the same Time, they were afraid of being taken.
The Prosecutor is very positive as to him, and deposed, that when the House was surrounded, Boyd look'd out of the Window; when they knock'd at the Door, Boyd with a Stick in his Hand came and opened it, which Stick was produced in Court. Besides Boyd opposed the Prosecutor, as he was going up Stairs, and endeavour'd to keep himdown, that he might not be discovered, by darting an Iron Spindle at him; yet the People followed him up Stairs, and Boyd flying to the Garret, was taken there, and being had before a Magistrate was committed. These Circumstances I mentioned to him the Morning of Execution, as I had done indeed several Times before, but he persisted in denying the Fact, and did so to the last, tho' he was admonished to consider, that to dye with a falsity in his Mouth at the last Moment, might be of worse Consequence to him, than any Wickedness he might before have committed.
12. JOHN ALFORD , aged 27, was born in Wiltshire, his Father he says, was a Farmer in that County, with whom he lived, and was educated, till he was about 16 Years of Age. But, whether he thought Husbandry too hard Work, or a roving Disposition led him to it, he says, he can't well determine. He went from his Parents however about that Time, and the Sea seemed to suit his Temper best, whose inconstant Waves he chose rather to trust himself with, than to tarry any longer at Home. Being a well made, useful Man, in the several Ships he was taken Notice of by some Commanders, and made an Inferior Officer . He has been in the Service about 10 Years backwards and forwards, and left it about 11 Months ago. When he came on Shore, he had 45 l. to receive for Wages, which he did receive, besides 270 l. he says, for Prize Money he has received in that Time, all which he has squandred away in loose disorderly Company. Thus far he was explicit, but nothing more particular did he chose to add, except with respect to the Robbery, for which he suffered.
He always protested Innocence, and said as to Lillwall the Prosecutor, he never saw him in his Life, till he came and fixt the Robbery upon him. And as to Jones, to whom the Prosecutor told the Story, and who by Enquiry after Alford, found his Place of Abode, and directed the Prosecutor where to go; he always declared, that he never saw the Man in his Life, unless he met him in the Streets, as he might do any Body, without knowing, or taking any Notice of him. That he had been a loose, idle, and extravagant young Fellow, he did own, but not a Word of any Robbery. His Countenance was always the same, steady to the last, and the above Declaration he persisted in. He seemed to meet his Fate with Patience and Resolution, not at all unbecoming a Man, especially if he knew himself not guilty of the Fact, had Hope towards God, and trust in the Merits of his Saviour.
13. WILLIAM CAVENAGH , aged 26, was born in Dublin, and bred to the Sea , as far as I can find. He was a young Fellow of an active, daring Spirit, and scarce any Danger could daunt him. The Sea was his chief Employ, which he would frequently forsake, and commit Robberies in London, till 'twas too hot to hold him, and then return to it again. This has been his Practice, ever since he was about 15
Years of Age, as I learnt from Hazard, who has known him off and on, all that Time, and was at first led into these wicked Practices by him. He said to Hazard, he had followed it from his Youth up, and was resolved to follow it as long as he lived; there was good Money, &c. to be got by it, he lived better by that Trade than by any other, and at last, when caught, it was but a scragging, and there was End on't.
He has been concerned in every Robbery that Hazard and Mynott were, besides many others with other People, and by himself. Some have met their Fate before him, some with him, and others of his training, will no doubt after him. As to the Fact for which he suffered, he was very active and resolute in it; had not his Pistol providentially missed Fire, he must have committed Murder upon the Person who was the chief Instrument in taking him. Whom when he laid hold of Mynott, he threatned with his Life, if he did not let him go, and accordingly snapt his Pistol at him, as he did at another Person, who actually laid hold of him, and took him. And to shew how Wickedness had Possession of him, as he was going to Newgate in a Coach, he told one Man, he wish'd the Ball had gone thro' his Body, saying, his Pistol never fail'd him in his Life before. Another Person having a Cutlass in the Coach, he observed it, and said, had he had that Cutlass, he would have sweated them all, e'er he would have been taken.
14. JAMES MCGENNIS , aged 27, was born at Dublin, of poor but honest Parents, who gave him what little Education their slender Circumstances could afford, and would have brought him up in their own Business, but he being rather of a roving Disposition, chose the Sea , which he followed for many Years, till he became acquainted with a Parcel of profligate Wretches, and loose Women, with whom he spent all that Money he had so hardly laboured for at Sea, and was at length reduced even to want the common Necessaries of Life, and no particular Birth offering for him at that Time, and the Devil throwing into his Way Wretches as vile as he could wish, he was easily prevailed upon to turn out, as they called it; and in Company with several of them he committed many Robberies, in and about the Skirts of the Town, and the Money got in this unlawful Manner was squandred away pretty fast; so that James was obliged to turn out again for a fresh Supply, and notwithstanding his being a Man of pretty good Courage, he hardly ever ventured by himself, but in general, what Robberies he has committed, he has been in Company. The Night he robb'd Mr. Gotobed (the Prosecutor who convicted him) was in Company with two others, viz. Benjamin and Edward Loveley, who made their Escapes from the Poultry Compter, the Night the Fire happened; he was of the Romish Perswasion , and seemed rather morose and sullen in his Temper, than open and generous; and was so far from confessing the many Crimes he had committed, that he would hardly own the Fact for which he suffered;
nevertheless he declared he died in Peace with all Mankind.
15. BOSAVERN PENLEZ , aged 23, was born of very good Parents, near Exeter in Devon, his Father who was a Divine of the Church of England, gave him a proper Education, while he lived, which was not long enough to see him put into the World. After his Father's Death, he was taken care of by his Friends, who put him out when he was of a proper Age, Apprentice to a Barber and Peruke Maker , in the City of Exeter, who received from the Sons of the Clergy the usual Sum given with Clergymen's Sons.
Penlez served his seven Years with Honesty and Integrity, and about two Years ago, came up to London, in Hopes to gain some farther Light into his Business, and has lived in several Places with Reputation, and behaved himself very well from his coming to Town, untill the unfortunate Night of July 2d, 1749, when he was taken, for being concerned in the Riot at the Star in the Strand; the whole of which was entirely owing to his being in Drink, and not to his natural Temper, as appears by the following Account of his Behaviour that whole Day, as well as at Night; wrote with his own Hand while he lay under Sentence of Death in Newgate.
This is as near an Account as I can give of that unfortunate Day. I left my Lodgings about 9 o'Clock, and went into the Strand, from whence I return'd at 11 o'Clock, and came to Mr. Pearce's in Wich-street; where since I came to this Part of the Town, I left my Cloaths. I then shifted myself, and before I left that Place, there came in Mr. Taylor an Acquaintance of mine. He and I went to the two Brewers, and drank a Tankard of Beer. Then he asked me to dine with him, which I did, and there were some other of his Friends; I staid there all the Afternoon, until Six o'Clock, and then we went into Somerset Gardens, and returned about 8. They would have had me staid and supped there, but I gave them Thanks, and took my Leave; and going to the Horse-shoe near Temple-Bar, called for a Pint of Beer; before I had drank it, there came some Acquaintance, with whom I joined Company, and drank Part of 6 Tankards of Beer, and then left them. But before I left the Horse-shoe, I happen'd to meet with another Friend, and it being his Birth-Day, he asked me to drink a Glass of Punch, which I did; when I was going to my Lodgings, I heard the Noise of the People. I was in Liquor or else I had not fallen in with them.
God knows my Heart, I had no Design of any such Thing. I own, I was in the House, but as to striking or putting Mr. Wood in Fear of his Life, I never did, for which I appeal to a just and true God, who knows the Secrets of all Hearts. I forgive all my Enemies, as I hope to be forgiven. This to the best of my Remembrance is the Truth, and nothing but the Truth.
I hope the Lord will have Mercy on my Soul.
There was a Circumstance started a Day or two before Execution, which carried a bad Face with it, and which no doubt, was a great Means of preventing Mercy's being extended towards him; which is, that when he was taken, there was a Bundle of Linen found upon him, tyed up in a Handkerchief. When this came to Light, 'twas thought necessary to ask him particularly as to this Fact. To this, his Reply to me and others was, that it was true, he had such a Bundle, but how he came by it, he did not remember, nor could he recollect, whether himself tied it up, or any Body else; but that he has been told since by some of his Friends, that a Woman there present, was seen to have it in her Hand. But, she thought proper to drop it, and then he took it up, not knowing what was contained in the Handkerchief, nor yet whose Property it might be.
At the PLACE of EXECUTION.
ON Wednesday, the 18th Instant, between Nine and Ten o'Clock in the Forenoon, William Cavenagh , James McGennis , and John Cross , in one Cart; Mary Dymer , John Collison , and George Aldridge , in another; Bosavern Penlez , John Alford , and James Arnold , in a Third; Thomas Hazard , and John Graham , in a Fourth; David Boyd , and Philip Lacy , in a Fifth; Thomas Robinson , and Thomas Mynott , in a Sixth, went to the Place of Execution. They came there about Eleven, with a very great Multitude of People; and having prayed some Time with them, and recommended their Souls to God, they were turned off from two Carts, calling on the Lord to have Mercy on them.
Cavenagh, M'Gennis, and Cross, died Papists , and the rest Protestants.
Alford, at the Place of Execution, twice repeated to the People that stood round him, what I have before given in Account of him, viz that he never saw the Prosecutor Lillwall, till he came and fix'd the Robbery upon him; and as to Jones, he never knew nor saw him, unless he might meet him passing the Streets, as he might do any Body else; and this was always his Story. Hazard, just before the Cart drew from under them, declar'd Graham to be innocent of the Crime for which he suffer'd; and added, that himself, and Cavenagh, were the Men that committed it.
This is all the Account given by me,
An exact Copy of the Account which JOHN WILSON deliver'd, before he had any Notice of his Majesty's most gracious Favour of a Respite; the News of which came to him about Ten o'Clock, the Night before the Day appointed for Execution.
THIS is, as near as I can give, an Account of my Transactions that happen'd on that unfortunate Day. In the Morning, about Ten o'Clock, I left my Lodgings, from whence I went to St. Andrew's Church in Holborn, and there stay'd Divine Service; and from thence to my Lodgings; and, from thence, to Mr. Slegh's, in Tooley-Street, in the Borough, where I din'd, and stay'd 'till about Three o'Clock; and from thence to Mr. Lake's, in James-Street, Westminster, where I stay'd till about Seven o'Clock; and from thence I came to Mr. Mawson's, at the One Bell Inn, behind the New Church, in the Strand, where I had promised to meet an Acquaintance; which, when I came there, desir'd me to stay Supper, which I did; and, after Supper, stay'd till about Eleven o'Clock; and then was coming Home to my Lodgings, when I met with this unhappy Misfortune; but, as I am a Dying-Man, I never was in Wood's House, till I was taken by the Soldier; and, after that I was taken by the Soldier, several Gentlemen came to him, and told him, that I never was concern'd in the Riot; but he told them that I was his Prisoner: And, as soon as Wood's People saw me in the House, they swore to me, as though they had known me from an Hour old; and I do not know that any of them ever see me before in their Lives.
Oct. 17, 1749.
The following Lines being Part of the Religious Exercise of John Wilson, upon receiving his Majesty's most gracious Reprieve , we give them a Place in this Account, as they suitably express the grateful Sentiments of his Heart on that important Occasion.
AND live I yet by Power Divine? And have I still my Course to run? Again brought back in its Decline, The Shadow of my parting Sun?
Wond'ring I ask, is this the Breast Struggling so late, with Grief and Pain, The Eyes that upwards look'd for Rest, And dropt their weary Lids again?
The recent Horrors still appear, Oh! may they never cease to awe! Still be the King of Terrors near, Whom late in all his Pomp I saw.
Torture and Grief prepar'd his Way, And pointed to a yawning Tomb, Darkness behind eclipted the Day. And check'd my forward Hopes of Heaven.
But now the dreadful Storm is o'er, Ended at last the doubtful Strife, And living, I the Hand adore, That gave me back again my Life.
God of my Life, what just Return Can sinful Dull and Ashes give; I only live my Sins to mourn, To love my God I only live.
To thee, benign and sacred Pow'r, I consecrate my lengthen'd Days, While mark'd with Blessings ev'ry Hour Shall speak thy co-extended Praise.