THE ORDINARY OF NEWGATE His ACCOUNT of the Behaviour, Confession, and Dying Words OF THE MALEFACTORS Who were Executed at TYBURN, ON FRIDAY the 4th of APRIL, 1746.
NUMBER I. For the said YEAR.
Printed, and sold by M. COOPER, at the Globe in Pater-noster Row. 1746.
THE ORDINARY of NEWGATE His ACCOUNT of the Behaviour, Confession, &c.
Labor ipse voluptas.
THE great man who assumed the above motto, had by a pleasing experience been taught, and by his example others ought to learn, that labor is the basis of our welfare. Great geniuses rise more in proportion, but little ones have sufficient success. The story of Whittington and his cat, though perhaps a little wrongly related in old books, carries with it a good store of learning and erudition. Whittington was a poor boy, and being inclined to mend his fortune honestly, applied himself to labor and industry; he was too young at first to have any experience in traffic, more especially as he had not the happiness of either friend or relation to direct him. Nature was his only guide, he saw people were rich who minded their business, and had been by some means or other informed, that their beginnings were very small; he cast about to discover this mystery, and applied himself to dealing for experiment sake in the following manner; he had by his industry saved a penny, with this he purchased a cat, this cat he carried about from house to house, till he found somebody who wanted one, and would give him profit; with the improvement he purchased more, and thus in a moderate course of time, by laboring at proper seasons, and applying his vacant intervals to this trade, he became as much renowned, and as much resorted to by those who wanted cats, as a Turkey merchant now by the Spittle Fields weavers for raw silks. By this means he gradually acquired wealth, and as that improved with his years, his understanding opened and enlarged itself, and when he had got a suitable sum together, hepurchased a little cargo of our own manufactures, which he put aboard a ship, and embarked himself with it for Santa Cruz in Barbary, not forgetting to take with him a favorite cat, which he culled out of his store, and wherewith he associated very lovingly during his voyage; disposing of the rest with great humanity, where he conceived they would be best taken care of. The ship in due course of time arrived safely at her intended port, and Whittington being landed, was invited with the Consul and Captain to dine with the principal Bassa, who governed that part of the coast, and resided at Santa Cruz. These Bassa's, according to the custom of that country, expect presents from foreigners who trade there, of which Whittington had the hint given him, and his only trouble was, how he should do it properly; while he was reflecting on the means, the dinner was brought in, attended by a mighty clattering noise; when looking round, he beheld a troop of overgrown rats, which presently leaped on the table and partook of the banquet. He asked the consul, whether that was the custom of the country to have rats dine at table? The consul replied, no, on the contrary that the Bassa would give all he was worth to be rid of them. Whittington took the hint, and excusing himself for a few minutes, immediately repaired aboard the ship, put his favorite cat in a bag, and presently again re-entring the room set her at liberty, when to the great surprise of both the Bassa and Consul, who was likewise a native, the stage was suddenly cleared, and puss had a dinner she had long wished for. The reader may easily imagine the Bassa's grateful sense of this favor, and the natural consequences resulting there-from; there needed no other present, puss was of more value than all the cargo; Whittington was highly caressed, his cargo taken off his hands at a high price, presents of consequence were made him, and not only himself, but his country likewise found the benefit a long time after. This lucky incident contributed much to his future greatness, he traded to this port only, and grew opulent. The ward he resided in chose him first of the Common-Council, next their Alderman, afterwards he came to be Sheriff, and so in course to be Lord-Mayor of London; and, as our records say, demeaned himself so agreeably, as to be thrice chose into that important trust. What would a poor boy have wished more? or what may not any poor boy be, who is as honest and industrious as Whittington?
This story, however improbable it may seem, has no circumstance attending it, but what comes within the common incidents of life; and supposing it a mere fable, it is then introduced to shew, that fortune is the sure friend of laudable industry; and if we forget the story, so we but retain the moral, it fully answers the purpose for which it is related. Industry is the true basis of wealth and happiness, to rise to high dignities in some professions requires an addition of learning and genius, but to make a figure in many other respects, to be a Lord-Mayor of London, or even to fit in the House of Peers, industry is the true source; so that although in some cases it won't do alone, in none can dignity be acquired without it; and if it happens not to make all people great, I believe it never misses making them easy and happy, respected andbeloved, which are the most essential ends for which we live here.
I for my part have a great deal of love and renderness for my fellow creatures, and while humanity reigns supreme in my breast, I cannot help being pleased with such stories, as contribute by example, to make them better and happier. It must be a terrible reflection on the morals of any man, who can with a calm and careless air walk through the by-streets of this opulent city, and see the misery and distress to which such great numbers are reduced; for although it be owing to their own wickedness and folly, yet as government was instituted for the special purpose, of preventing such things in time, and as we have all our failings in some degree or other, it is wonderful to me what kind of man he is, who can behold such a scene of wretchedness with unconcern, and much more so if he happens to be a priest, or a magistrate; such people must be violently forgetful of themselves, their own interest and safety, since it is inconceivable how a great number can be idle and distressed, without putting the rest of the community in danger, and then if all humanity was banished from amongst us, all regard for others, yet one would think that as self preservation is the first law of nature, it would stimulate us on to act for our own safety, and instead of having our imaginations playing in the moon or wandering after politics and nonsense, perplexing ourselves about what is doing in Flanders, or the West Indies, we should at least take care to be safe in our own houses.
To speak in the physician's stile, the way to cure a malady, is first to understand the distemper; the epithet of idleness, usually given to these unhappy people, is too general, it conveys no adequate idea of the evil; the most low and groveling are rendered quite stupid and insensible, by the immoderate use of strong liquors; those of somewhat more liveliness and gaiety have their heads turned to appear with the outsides of gentlemen, but wanting both means and industry, pilfering becomes their natural resource. In the time of Scarron the French novelist, the streets of Paris were much infested with these kind of gentlemen: Scarron durst not speak directly to the magistrate, and was a little too nice in a public performance, to fix a perpetual sarcasm on his own country, so rather chose to lay the scene in Madrid, where such kind of gentlemen are likewise very frequent: he begins his story thus,
"A lad came
"one day to the city of Madrid, poor
"to the lowest degree of poverty, but
"of an ambition highly exceeding it,
"infinitely more desirous to be thought
"a gentleman, than either a rational
"creature or a christian." In the course of this story he so well described the wickedness of this rank of gentry, and the negligence of the magistrate in permitting them, that it had its due effect, and the civil government of the city of Paris was from thenceforth better attended to. I confess I wish I could tell a story to as good a purpose, which I would endeavour to do, could I conceive, there were to be found amongst us, any who would think it worth duly considering.
The Ordinary of Newgate his Account, &c.
BY virtue of a commission of Oyer, Terminer, and Goal-delivery of Newgate, held before the Right Honorable Sir Henry Marshall , Knt . Lord Mayor of the city of London, Sir Simon Urling , Knt . Recorder , and other his Majesty's Justices of Goal Delivery for the city of London, and county of Middlesex, at Justice-hall in the Old Bailey, on Wednesday, Thursday, Friday, and Saturday the 11th, 12th, 13th and 14th of Sept. 1745, the following nine malefactors received sentence of death, viz. Edward Lloyd, Richard Locker, John Moore, Thomas Morgan, Robert Scruton, Deborah Lloyd, Mary Green, Judith Tilly, and Catharine Evans.
While under sentence of death, I attended them with a due regard to their unhappy circumstances, and used every means in my power to dive into the secret recesses of their hearts, in order to make myself more capable of giving them suitable instruction, and as it were to wash away the spirit of uncleanness, and make them become new creatures; this is not very easy to do, in cases where the evil is too deeply rooted, however my labors became blessed with very unexpected success, and when I found a chearful ray of light to shine upon them, I endeavoured to secure and establish their future welfare, by preaching to them on the following text, which is taken out of the 6th chapter of the gospel according to St. Matthew, and the 20th verse. Lay up for your selves treasures in heaven, where neither moth nor rust doth corrupt, and where thieves do not break through and steal. - From this text I endeavoured to convince them that heaven was not a place for thieves, and consequently that they could not get thither until they had unthieved themselves, by a sincere and hearty repentance. And in order to give them an idea of heaven, by a natural comparison I bid them consider the difference between the beauty and light of the sun, and that of a candle; such I told them was the difference between heaven and earth, as far as we could frame a similitude by natural objects.
By unthieving themselves, I taught them to understand, was to banish the thief out of their hearts, and to retire into their first state of innocence and moral purity, that they might be capable of mixing with the pure celestial light, and not be left to yell and howl amongst impure spirits of their own tribe and cast.
In order whereto I informed them, they must first begin by opening their hearts freely, not only by confessing their own crimes, and repenting of them, but also, by fairly and clearly discovering those of their comrades, how they did their business, and where they harboured, that so by making the community safer, they might make themselves the happier; since it was better for their comrades to be hanged and repent, than to go on in their wickedways, and be eternally miserable; to keep their secrets, was still being partners in their crimes, and consequently no sign of repentance; on the other hand, the discovering of them would be doing justice to their fellow creatures. I intimated to them how necessary it was not to mistake the sense of this kind of doctrine, nor to suffer themselves to be missed by false notions of honor, and confidence reposed in one another, since to keep the secrets of wicked people is wickedness, and that mercy was not to be hoped for from heaven, so long as the evil continued rooted in the heart. I endeavoured to make them understand that the instant evil was banished from their minds, a new world of light and pleasure would immediately present to their view, and that they would look back on the actions of their former lives with the utmost horror and detestation; that the experiment was extremely easy, and only required a settled resolution. I informed them, that a man in the wilful commission of crimes, was like one hid in a cloud, that obscured him from the sight of the sun, and all the bright charms of day, rendered him a stranger to those joys men of serene and undisturbed minds enjoyed, and buried him in the midst of endless cares and fears; that if there was no place of future punishment, the reflections on their own crimes, and the horrors such produced, were sufficient; that it was of very little importance that they endeavoured to drown these reflections, by disordering themselves with strong drinks, which only intoxicate or stupify them for the present, but that whenever an interval of sobriety happened, the horror of their crimes doubled upon them, and consequently, that it was only evading the evil for the present, in the event to be more completely miserable. I referred the truth of these reflections to their own experience, and then left it to themselves to consider, whether happiness was not in every respect to be preferred to misery, and the joys of this life, and the glories of an happy eternity, infinitely to be wished and sought after.
Upon Saturday the 29th of March, report was made to his Majesty in council of the malefactors lying under sentence of death, condemned the four preceding sessions, viz. the September, October, January, and March sessions, when the following ten were ordered for execution, viz. John Moore, Edward Lloyd, John Webb, Thomas Morgan, John Warham, James Wolf, Abijah Burk, Catharine Howell, Mary Green, and Judith Tilly.
John Moore was born of very reputable parents, and his education very genteel; he was when young put apprentice to a French merchant , whom he served with credit, but when set up for himself, got into bad company, with whom he lived profusely: he dealt very largely in French commodities, as wines, brandies, &c. but his expence outrunning his profit, he by degrees got himself deeply into debt, which, on reflection, struck him so sensibly, that in some measure deprived him of his senses; however, he applied
himself to his mother, who was indeed rich, but observing the course of life he pursued, judged very rightly in not supplying his extravagance; some other of his friends to whom he applied having the same thoughts of the matter, and excusing themselves from supplying him, he betook himself to the highway, but was so little turned for that kind of life, that in the first and only robbery he ever committed on the abovementioned two girls in a chaise, he was frightened out of the little remainder of his senses, he received only from them a gold ring, and two shillings and eight pence, and was presently after pursued by a farmer, and easily taken. The more particular account of his life is, that he was educated in the county of Cumberland, that after he was out of his time, he went abroad into France, in pursuit of his lawful business, but that failing, on his return to England, he took a house opposite to George's coffee house Temple Bar, where unto men and women resorted to divert themselves, but not being of a turn to make the most of his customers, that business could not support him, more especially as he had no great choice of beauties under his direction. This produced another trade, if I may so call it, it was the being bail for people arrested in the Marshal's court, which was another scheme he did not understand well enough to make the most of, so that being at once the dupe of knaves, bailiffs, and whores, it is no wonder he came to this unhappy end. He appeared to be a married man, and the woman who visited him, owned herself his wife, and behaved with great modesty and discretion. He was evidently not changed by his melancholy fate, though he seemed at first very penitent, but some hopes of pardon presenting, all appearances of that kind instantly vanished, and finding himself disappointed on the dead warrant's coming down, he became like one distracted, utterly disconsolate, and in that unhappy state quitted this mortal life.
Mary Green was about thirty years of age, a likely, well favoured person, was of good parents, and genteely educated at a boarding school, the particulars of either are not proper to mention; when she was about sixteen years of age, a young baronet and his lewd companion, contrived to seduce this young girl and another from the school, and debauched them; Mary fell to the baronet's share, who lived with her some time, had a son by her, now at the university: the baronet left her and married, and Mary then fell upon the town, and not the best part of it neither; she ran into all the excesses of debauchery, and from whoring degenerated into thieving; and being discovered in this practice by some of her best gallants, they quitted her acquaintance, but as she was very handsom, she failed not of accidental acquaintance, of whom she boasts that she sometimes made fifty guineas of a night, but denied to the last the fact for which she was convicted, not blaming the court, but imputing it to the prosecutor's mistaking her person.
While under sentence Mary was often attended by a popish priest, whomshe says, supported her with money, in order to persuade her to be of his religion, which she consented to, so long as she found her account in it, and then turned him off, telling him, she had no more religion than himself, as was the case of several more of her fellow prisoners, who combined together to rob the poor priest of his money, and then very honestly returned him his religion back again. Mary went to chapel for company sake, and behaved very decently there; but the residue of her time was chiefly spent in drinking, scolding and quarrelling with her fellow prisoners; however she became very serious at last, and made her exit very decently.
Judith Tilley about twenty years of age, had her education on White-Chaple mount , and in the neighbouring purleus, in which places she at different times employed herself in picking of cinders , whoring, drinking, and thieving, from whence it may be readily concluded that reading, writing, or praying took up the least of her time. Though she could on occasion pray very heartily in her way, and had got the usual name given to the supreme Being by heart, and used it very freely in the antomical way of praying him to d - n peoples eyes, hearts, &c. in a word, she was one of those poor unhappy wretches, who are left like the beasts to perish, as if they were no part of the human specie. But whether it arose from the absence of action, or what other cause is immaterial; she grew very serious, and behaved much better than such people usually do, and disposed of herself into the next world, with a becoming decency.
Thomas Morgan forty years of age, was a native of St. Leonard, Shoreditch, had the common education of the ordinary people, was put apprentice to a pipe maker , served out his time, and set up for himself in Bedfordbury. He married a wife , but being a fellow of a very ill-favoured aspect, and of a temper suitable, his wife fixed her eyes on one of his workmen, who was both handsomer and better tempered; this produced jealousy, that contention, and in the event, the murther, as in the indictment, which was cruel and inhuman enough, and of which there has been so many instances in a few sessions past, that it is to be hoped the legislature will consider of some punishment adequate to the crime. This fellow after having committed the murder made his escape, and rambled about from place to place, as he said, haunted by his wife's ghost, that turn himself which way he would, it always seemed to be fluttering at some distance directly before him, with all the wounds he had given her open to his view, and threatning with her hands: he said he oftentimes had courage enough to attempt to get at it, but was never the nearer, and in one of these attempts, not minding where he was, he tumbled into the river near Dorchester, and had like to have been drowned;
when he got out, he saw the ghost again, which seemed to grin at him as if glad of his misfortune; whereupon in a great rage he drew his knife, and ran furiously towards it; it vanished, and in its stead stood a most tremendous spectre, which seemed to take him in its arms, he was carried away as in a whirlwind, and set down again near Oxford in the yard of a farmer of his acquaintance, who happened to be present, and helped him up as from a swoon, who had seen him described in the news papers, and therefore, notwithstanding his acquaintance, delivered him into the hands of justice. This account was attested by Morgan, and corroborated by the farmer, in the presence of the Vice-Chancellor of Oxford. And it is said that this story is to be added to the next addition of a book, entitled,
"revenge against murther." However this only terrified the criminal a little for the present, his heart was hardned against all kind of penitence, and as he lived, so he died an obdurate unrelenting sinner.
Edward Lloyd , and Deborah , were indicted on the statute in that case made and provided, for high treason, in coining counterfeit money, from pewter, copper, &c. and were both found guilty, but Deborah has since received a reprieve for transportation .
Edward Lloyd of the parish of St. Leonard, Shoreditch, about 74 years of age, the offspring of creditable parents, who first put him to St. Paul's school, and afterwards apprentice to an attorney at law , which trade he found too dishonest for a man of conscience and honour to follow, and therefore betook himself to coining, as the most reputaable business, and which he has chiefly lived by. He was married to his wife Deborah many years, he took her a widow ; at their coming together she was possessed of a broker's shop in Holbourn, but he liking his own trade best, engaged Deborah in the undertaking, after having first sold her effects, the better to furnish them with materials. Deborah soon learned the trade, and between them they got a very comfortable subsistence; and complained very much of the hardships of the law that would not suffer two industrious people to pursue their trade quietly. They likewise complained bitterly against the evidence, whom they say was condemned 16 or 18 years ago for the like crime. On Deborah's being reprieved, she said it would be a happy thing for the plantations that she was going thither, as she was informed they wanted money, and she was able to supply them with any sum they desired, so did not fear coming to be a great woman.
It does not appear they had any penitential thoughts, on the contrary were constantly scolding and quarrelling with one another, and one day had a battle in time of divine service at chapel, however on Deborah's leaving her husband he became more serious, which sunk by degrees into downright sullenness, and in that state of mind departed this life.
James Wolfe , was indicted, for that he on the third of October last did personate one Robert Masterson , as chief mate of the Prince Frederic privateer, and in that name did come to the shop of one William Threlkeld of London, goldsmith , on pretence to buy several goods of the said William to the value
of 29 l. 10 s. and in payment for the same offered a counterfeit note under the hand of Captain James Talbot , payable to the said Robert Masterson, for the sum of 150 l. sterling, in order to cheat and defraud the said William Threlkeld, contrary to the statute, &c.
James Wolfe, about thirty years of age, born in London, had a common school education, and was bred a seaman , but after some voyages liking better to be a gentleman, he turned his head to an idle careless life, but wanting natural means to support it, he among other resources consequent of this turn of mind, had recourse to the abovementioned expedient, in order to support himself. He says that no one living was privy to this cheat but himself, no friends came near him, and he lay in the cells in a very helpless, miserable way, seemed very much concerned for his mispent life, behaved decently, and died a sincere penitent.
Chimner the prosecutor was a foreigner and could not speak English, so his evidence was delivered by an interpreter, he declared that Burk cut him with a hanger, and used him very barbarously, said very little to the other two, but Davis only was acquitted.
John Warham and Abijah Burk, both of the parish of St. Giles's in the Fields, and neither of them above eighteen years of age, young fellows, but old rogues; they had in concert with Davis followed the trade of thieving from their infancy, being regularly bred to that profession in the university of High-Holbourn, and its adjacent purlieus, but were newly entered into the honourable profession of arms, and had a mind to try how they could exercise them upon a Frenchman; in their first adventure, seeming to find the poor man out as it were by instinct, to his great misfortune. They seemed to have no kind of relish for the triple tree, the sight of it made them very serious, and seems to be the chief reason of their making a decent exit, which they performed to the admiration of all their brother thieves who were spectators.
Catharine Howel , was indicted for stealing one piece of foreign gold coin, called a moidore, three pieces of gold called half guineas, and forty shillings in silver, out of the dwelling house of Thomas Clarke , on the 20th of January last.
Catharine Howel was born in Wales of honest but poor parents, who gave her as much education as they could afford. She could read no English at all, and therefore could make no responses in chapel, where she constantly came, when she was in health, and there behaved attentively and well. She had been in London for some time, and entered herself into service . She seemed a woman very fit for such business, being of a well set strong body, not above forty years of age. As to the fact she suffered for, she would be rather understood as innocent, than guilty, and when she was spoke to about it, she would shed tears, as if she was hardly dealt with. For some days she kept her bed in the cell, being afflicted with illness, but when she recovered she never failed to attend the chapel. The fright and apprehension of death was so great upon her, that I could not look upon
her without concern; and at the place of execution, she was under such an agony as denoted her sufferings to be very great.
John Webb was upwards of forty years of age, born in the country of honest parents, who bound him apprentice to a shoemaker ; they gave him no education at school, so that he was very ignorant. The murder which he confessed he was guilty of, and for which he suffered, he said was the effect both of liquor and provocation, for that he had always behaved and lived as an inoffensive man, had a good character with his neighbours for his honesty, for that he had wronged nor injured any man: he lamented with great sorrow and outward appearance of repentance the horrid fact he was guilty of, but would withal blame the deceased for giving him ill usage and great provocation. Before this unhappy affair Webb was in credit, had business enough to support himself and family, which consisted of a wife and child only, having buried eight children, and might have done well. He was very earnest and desirous to be instructed in the principles of the Christian religion, for he acknowledged himself so ignorant as scarce to know whether there was a God. He never failed the chapel, was very attentive there, and indeed all along behaved himself very well, He did not seem of an ill nature, uneasy temper, nor of a cruel disposition, but, as he said, his misfortune was drinking too much. His wife, who was the only person who came to him, would cry over him, which shews that he was not a bad husband. He was wretchedly poor and destitute in the cell, and received nothing, but a part of what some good Christians sent, for the relief of the persons under sentence of death. He never varied in the account he gave of the murder, which was that he bore no malice nor hatred to the deceased, but that upon the provocation he had received, such as ill language and blows, he thought and inferred that his crime was but chance medley. He was indeed too apt to excuse himself, and would fain have extenuated his crime, but upon proper answers made to him concerning it, he shewed great signs of contrition, patiently bore his afflictions, implored the mercy of God through Christ, and died in peace with all the world.
At the Place of EXECUTION.
THE criminals went to the place of execution in the following order, Morgan , Webb , and Wolf , in the first cart; Moore in a mourning coach; Wareham and Burk in the second cart; Tilley , Green , and Howell in the third; Lloyd on a sledge; on their arrival at Tyburn they were all put into one cart. They all behaved with seriousness and decency. Mary Green professed her innocence to the last moment of the fact for which she died, cleared Ann Basket, and accused the woman who lodged in the room where the fact was committed. As Judith Tilley appeared under terrible agonies, Mary Green applied herself to her, and said, do not be concerned at this death because it is shameful, for I hope God will have mercy upon our souls; Catharine Howell likewise appeared much dejected, trembled and was under very fearful apprehensions; all the rest seemed to observe an equal conduct, except Moore, who, when near dying, shed a flood of tears. In this manner they took their leave of this transitory life, and are gone to be disposed of as shall seem best pleasing to that all-wise Being who first gave them existence.
THE course of my vices and follies have prevented me for many years from looking into myself, or in any sense reflecting on the bad example you constantly set before me. I am just now learning to know that you of all women in the world ought to have been the last in suffering me to be present at your sunday routs, a day appointed both by God and nature for rest. You, madam, answered for me at the font, that I should be a good Christian, when God knows my heart, you never so much as dreamt what it was to be a Christian yourself; nor ever imitated our Saviour in any thing, but in the eating of bread and drinking of wine, reflecting only on that single precept, let us eat and drink, for tomorrow we die; and what follows; see the lilies how they grow, they toil not, neither do they spin. You, madam, who have an antipathy to all kind of industry, unless such as is the consequence of folly, its toils and fatigues, fulfilled that precept to a miracle. But Oh! consider, madam, what you owe to your poor god-daughter on this account, besides the life I am cheated out of, by following your example, my immortal soul perished, condemned to burn in eternal flames, and to be the sport of wanton unpitying devils, who will yell and howl it into eternal terrors. You ought at least, Madam, after youhave laid the foundation of my ruin, by robbing me of my young baronet, and exposing to my un-experienced mind, every vice, artificial and natural, at least to make interest to save my life, that I might have time and repent. No, say you, but you will rather chuse to imitate the damned spirits: and woman of quality like, glory in the misery of others. - Well, if it must be so, as I know it must, if when my soul has got rid of my body, and happens into the hands of a kind keeper, I will tire him with my prayers, till he lets me loose to haunt you at your sunday evenings diversions. I will, d - n my e - s if I don't, unless you get me my pardon, as sure as I am