THE ORDINARY of NEWGATE, His ACCOUNT of the Behaviour, Confession, and Dying Words, OF THE MALEFACTORS Who were Executed at TYBURN, ON FRIDAY the 17th of February, 1743.
Number I. For the said YEAR.
THE ORDINARY of NEWGATE, His ACCOUNT of the Behaviour, Confession, &c.
AT the King's Commission of Oyer and Terminer, and Goal-Delivery of Newgate, held (before the Right Honourable ROBERT WESTLEY, Esq; Lord-Mayor of the City of London, the Right Honourable Lord Chief Justice WILLES, the Honourable Mr. Baron CLARKE, the Honourable Mr. Serjeant URLING, Recorder of London, and others his Majesty's Justices of Oyer and Terminer, for the said City and County of Middlesex, and Justices of Goal-Delivery of Newgate for London and Middlesex) at Justice-Hall in the Old-Bailey, on Wednesday, Thursday, Friday, Saturday, and Monday, the 7th, 8th, 9th, 10th, and 12th of December, 1743, and in the Seventeenth Year of His Majesty's Reign.
TWELVE Men, viz. John Garrard, Julian Hunt, Joseph Leath, Samuel Bowring, Henry Barrett, Peter Rogers, alias Jonoquier, William Clark, Thomas Hill, Samuel Moses, Michael Jude, Solomon Athorn, and Jacob Cordosa; and one Woman, viz. Eleanor Gearing, were by the Jury convicted of capital Crimes, and received Sentence of Death. Also,
AT the King's Commission of Oyer and Terminer, and Goal-Delivery of Newgate, held (before the Right Honourable ROBERT WESTLEY, Esq; Lord-Mayor of the City of London, the Right Honourable Lord Chief Baron PARKER, the Honourable Mr. Justice WRIGHT, the Honourable Mr. Justice ABNEY, the Honourable Mr. Serjeant URLING, Recorder of the City of London, and others his Majesty's Justices for the City of London and County of Middlesex, and Justices of Goal-Delivery of Newgate) at Justice-Hall in the Old-Bailey, on Friday, Saturday, and Monday, the 13th, 14th, and 16th of January, 1743-4, and in the Seventeenth Year of his Majesty's Reign.
WHILE under Sentence, they were exhorted seriously to think upon, and prepare for Death, Judgment, and Eternity; and in order to go about this great Work in a right Manner, to consider from what they had fallen, from the Height of Integrity and Perfection, into a Labyrinth of Sin, Misery, and Desolation; and being in this wretched State and Condition, as such, they merited no Good at the Hand of God, but to be cast off by him into a Place of Eternal Torments, there to be punished with everlasting Destruction from the Presence of the Lord, and the Glory of his Power.
YET notwithstanding this hard Sentence, which in Severity of the Law might be inflicted, they were to look up to God, the God of all Mercies, upon whom alone we ought to depend, who is an All-sufficient God, who will make all things work together for Good, to them who sincerely love and obey him, in whom alone it is that we live, move, and have our Being: And not only were they to look up to God as their Creator, and the Bestower of the good Things of this Life upon them, but in a more especial Manner they were to look up to God as reconciled to sinful Men, through his well-beloved Son Christ Jesus our Lord, whom he hath set forth to be a Prince and a Saviour, to give Repentance and Remission of Sins unto his People.
FROM this I took Occasion to press them to a saving Faith in Christ, as the Son of God, and only Saviour of Sinners; and this Faith, I told them, must be operative, producing good Works which are to the Glory and Praise of God, for Faith without Works is dead, being alone: Then I exhorted them to Holiness, to be holy in Heart and Life, and blameless in all Manner of Conversation. But because they were under Sentence of Death, and could not approve themselves as becomes a sincere Christian, the Servants of God, by a long and constant Course of an holy Life and Conversation, they were admonished to be incessantly fervent at the Throne of Grace, during the short. Time of their Continuance here upon Earth, that God would mercifully enable them by his Grace to perfect Holiness in his Fear, and to advance and make Progress in the Ways of the Lord, from Grace to Grace, untill in the End Grace be consummated in Glory.
THEY were instructed in the Knowledge of the Christian Sacraments, that we are early dedicated to God in Baptism, wherein we solemnly vow and engage to serve God with Sincerity and Uprightness of Heart all our Days; and because they had, in innumerable Instances, broken their Baptismal Vows and Engagements, they were in God's Name exhorted to renew themselves by an hearty Repentance for all their Sins, particularly the heinous Crime they suffered for; and in Confirmation of these sacred Vows, to receive the Sacrament of our Lord's Last Supper, in which, by the external Signs and Elements of Bread and Wine, Christ and all the Benefits of the New Covenant are, in a visible Manner adapted to our Senses, represented, exhibited, seal'd and apply'd to every true Believer.
WHILE these, and many such Exhortations, were given, they attended in Chapel, were quiet and devout to Appearance. Mr. Hill did not often come up, but chose to remain in his Cell. The Jews were more scrupulous than others of that Nations use to be; Moses especially, the eldest of them, was positive in asserting, that it was only lawful to hear the Scriptures read, and to pray with their Heads covered. They were told this was a Thing indifferent in itself, and not to be made a Subject of Debate. I told him, others of his Nation, who had been in the same miserable Circumstances before, did not pretend to make any Doubts upon sitting in Church with their Heads covered or uncovered. Moses said, they were illeterate Jews, who did not understand the Tenets of their Religion, as he and the rest of them, now under Sentence did. I did not enter much into Debate with them, because I found them most obstinate and perverse, by no Manner of Reasoning from the holy Scriptures, or any other Authority, to be persuaded to relinquish their Infidelity, and embrace the saving Truths of Christianity. They would not come to Chapel as others before did, but chose rather to be confin'd to their Cells; and in this narrow Way of Thinking they were too much confirmed by several of their Priests or Rabbies, who came to visit them, and, as may be presumed, talked dishonourably of our holy Religion and Christian Faith, by right Consideration whereof one is made wise unto Salvation. When I spoke a little to some of their Instructors, whom they esteemed for Knowledge and Learning, asking why they did not believe in Christ, who had all the Marks of the true Messiah accompanying him? They answered, it was none of my Business to attack them on these Heads; so discovering in them nothing but a perverse Antipathy against God and Christ our Saviour, they were left, as may be feared, to perish in their Ignorance and Infidelity. Two young Jews, Athorn (who knew little English, having been but a short time in the Country) and Maccoy, came to Chapel sometimes for Diversion and a little Air. Jacob Cordosa would have been content to come up but they would not trust him, on Account of his having broken the Prison, and for which Crime he was then under Sentence of Death; the rest
of them, came often to Chapple; Hill came but seldom, and Clark, who at other Times constantly attended, was for some Days before the Report was made, very sick, but when able, he came, and behaved decently and devoutly.
UPON Wednesday the 8th of February, 1743-4, Report was made to his Majesty in Council, of the eighteen Prisoners, lying under Sentence of Death in the Cells of Newgate, when Samuel Bowring, and Henry Barret, for assaulting John Lane, in a certain Field, and open Place near the King's Highway, putting him in Fear, and taking from him a Hat, value 2 s. a Pair of Gloves, value 2 d. a Silk Handkerchief, value 1 s. 6 d. a Pair of Iron Nippers, value 6 d. and eleven Shillings in Money, the Goods and Money of the said John Lane, April 8. received his Majesty's free Pardon. And, Eleanor Geary, for assaulting John Collin, in the dwelling House of Edward Young, putting him in Fear, and taking from him nine Shillings in Money, his Property, November 3 Michael Jude, a Jew , for robbing Mr. Young, a Goldsmith, in Bloomsbury, of a Silver Tankard, value 6 l. &c. the same Robbery with Samuel Moses, &c. and John Gerrard, for stealing a Handkerchief of Cambrick, value 1 s. 6 d. the Goods of Alexander Murray, Esq; privately from his Person, October 5, received his Majesty's most gracious Reprieve for Transportation for Life. And, Julius Hunt, for assaulting John Doo, on the Highway, putting him in Fear, and taking from him a Leather Pouch, value 1 d. and 7 s. in Money, his Property, November 10, for 14 Years.
THE remaining ten, viz. Joseph Leath, Wm. Clark, Thomas Hill, Samuel Moses, Solomon Athorn, Jacob Cordosa, Peter Rogers, alias Ionoquier, Joseph Maccoy, alias Isaacs, John Burton, alias Appleby, or Appleton, and Henry Burroughs, alias Cobler, were ordered for Execution.
William Clark, alias Stockley, of Christ-Church, in Middlesex, was indicted for stealing a Silver Cup, value 4 l. a Silver Salt, value 13 s. four Silver Tea-spoons, value 8 s. a Silver Tea-strainer, value 1 s. 6 d. a Pair of Silver Shoe-Buckles, value 3 s. 6 d. a Silver Knee Buckle, value 1 s. 6 d. three Silver Sleeve-Buckles, value 1 s. 6 d. and five Holland Shirts, value 30 s. the Goods of Edward Ruddell, and a Peruke, value 25 s. the Goods of John Britton, in the dwelling House of Edward Ruddell, September 20.
1. William Clark, 50 Years of Age, born in the City of Oxford, of honest, mean Parents, who gave him good Education so as to be able to read, write, and cast Accompts, and fit for Business, and had him instructed in the Christian Faith; when of Age, he served his Time to a House-Carpenter , honestly; and being out of his Time, he work'd Journey-work , and was well provided in every Thing necessary; afterwards he married a Wife, by whom he had some Children, one of them now living; he left the Country, and came to London several Years ago; but not being free of the City, he lived and wrought in the Suburbs, provided well for his Family, and was always in Reputation, and had the Character of a very honest Man, having never, as he affirmed, robbed or stole any Thing, but followed his Business close, and kept at Home with his Family, not being of such a dissolute, lew'd Conversation, as most of these abandoned Creatures are. He went to Church, and was of a sober Life, denying that he was ever guilty of Robbing or Theft, excepting the Robbery for which he died: This, he confessed, he did by himself, being tempted thereto by the Solicitations of the Devil, not being under any Want or Necessity, his Wife and Family being well provided for: He knew none of the Gangs of Thieves that robbed about the Town, but committed the Robbery upon Mr. Ruddell his Landlord, in whose House he lodged, merely of his own Head, without communicating his Thoughts or Intentions to any Person whatsoever. He stole the Plate, and all the Things mentioned in the Indictment, and walked along the Highway with them in his Hand, offering them to sale to such People as by Accident he met with; and the Plate he sold to one Person for five Pounds, and disposed of the other small Things to others, and for what they would give him. He denied, that he ever committed any other Acts of Injustice, or Theft, and the Occasion of doing this, was, as suggested, his being sometime before bitten by a mad Dog, which sometimes put him out of his Senses, so that he did not know what he was doing, and this was the Case, when he robbed Mr. Ruddel. He always attended at Chapel, complied with the Worship, attended to In
structions, and seemed Devout, appearing very much affected with his dismal Circumstances. He believed on our Lord Jesus Christ, as the Son of God, and only Saviour of Sinners; repented of his Sins, and forgave all Men, as he expected Forgiveness from God.
John Burton, otherwise Appleby, or Appleton, and Henry Burt, otherwise Cobler, of St. James's Clerkenwell, were indicted for breaking and entering the dwelling House of Moses Johnson, about the Hour of Nine in the Night, and stealing two woollen Caps, value 1 s. 6 d the Property of the said Moses Johnson, December 17.
2. John Burton, alias Appleby, or Appleton, twenty-one Years of Age, born at, Croydon of mean Parents, was educated at School to read and write a little, and taught the Christian Faith, which, to his Sorrow, he minded least of all: He was not put to any Trade, but served Farmers and Country People, doing any Sort of servile Work of which he was capable; the particular Business he was mostly employed in, was, driving Carts and Waggons from Croydon to London; his common Road was along London Bridge, and from thence to a public Inn in St. Giles's in the Fields, where sometimes he lodged, and where he contracted Acquaintance with Gangs of Thieves, Pickpockets, Street-robbers, &c. of whom, too many hant thereabouts; these infamous Creatures advised him to commence Thief and Street-robber, he not having the Grace to resist or reject such villanous Solicitations. He was not willing to own any notable Robberies before that for which he died, but being once engaged with these desperate People, if Providence had not curbed him in the Bud, he might have done a deal of Mischief to Mankind; he confessed his breaking in to Mr. Johnson's Shop, and stealing some Night-caps out of the Window; he and Burrough's made their Escape, but John Thorp, who was upon the Look-out, was immediately taken, who, to serve himself, turned Evidence, and hanged his two Associates. When in the Country, he used to go to Church, but after he fell in with these Gangs, he became a contemner of Religion, and every Thing that is good, stole every Thing that came in his Way, and was given to all manner of Wickedness. He was very poor, ragged and naked, had no body come after him, so that he was destitute of every Thing: He attended constantly in Chapple, gave heed to Instructions, and made Responses with the rest; he was ignorant of Religion, but behaved devoutly and quietly. He declared, that he believed in Jesus Christ our only Saviour, repented of his Sins, and was in Peace with all Men.
3. HENRY Burrows, alias Cobler, guilty of the same Robbery with the above Burton, about 22 Years of age, born in the Parish of St. Gile's in the Fields, of poor, mean Parents, who gave him very little or no Education: When of Age, his Father taught him the Business of a Clog-maker his own Trade, but Henry was a wicked perverse, idle Boy, and minded nothing of Business, wholly giving himself up to all manner of Vice and Villany: He was not willing to learn a Trade, but constantly follow'd his vile Companions, who led and advised him to all manner of wicked Practices, he neither having Grace nor Sense to deny their black proposals tending to his immediate Ruin. Burroughs contracted familiarity with Burton a country fellow, and got him engag'd with these Gangs of Thieves and Robbers, who very speedily brought them both to a most miserable End. He confess'd the robbing Mr. Johnson's Shop, as sworn against him, as for other Thefts and Robberies, he was not willing to confess any, but own'd himself a Thief, and that ever since, he was capable of doing any Thing, he lived by nothing else but thieving, stealing and robbing every thing he could lay his Hands upon, despising and neglecting all Religion, and whatever is good and virtuous, and never going to Church, where the means of Grace and Salvation are to be found. He was a most profligate young Man, void of all Justice and Equity, and so abandon'd of God, to commit Wickedness in the Sight of the Lord, and deservedly given over to Punishment for the atrocious Sins of his Life. He hop'd for Mercy from God through the Merits of Jesus Christ. He was miserably poor and naked, no Body coming to take care of him, but sometimes his poor Mother at the Gate, who had very little to give him. He confessed the robbing Mr. Johnson as sworn against him, and that he died justly according to Law. He was grosly ignorant of Religion, but was brought to some Conformity, and it is to be hoped, died in the fear of God.
JOSEPH Isaacs, alias Maccoy, of St. Giles's Cripplegate, was indicted for breaking and entring the House of Nathaniel Ward, about the Hour of eleven in the Night, and taking from thence a silver Tea-pot, Lamp and Stand, val. 5 l. 10 s. a large two handled Silver-cup, val. 50 s. six Tea-spoons, val. 16 s a pair of Sheets, val. 9 s. a Table-cloth, val. 5 s. a Napkin, val. 18 d. a Towel, val. 6 d. three Shirts, val. 3 s. and six Caps val. 6 d. the goods of Nathaniel Ward, November 6th.
4. JOSEPH Isaacs alias Maccoy, born in Dukes-place, where the two Jewish Synagogues are, in which Street many of that Nation reside, 19 Years of Age, of creditable Parents, who educated him well in the Jewish way and Religion, to read Hebrew, and understand foreign Languages, French, Spanish, Italian, and such others, as they who are mercantile People, are generally pretty expert in, and instructed him carefully in their way of Worship in the Hebrew and Rabbinical Ceremonies and Prayers, but it may be presum'd, Religion of whatever Kind was what he laid least to Heart, being a profane, wicked young Fellow, wholly addicted to vicious Courses; when of Age, they bred him to merchandizing , for which the Jews have a natural Genius, and many of them have pretty good Success that Way, he lived with his Parents, and was sometimes abroad in Holland, France or Germany, where great Numbers of his Country-men, are, and liv'd as those of his Nation do, by mutually corresponding and carrying on Trade amongst themselves, and with Strangers of all Nations. Joseph Isaacs or Maccoy was a Youth of very corrupt Principles and Practices, he associated himself with the vilest Company, whether Men or Women, in or about the Town, was acquainted with Grangs of Thieves, particularly a Number of Jews, who are now much more irregular and thievish than they used to be formerly, not only stealing and robbing in London, but travelling the Country, and carrying off Plate and Goods in every House where an Opportunity offered. He confessed the Robbery for which he died, and was Evidence against Robinson transported, and Jacob Cordosa another Jew , who died with him for another Robbery, in which he was also concern'd with the rest of them. Maccoy confest his breaking open the House of Mr. Ward, and stealing the Goods mention'd in the Indictment, in Company with Richard Clay the Evidence against him, and that he was justly convicted, according to the Prosecutor and Witnesses Depositions. I did not much insist upon converting him from his Infidelity, he being most obstinate in their unreasonable Way of thinking, and unwilling to embrace the Principles of Christianity, being fortified in such bad Principles by their Priests and Rabbis coming about them: He pretended to repent and died an obstinate Jew.
PETER Rogers, alias Lewis Ionoquire, was indicted, for that he after the 29th Day of June, 1729, to wit, on the 2d of December, in the 17th Year of his Majesty's Reign, at the Parish of St. Botolph without Bishops-gate, in London, did forge and counterfeit, or cause to be forg'd or counterfeited, a certain Paper-writing, purperting to be a Bill of Exchange for the Payment of a certain sum of Money, which said certain paper writing is in the Words and Figures following.
where Peter Rogers, alias Lewis Ionoquire was born; he was taught at School to read, write and cast Accompts so as to fit him for any Business, and other Accomplishments becoming a Gentleman, and was carefully instructed in the Christian Faith, according to the Calvanistical Way, as they there call it, by which they understand the Church of England, Holland, Scotland, French Protestants, Switzerland, and many of the Protestant Churches in Germany, in Contradistinction to those of the Lutheran Communion, who differ from us only in the Point of Consubstantiation. He was especially instructed in the Art of Book-keeping, by which Art his Parents intended their Son Peter or Lewis should live, and provide for himself and Family, when he should get one. He left his native Country about fifteen Years ago, and came to London, here he constantly served as a Book-keeper to some eminent Merchants, to which Way of Business he was bred, and in this Station every Body looked upon and respected him as a very honest Man; nor did he want a Provision for his Family in a tolerable Way; he married a Wife who bore him several Children, one of whom died at about two or three Years old, since his Confinement in Newgate, and after that his Wife miscarried, and is now confined to her Bed, more likely to die than live, and thus this unfortunate Man, and his poor distressed Family are ruin'd by the single wicked Fact of Forgery. Still to heighten his Misfortunes, he happen'd lately to be put out of Business, which was the Occasion of his total Ruin, for having nothing wherewith to supply his Wife and indigent Family, he was tempted to forge the above Bill of Exchange upon Mr. Muylman, the Bill he writ in French, which was his Mother Tongue, and presenting the same to Mr. Muylman, he did not refuse Payment, but bid him call again, suspecting the Bill to be forged, because the Bills drawn on Mr. Muylman are always upon him and Company; however Rogers alias Inoquire call'd in the Afternoon, and then a Constable and a Footman were ready to seize him, and immediately carried him before Sir Edward Bellamy, who asked him several Questions, and finding that he prevaricated, Sir Edward ordered his Committment to Newgate, which Ionoquire seeing the Clerk writing out, he confessed the whole to Mr. Muylman, and afterwards to Sir Edward Bellamy, he acknowledge the counterfeiting the Bill of Exchange, the Letter of Advice, and the Letter of Mr. James Laurant. Mr. Muylman gave him a Piece of Money, which he desired might be sent to his Wife, who stood in the greatest Need. He was desired to send a Direction where to find her, which he did in fine Writing, tho' before he pretended he could not write, but signed by a Mark, certified by another who could write. He always behaved very decently and seriously, came constantly to Chapel, was attentive to Instructions, and complied with the Worship, and we may in Charity think he died a good Christian. He had been a sober, honest Man, excepting this Affair of the Forgery, and kept a good Family, so that it was (very probably) absolute Necessity that made him do it, being altogether destitute. He took the whole Affair upon himself, and said, that no other Person was concerned in it, either directly or indirectly. He was of the Communion of the Church of England, declared constantly that he believed in Christ our only Saviour, repented of all his Sins, and died in Peace with all the World.
SAMUEL Moses, Michael Jude, and Solomon Athorn, otherwise Selick, of St. George, Bloomsbury, were indicted for breaking and entering the Dwelling-house of William Young, about 3 in the Night, and stealing a silver Tankard, Value 6 l. a silver Snuff-box, Value 6 s. a Shell Snuff box mounted with silver, Value 5 s. a silver Watch Chain, Value 2 s. thirty-four Thimbles, Value 30 s. a Shirt, Value 2 s. twenty-six Gold Rings, Value 15 l. two Gold Rings set with Diamonds, Value 40 s. one Pair of Gold Drops, Value 10 s. seven Pair of Gold Ear-Rings, Value 1 l. 10 s. a Silver Pepper-box, Value 10 s. a silver Salt-seller, Value 5 s. two silver Spoons, Value 16 s. two Tea-spoons, Value 3 s. one Pair of silver Shoe-buckles, Value 8 s. and one Pair of Knee-buckles, Value 3 s. the Property of William Young, Nov. 4. They were all three capitally convicted, but Michael Jude appearing upon Evidence not to have been present at the Commission of the Robberies, was reprieved for fourteen Years.
learned Hebrew and the Rabinical Language, and what other Eastern Tongues the Jews do commonly study, for carrying on Trade, which they mind most, and other Things in their Ways of Reasoning about Religion. When of Age, he applied himself to Trading, and buying and selling of small Things, as they commonly do. He was of no Mechanic Trade, but a Merchant , and a very roguish and dishonest one, being Naturally inclined to picking, stealing, House-breaking, and thieving and robbing in any Shape; and at Home in Holland, as he gave Account, he was tried, and with Difficulty got off with his Life; so that his coming to England was a Matter of Necessity, not Choice, as earing the Gallows in his own Native Country. Moses was a great Traveller, as those of that Nation commonly are, having gone over the United Provinces, Flanders, France, Germany, Italy, Spain, &c. and he could speak the Languages of all these different Countries, and some others, He pretended to a Learning in the Cabalistical Way, and by far to excel the other little Jewish Rogues, who in this Place come to be subjected to the Punishment of the Law, whom he called ignorant, not understanding their own corrupted Religion. He could not speak the English Language well, but was very tenacious of the Jewish Rites and insignificant Ceremonies He was the the Father and Counsellor of a Set of vile young Rogues of that Nation, whom he led on to the stealing Plate, Rings, and other valuable Goods, and breaking Goldsmiths or Jewellers Shops, and stealing such like things out of Gentlemens Houses in the Country, wheresoever they could possibly find any Opportunity. As for the robbing of Mr. Young, the Goldsmith, of the Goods mentioned in the Indictment, he could not deny it; but fearing a Discovery, he, with his Associates, Michael Jude and Solomon Athorn, left London, and went down into the Country to Ipswich in Suffolk, where he was taken up on Suspicion, Mr. Young having advertised the robbing of his Shop, and a great many of his Goods were found upon them, though Moses, Jude, and Selick, were committed to Ipswich Goal, on Suspicion of stealing a Sum of Money in Colchester. The Person that was robbed at Colchester, pursued the above-named three Jews to Ipswich, and there apprehended them, and carried them before a Magistrate: On searching them, about 32 l. was found, some in their Pockets, some concealed in the Folds of Samuel Moses's Coat, and some in the Cape of Selick's. A New Crown Piece being found amongst the Money in Selick's Possession, the Person that was robbed challenged it, and said he would swear it to be Part of the Money he was robbed of. This Positiveness of the Man, together with some other Circumstances, as finding a silver Tankard (without a Handle) Snuff-boxes, Thimbles, &c. amonst their Baggage, which they could give no good Account of, induced Samuel Moses to make himself an Evidence against the est, which was granted him upon Condition that he made a full and ample Confession of every Particular.
HE ( Samuel Moses) then confessed, That Selick stole the Money at Colchester, and that the Tankard, Snuff-boxes, &c. were stolen from the House of Mr. William Young, Silversmith in London, for that he, Selick, and one Muckoy, no taken, broke open the Cellar Window belongin to the House of Mr. Young, on Thursday Morning Nov. the 10th last, about two or three o'Clock; that Selick went into the House, and brought out thence a Tankard, a Pepper-box, a Salt-sellar, and some Spoons; that then he opened the Shop Door, and that Selick and Muckoy brought the Shew-Glass out of the Shop. He further confessed, that he, Selick, and Muckoy, broke open a Cellar-Window in Ludgate-street, and stole six whole Pieces of Cambler, and three Pieces that were cut, and committed several other Robberies. Samuel Moses, in his Confession, further saith, That Michael Jude was ignorant of all the Robberies.
ONE asking Selick concerning the Robberies, he readily owned breaking the House of Mr. Young, and said, that Michael Jude shewed him the House in the Day Time, and that Muckoy and Moses were with him at the Time Jude shewed him the House, but that Jude was not with them at the Time of the Robbery. He further says, That Moses stole two silver Spoons at Whitham, and a Gold Ring and Eight Pieces of Ribbon at Colchester. These Robberies Moses did not confess, till he was charged with them by Selick, who says, that Jude was with Moses when he stole the Ring. Moses denied Jude's being with him, and says it was Selick that was with him when he stole the Ring.
JUDE declared he knew nothing of the Robberies, but that Selick put the Tankard amongst his Goods, whilst they were together at
THUS it is evident, that Samuel Moses had a Hand in corrupting several young Jews, with whom some wicked Christians were also concerned. Mr. Cox of Colchester is the Person they stole the Money from, who pursued and took them at Ipswich. Samuel Moses died an inveterate, obstinate Jew.
7. SOLOMON Athorn, alias Selick, 19 Years of Age, born in a Country Town in Beau Russia, a Province in the Kingdom of Poland, of Jewish Parents, whom gave him Education as others of them have. He had been in several Kingdoms, and spoke the different Languages of diverse Countries. He was train'd up a strict Jew in all their Ceremonies, of which he was very tenacious. He was a surly young Fellow, for coming into Chapel one Day with his Hat on, one of the Runners that attended them took it off, concerning the doing of which they pretend a religious Scruple, whereupon Solomon swore to one of his Companions, that if he had a Knife, he would have stabbed the Man who had thus provoked him. It was his great Misfortune to be under the Tutorage and Influence of Samuel Moses, who led him apace to an unfortunate End. He was a wicked perverse Boy; he came sometimes to Chapel for a little Air, but was altogether regardless both of Prayers and Exhortations, and died an irreclaimable Infidel.
8. JACOB Cordosa, 24 Years of Age, born in Holland of Jewish Parents, who educated him in their Way to read and write Hebrew, and such other Languages as the Jews are commonly Masters of. He was not of any particular Trade, but like the rest of his Brethren, chiefly employed in Merchandizing and Trading in a low Way, as ordinarily the poorer Sort of those People do. He travelled over France, Spain, Italy, Germany, &c. according to Custom among them; and after residing some Time in Holland, where great Numbers of those People dwell, he came over hither to England, and has been in London for three or four Years past, during which Time he learnt to speak our Language very readily, as he could likewise the Hebrew, Portugueze, Spanish, French, High and Low Dutch, &c. but Jacob was a very vicious young Man, much addicted to Lying, Swearing, keeping Company with leud Women, associating himself with Gangs of notorious Thieves, Pickpockets, House-breakers, and such like, that can possibly be found in or about London.
SOMETIME ago Jacob was taken up, tried and convicted capitally, for a Burglary committed in the House of an eminent Linnen-Draper in Cornhill, at the Corner of Gracechurch-street , in breaking open their Warehouses, and stealing from thence some Pieces of fine Linnen, Cambrick, &c. He also broke open some Shops and Warehouses about Ludgate-street, and several other Places, and did abundance of Mischief up and down the Town, in Company with some of the vilest young Fellows both of this and his own Nation.
WHILE he lay under Sentence of Death for the above Fact, he obtained his Majesty's most gracious Reprieve to be transported for Life, and as he, with a great many more, were together on the Common-Side, in order to be transported, they formed a Design of breaking out of Goal, and for that Purpose they got a Rope belonging to a Scaffold, with some proper Files to cut off their Irons, and the great Iron Bars upon the Windows, with which they got off their Irons, and also removed some of the great Bars in the Window. Several of the Prisoners were engag'd in this Conspiracy, amongst whom Jacob Cordosa may be supposed to have been the chief, both for Contrivance and Execution. They fix'd the Rope to the strong Bars, having removed two of the large Divisions or Panes of the great Bars, sufficient to let a Man out. Jacob and two or three more, slipt down upon the Rope into the Street,
and so escaped clean of. This was done from a Window by the West Side of the Lodge Door, in the Middle of the great Gate of Newgate, and the Window whence they came down was three or four Stories high, so that had they fallen, they must needs have been dash'd to Pieces. Two or three of them by this Means got quite off, and nothing has been ever since heard of them; but Jacob Cordosa lurking about Hoxton, the Keepers of Newgate found him out; whereupon they immediately dispatched Charles Crofts, one of the Runners of Newgate, in Quest of him, who having had Intelligence given him of the Place where it was supposed he might be found, went thither directly and apprehended him, and so brought him back with him into Salva Custodia, and closely confined him in the Cells of Newgate, from whence a little before he found Means to Escape; but it appears he had no great Sense of his own good Fortune in this remarkable Incident, otherwise he would have improv'd it to a much better Advantage.
A great many more of the Prisoners intended, in the like Manner, to have made their Escapes, but were therein disappointed by the Watchmen, who knocking at the Lodge Door, alarmed the Keepers, who immediately got up, and secured the rest from a further Prosecution of their Designs.
JACOB Cordosa was very obstinate with regard to his Principles as a Jew, as indeed all the rest of them were, for whatever was said to them from their own Bible, though never so evident and convincing, with respect to the Messiah, they notwithstanding turn a deaf Ear to it, and thereby verify the Predictions of their own Prophets concerning the Preaching of our Blessed Saviour and his Apostles.
JACOB, when under Sentence this last Time, was very willing to have come to Chapel, but he was not suffered to come often, having forfeited all Claim and Pretence to Favour by his last Escape. Cordosa died in the Infidelity of Judaism.
Joseph Leath, late of the Parish of Southall, in the County of Middlesex, was indicted for assaulting William Hern on the High-way, putting him in Fear, and taking from him ten Shillings in Money September 13th, his Property.
9. JOSEPH Leath 24 Years of Age born at Ludlow in Shropshire, of honest Parents, who educated him at School to read, write and cast Accompts in order to fit him for Business, and he was likewise very well instructed in the Christian Faith. When of Age, he served his Time to a Shoe-maker , and when out of his Time lived by his Business: He listed and served sometimes as a Trooper or Dragoon , and then was looked upon to be a very honest young Man, who wronged no Body, and as he was a single Man, there was no Pretence for his turning Thief or Robber. He was not so wicked as many such are, but often went to Church, having some Respect to religious Duties. He came sometimes to London, upon Occasion of some Business, and it was his great Misfortune to fall into bad Company, who were the Occasion of his speedy Ruin and Destruction; for they engaged him to go to Gaming-houses, where in a very short Time he lost all his Money, and then they persuaded him to go out to rob upon the High-way; Leath had not Presence of Mind to reject such a horrid Temptation, but went out to try his Fortune, (as he phras'd it) in that wicked Way, and meeting with the Aylsbury Stage-Coach, he robbed the Gentlemen and Ladies that were in it, who frankly delivered their Money; there was a Gentleman belonging to the Coach upon the Coach-box with the Coachman, who offered him two Guineas, which he would not take, but said, I never take Money from any Person without the Coach; Joseph in this was more generous than many of them used to be, for he made off with what Money the Gentlemen and Ladies in the Coach were pleased to give him. A Gentleman of Honour in the Court did intercede for him, to be recommended to His Majesty's Compassion, Leath had some feint Expectations this Way, but his Attempt was so impudent and barefac'd that nothing was done. He always attended in
Chapel and behaved like a true Penitent, as in Charity we may believe he was. He believed in Christ our only Saviour; repented of all his Sins, particularly of the Robbery, but denied his having done any more than the Fact he died for; and died in Peace with all the World.
THOMAS Hill, of St. Martins in the Fields, in the County of Middlesex, was indicted for feloniously counterfeiting and resembling upon a certain Paper, and Thread inclosing a Pack of playing Cards, the Impression of a Seal stamped and marked, made and used, in Pursuance of a Statute to seal, stamp and mark such Pack of playing Cards with the said Stamp, to denote the Payment of the Duty of Six Pence charged on each Pack of playing Cards, intending thereby to defraud the King of the said Duty, against the Form of the Statute, for uttering, vending and selling one Pack of playing Cards with a false Seal, &c. fixed on certain Paper and Thread inclosing the said Pack of Cards, &c. and did defraud the King of the said Duty, &c. and he was charged for uttering, &c. the said Cards, &c. and this is laid to be on the 10th of November, in the 17th Year of his Majesty's Reign.
10. THOMAS Hill, 29 Years of Age, born of honest Parents the other end of the Town, when he was thought proper to go to School, they put him to a very good Master, who taught him to read, write, and cast Accompts, and had him instructed in Christian Principles. When he was at a proper Age, he was put Apprentice to Mr. Thurstian, a Cardmaker ; (who was the Evidence against him) after his Time was expired he married Mr. Thurstian's Wife's own Sister, and has now living by her a Boy and two Girls. He maintained himself and Family after a very genteel Manner; he was well respected by his Neighbours; he said he never wrong'd any Person of any Thing in his Life, but own'd the Fact for which he suffered for; but said his Brother-in-Law was the Person who first propos'd it, and likewise gave him the Money to go to Holland to have the Die made. When he came to London again, he work'd some Time at his Brothers, but having some Words with him about the Price, they parted; upon which he took a House the other side of the Water, and took his Brothers Maid along with him, whom he lived with, and had a Child by her; the Cause of his taking her was (as he said) that she would betray him, if he would not allow her so much a Year; rather than he wou'd allow her any Thing, he took her to look after his House. I reprimanded him for living with another Woman, when at the same Time he had a very honest Wife of his own. He shed Tears when I talk'd to him about it, and said he acknowledged it was a very great Crime, and was verry sorry for it, and he hop'd God of his infinite Goodness would forgive him. He has left two Brothers Behind him; one was a Perriwig-maker, and the other was an Apprentice to him; but since his Misfortunes was gone to Sea. The Night before his Execution, a Gentleman went into the Cell to pray by him, and when he had done, Mr. Hill returned him thanks for his Prayers, and said to him, Sir, I am not any Ways afraid of Death, for I hope I have made my Peace with God, thro' the Intercession of our Saviour Jesus Christ. The greatest concern I have upon my Spirits is, that I must leave my Wife, and my poor Infants behind, and what will become of them after my Decease, God alone is able to judge.
THE Morning of his Execution, he seem'd very much compos'd, till the Sherriffs Officers came to halter him, then he was very much shock'd; and as soon as he was halter'd, he sat himself down on a Bench in the Press-yard; and said to some Gentlemen that stood near him; That if he had been a Thief, or had robb'd a Subject, he should not have been in these unhappy Circumstances. When he came to the Place of Execution he then seem'd to be calm and very Devout, after he had hung three quarters of an Hour, he was cut down and carried to the Talbot in Tyburn-Road by Mistake, the Mobb that took care of his Body, was to carry him to Benjamin Boswell's, where a Surgeon waited on Purpose to bleed him. He was buried on Saturday last at St. George's Hannover-Square.
The Place of EXECUTION.
IN the Morning they came up to Chapel, and heard Prayers, and singing of Psalms; having received the Sacrament of the Lord's last Supper, upon Thursday the 16th Instant, being the Day before they died, and all these different Duties were performed with Appearance of Devotion, and a deep Concern upon their Spirits.
The Day of their Execution they were carried in 4 Carts, Tho. Hill, Lewis Ionoquiere, alias Rogers, and Joseph Leath, in the first Cart. William Clark, John Burton, alias Appleton, and Henry Burroughs, alias Cobler, in the second. Samuel Moses, and Joseph Isaacs, alias Mc Coy, in the Third. And Jacob Cordosa, with Solomon Athorn, alias Selick, in the fourth Cart.
ALL of them appeared abundantly Devout, and the four Jews constantly sung some Hebrew Words, Moses the Eldest, and most learned of them, directing and beginning before the rest, who followed and sung after him, whom they highly esteemed for his Learning. Their Song was this, Adonai Ulam or Olam, and sometimes they added Shemaiah, which is in English, God everlasting in Heaven, or, Hear me O God, or Lord. When I came to pray for the six Christians, they made so great a Noise, and repeating these two Words, or singing them in their Way, and sometimes the third Word Shemaiah, but more seldom than the other two; these they repeated and sung so often, as if some particular Virtue was in them, by way of Prayer, for the Jews for the most Part sing their Prayers, although it does not seem to be so musical, that I was obliged to desire them to sing, or speak more quietly, so as the other dying Men might hear what I said; they seemed somewhat displeased at my speaking, alledging, they ought to pray in their own Way; this I allowed, but not in such a noisy Way, as to disturb the Christians in their Devotion.
IONIQUIER declared, that he died a true Christian, and in Peace with all Men, being the most affected of them all. Joseph Leath said also, that he was a true Penitent, and died in Peace with all the World, adding also some Reflections, which are not worth repeating. Hill said nothing. The two Boys Burton and Burroughs, were half dead with Horror and Confusion: These six joined heartily in Prayers and singing Psalms, and went off the Stage crying to God for Mercy, and Lord Jesus receive my Spirit!
N. B. The Jews had none of their Rabbis, or learned Men attending them to the Place, as Abraham Pass had, who was executed by himself the last Execution; but Samuel Moses, in great Repute among them for his Knowledge, and who died with the other three, supplied that Defect of their Rabbis, some of whom, indeed, were in the Room with them at the Stair Foot, in the Press-Yard, and sung their Psalms or Hebrew Prayers, before they were carried out to Tyburn.
THE four Jews were interr'd in their Burial-Ground at Mile-End, with their Cloaths on, and the Halters about their Necks, the Jews never stripping any Person, who does not die a natural Death. And,
This is all the ACCOUNT, Given by ME,
Ordinary of Newgate .
JOSEPH ISAACS*, was 20 Years of Age the 11th of this Month, born of Dutch Jewish Parents, in Harrow Alley, White Chapple, went to a Jewish School in Partridge Court, in Houndsditch, about two Years, but could not remember his Master's Name; after he left School, he was brought up under his Father, in the Business of Pencil-making , with whom he served his Time faithfully and justly, and was nine Years with him in that Business; he said, he could get 16 or 17 Shillings per Week, and in vending of that Sort of Goods, he could get three Guineas per Week. He went out of England in October last, and was in Germany when the King was there, and left the Earl of Stair at Franckfort; he went with Hard-ware, viz. Knives, Razors, Buckles, &c. and sold there 140 Pound worth of Goods, at good Prizes; he left two of the Polocks in Germany, with their Friends, which Language he understood very well: He positively denied the being concerned in the Robbery for which he was convicted, and if he was to die this Minute, wished Heaven's Gate might be shut against him if he was, and that it would not have vexed him, if he had been guilty of it; that there are People now in Newgate, who saw the Goods sold, and that Clay†, (who was Evidence against him for the Fact for which he was convicted) brought some of the Goods into Newgate with him; and said to one Paine, that one Abraham Pass, a Jew, (lately executed) was Evidence against Clay last September Sessions; but Clay was acquitted; and that Clay said, if ever he was taken, he would be an Evidence against the Jews (He is detained now to be an Evidence against Simon Bailey, and Mary Willson, who are to be tried in Essex, next Assizes for a Burglary). He declared he never saw Clay but three Times in his Life, the first of which was, at a private House in Houndsditch, with Irish Peg, a young Woman that Clay kept Company with, and the Robbery was committed sixteen or seventeen Weeks after that. Joseph Isaacs was asked whether he knew any Thing of the Burglary of Mr. Young's House in Bloomsbury, for which Samuel Moses, Michael Jude, and Solomon Athorn otherwise Seleck, were convicted in last December Sessions; he said he was taken up upon Samuel Moses's Account, but was not concerned in the Robbery; he owned he knew something of the Goods, and if he could have raised the Money he should have bought them, it was then four o'Clock in the Morning when they came to him, or he could have got the Money. Athorn and Moses came to him, and Athorn appeared very well dressed, and said, if he would go Abroad with him, he would find Victuals and Drink: and Athorn asked him, if he knew where a Coach was that was going to Harwich; he told him, he was a young Man, and able enough to walk; Athorn said, if he had a mind to spend his Money, what was that to him, and likewise said, if he had bought the Goods, he knew very well what to do with them, for he would have gone directly to Holland; that there were two silver Spoons, and four Gold Rings sold to one Alvares, a Jew, who lives next Door to the Sign of the Hayfield, in Rag Fair; they gave Isaacs a Pair of Gold Ear-rings, and he gave them away before their Faces, to a Cousin of his who is gone to Jamaica; and being asked what became of the Pepper-box, Rings, and Ear-rings, he said, you must ask Samuel Moses, and those who were concerned in the Robbery. On the 29th of November, Isaacs being told, That he would
* He was Evidence against John Robinson, and Jacob Cordosa, in December Sessions 1742, who were both capitally convicted, but afterwards reprieved for Transportation. Vide Trials 41, 42 and 43. Page 30 of that Sessions.
net believe that Moses impeached him; to which he replied, I know Moses very well, I do not think he would impeach me: Then a Direction in Hebrew Characters, wrote by Mosess at Ipswich, was produced, where Isaacs was to be found, which was interpreted by Isaacs, to the following Effect.
He desires to tell where I am; but not to give any Notice to those, that come to enquire where I am, where to find me, and not to let them know that I am enquired after.
BEING asked in what Manner he was taken, he said, he was sitting by the Fire, on the 29th of November, about seven in the Evening, five Persons came with a Warrant from Justice Sparrow, backed by Colonel De Veil, and took him; one of the Men said, if he offered to stir, he would cut him down with a Cutlass, and one Bob Maycroft held a Pistol, and said, he would shoot him if he did not surrender; he said, don't use me Ill, and I will go any where in the World with you: and one of the Men swore he met him in Holborn about four in the Afternoon, and said he stole the Chain of his Watch, which he utterly denied.
THAT after he was an Evidence against Robinson and Cordosa, one of the Thief-takers, whose Name he thinks is Holden, swore he saw a Handkerchief of his about the Prisoners Neck, and likewise said he had lost a great many Goods, upon which, he carried him down to Kingston Assizes, and was there Acquitted; and after he paid his Fees, was let go about his Business, and had Half a Crown gave him to bear his Expences to London, where he staid about four Days, and then embarked for Holland, to fetch his Sister, but did not carry any Goods then, and continued there about four Months, and then came over here again, and in October went to Holland again, with Goods, and was at Amsterdam a Fortnight or three Weeks; he had been there with his Mother when he was a Child, which makes three Times his going Abroad, and that his Father is now in England, though he was not when he was taken.
HE said, that Solomon Athorn was in Poland about nineteen Weeks ago, where his Father, Mother, and other Relations are now living, that he came over with Goods, and was cheated of them; he being asked who drew Athorn away, he said he could give the best Account of that himself, he being committed to Bridewell by Fleet-Ditch by the Name of Solomon Athorn, for robbing his Lodgings in Hounsditch.
ONE Day, as Athorn was in Chapple, one of the Runners pulled off his Cap, upon which he was in a violent Passion, and said, if he had had a Knife, he would have stabbed him. Isaacs being told, it was decent to pull off one's Cap in a Place of Worship, he said, he had looked into his Bible, and he found there is no Occasion to pull off one's Cap before God, and therefore not before any body else.
HE never was married, and never kept Company with lew'd Women (as he said) he has left behind him 1 Brother, and 2 Sisters, both married.
Mr. YOUNG'S Affidavit.
Middlesex, and Westminster.to wit.
MR. William Young, of St. George's, Bloomsbury, Silver-Smith , came before me, one of his Majesty's Justices of the Peace, for Middlesex and Westminster, and Voluntarily made Oath, That on, or about the 10th of November last, his House was burglariously broke open, and a great Quantity of Plate, Rings, Jewels, and Wearing-Apparel, feloniously taken away, which Particulars more fully appears in a Schedule hereunto annexed; and this Deponent says, that he went the same Day to Goldsmith's-Hall, and had this Robbery advertised, and the next Day in the Daily Advertiser: and, upon the 21st Day of the same Month, he received a Letter from Mr. Justice Sparrow, of Ipswich, telling him, that three Jews, to wit, Samuel Moses, Michael Jude, and Solomon Athorn, were in Custody for a Robbery they had committed at Colchester, and that there were found upon them, some Plate, and other Things, which answered
the Description of some of the Goods mentioned in this Deponent's Advertisement. And this Deponent further says, That the next Day, after he received Justice Sparrow's Letter, he set out for Ipswich, but did not get there till the Day following. Says, That when he got there, the Justice sent for the Jews, to his House, and upon this Deponent's swearing to his Goods, they were all committed to Prison, That he set out of Ipswich the Day after for London, but did not get Home till the Day following, which were in all, four Days, That he verily believes his Expences for those four Days, amounted to about three Guineas, as near as he can compute. Says, that sometime afterwards he applied himself to Mr. Matthews, of the Crown Offce, to get two Habeas-Corpus's to bring the Jews to London, in order to take their Trial at the Old Bailey, which accordingly he had, and received from the said Mr. Matthews, for which he paid forty Shillings. And this Deponent further says, upon his Oath, That he verily believes the Plate that were taken out of his House, Expences in the Prosecution of the Prisoners, Money laid out, and Loss of Time, amount to the Sum of Sixty-seven Pounds and upwards, and this Deponent further says, that upon the Conviction of the Prisoners at the Old Bailey, he received back in Plate to the Value of about eight Pounds.
Sworn before me, this 10th of Feb. 1743.
A particular Account of the Goods Mr. Young was robbed of:
The following were taken out of the Kitchen.
A Quart Silver Tankard.
A Silver Pepper-Box, or Castor.
A Silver Salt Seller.
Two Silver Table-spoons.
Two Silver Tea-spoons.
One Pair of Silver Shoe-Buckles.
One Pair of Silver Knee-Buckles.
Two Ruffled Shirts.
Five Womens Caps.
A Cambrick Handkerchief.
A Linnen ditto.
Two Cambrick Stocks.
A Pair of holland Sleeves.
A Pair of Stockings.
Amounting to 11 l. 15 s.
Taken out of the Shew-Glass in the Shop.
Twenty-six plain Gold Rings.
Seven Pair of Gold Ear-rings. [Moses says nine Pair.] A Saphire Ring with 4 Diamonds.
A Turky Stone Ring with 2 Diamonds.
Four stone Rings, Gold.
Two Garnet Rings, Gold.
A small enamelled Garnet Ring, Gold.
Three black enamelled Rings, Gold.
A Cornelian Ring, Gold.
A Pair of Gold Ear rings with Stones.
A single four-stone Drop, gilt.
A Silver Mull-Box, gilt.
An oval Silver Box, gilt.
Two square Snuff-Boxes, Silver.
A Shell Box, Silver mounted.
About five dozen of Thimbles, Silver.
Several Corral and Watch Chains, Silver.
Several small Pieces of Romish Coin.
These Goods amounted to 42 l.
Total 53 l. 15 s.
BY Virtue of an Act of Parliament made in the Tenth Year of her late Majesty Queen Anne, a Duty of Sixpence per Pack, was laid upon Playing Cards, and Powers given to the Commissioners at the Stamp-Office, to seal up and stamp every Pack of Cards in such a Manner, as to Import the Payment of the Duty, before it should be lawful to use them, so that the Card-Makers were obliged to have every Pack of Cards tied up, and pasted in stamp'd Paper, before they were at Liberty to vend them; and the same Law that imposed this Duty, made it also a capital Offence, without Benefit of Clergy, to counterfeit any of these Stamps.
THOMAS Hill served his Time to Mr. Tustian, a Card-Maker, who had married his Wife's own Sister; and sometime in the Year 1735, he told his Master, that he had thought of something for his Profit and his own, and being pressed to tell him what that was, he readily acknowledged, that it was stamping the Covers of the Cards. Mr. Tustian asked him what the Expence would be? he told him Ten Guineas, which his Master gave him; but afterwards he told him a Rolling Press would be necessary, and his Master paid two Guineas for that. When this was done, he was able to go to Work, and to stamp the Cards in such a Manner, as to make them fit for Marks; which he likewise did effectually.
MR. Tustian, when he gave Evidence against Hill, declared, That he knew nothing of the Manner of his Working, and could not say, how far he was, or was not the Operator, as to the Tools necessary for performing this extraordinary Operation; which is a little wonderful, considering he was to reap the Benefit of the Uses that were made of it.
AT first Hill demanded Eighteen Shillings a Week for his Labour, but when he saw how well it succeeded, and what great Gains Tustian made, he thought that Allowance too little, and insisted upon a new Bargain, by which he was to have Twelve Shillings a Week, and Twopence apiece for the Labels; to which his Master was forced to yield, not only for the Sake of the Profit, but for Fear of being betray'd. The Rolling Press made use of for working these Labels, was set up in the back Garret of Tustian's House, in Charles street, by St. James's square; but Tustian himself pasted these Labels on the Rappers with his own Hands, and drew a very large Profit from this Practice, which continued till within three Months of Hill's being taken up, though he had been gone from Tustian's House some Time before.
THE Reason of his quitting his Master's House, was the finding him sickly and infirm, be would have persuaded him to have turned over his Stock to him, and trusted him with all he had in the World, which Tustian refusing, he would live with him no longer, but took a House for himself in the Hay Market, and set up the Sign of the Knave of Clubs. There he soon devolved himself in Disputes, which proved his Ruin; for it occasioned so strict an Enquiry into his Conduct, his Method of Dealing, and the Business he carried on, that it was very soon discovered he had some illicit Way of getting Money, though it did not immediately appear what that was. At last a Discovery was made in the Month of Sept. 1743, that he had taken a House in Long-Lane, in Southwark; whence a Suspicion arose, that he made Cards there privately, and sold them without Stamps.
UPON this a Warrant was granted for searching that House, and in the Garret were found a Rolling Press, two flat Stones, one with Pink Coloured Paint upon it, and a Stone they call a Muller, a Grate to set a Pan of Charcoal upon to warm the Plate over, and Red Paint, mixed and unmixed, Oil, Whiting, &c. and upon this it was suspected that he counterfeited the Stamp; and Enquiry was made with the greatest Secrecy, by which so many Circumstances were trac'd out, that there remained no Doubt as to the Fact; and upon securing his Day-Book it appeared, that he had sold, in about Three Months Time, 10,812 Packs upon Credit, of which he had entered at the Stamp Office, no more than 7678; so that he had sold 3134, with the forged Stamp, besides what he had sold for ready Money.
IN the Prosecution of this Affair, and comparing the Difference between the true Stamps, and those he made, it is probable a Discovery was made of Mr. Tustian's dealing in the same Commodity, upon which he thought proper to declare all he knew, and to become an Evidence, but he was likewise taken up, and sent to Newgate, where he had not been long, before Hill wrote him the following pitiful Letter.
To Mr. Tustian. These.
” I Understand you have made yourself an Evidence against me, which very much surprized me. I beg that you will let me know the Particulars of what you have said; for the “ Thoughts of your making yourself an Evidence “ against me, gives me more Concern than being “ in this most miserable Place. I understand “ you have a good Room to be in, but I have “ none, nor no Money for me and my Family, “ nor nobody to come near me of any Signification.
“ I beg you would consider of some Method “ of sending me some Money, and a particular “ Account of what you have said by the Bearer. “ The World I find runs away with a Notion “ of my impeaching you; but I declare before “ God and the World, That I never said any “ Thing against your Character in my Life. Pray “ send what you send me inclosed, and an Account of what you have said, to a most miserable Creature.
THIS very Letter was produced against him at his Trial, and with Mr. Tustian's Evidence, and the Testimony of Persons who had bought several Quantities of Cards, the Stamps upon which were proved to be forged, brought the Matter Home to him. So that he was capitally convicted in December Sessions. Hence it clearly appears, that sooner or later these Kind of Frauds are always found out; and that notwithstanding their seeming to be of such prodigious Benefit, they seldom or never bring the Persons who venture upon them any real Advantage, since it is clear from the foregoing Letter, that this poor Creature, in his deepest Distress, had not wherewith to subsist himself, but was reduced to downright starving; which ought to deter all People from such Practices, as after a Series of Pain and Misery, end in Shame and Want.
The following LETTER was found in his Cell, after he was gone to Execution.
’ THE Irregularity and Offensiveness of my ‘ private Life, are as well known to you, ‘ as the Crimes I have committed against the ‘ Publick are to the World; and therefore it is ‘ but just that I should acknowledge my Guilt, ‘ and implore your Pardon, which is all now in ‘ my Power to do. Think of that, and I know ‘ you will forgive me, both from a Christian ‘ Principle, and from Motives of Good Nature.
‘ I cannot reflect, much less speak of the vicious Life I have led, without Horror and Confusion; that drew me into those Expences which ‘ drove me upon desperate Courses to supply ‘ them; and when I succeeded in these, kept me ‘ always so low, that by the just Judgment of ‘ Providence, I had no Enjoyment of what I ‘ got, but was miserable in my Mind, as well ‘ as idle in my Conduct.
‘ What can I say to you for my ill Treatment? ‘ Or what can I offer to you on the Subject of
‘ the Circumstances I have brought you into. In ‘ one Thing you are happy, which comforts ‘ me much, all the World acknowledges your ‘ Innocence, and do Justice to you, though ‘ at my Expence: This is but Right, I was ‘ alone in the Crime, and upon me only ought ‘ the Load of Sorrow and Shame to lie.
‘ BUT though just the Burthen, yet it is ‘ nevertheless heavy; and though I must bear ‘ it, I cannot help feeling the Weight of it. ‘ Pray for me however, that I may be enabl'd ‘ to resist Despair. Forget my Faults, blot out ‘ the Remembrance of my Follies, and let the ‘ grievous Punishment that has followed them, ‘ attone for all. These are my last Petitions, ‘ the only Requests that I can ever make to ‘ you.
‘ Be careful of the poor Lambs, your Children and mine, and let the Uprightness of your ‘ Conduct defend them from those Reflections ‘ which mine must otherwise draw upon them ‘ from an unkind World. My dying Blessing ‘ light on them and on you. My Tears stop my ‘ Writing, and my Heart is so full, that I can ‘ only add, it is impossible to express the Sorrow of
Your Miserable, Dying Husband,
From my Cell in Newgate, Feb. 16, 1743.
THIS poor Man could not free himself almost to the last, from the Desire of living upon any Terms, of which the following is a remarkable Instance.
ON Tuesday, February 14, 1743-4, between Five and Six in the Evening, he was at the Door of his Cell for a little Air, when seeing Mr. Nichols the Turnkey, he called to him, and offered him Threescore Guineas to let him out. The Turnkey, instead of taking it, told him, that if he would give him the Press-Yard full of Gold, he would not betray his Trust; that he was there to be safely kept, and safely he should be kept till the Sheriff demanded him. Mr. Nichols observed to him farther, that he was wont to express himself in warm Terms against his Master Mr. Tustian, for betraying him, and therefore should not think amiss of him for refusing to betray his Master, the Head Keeper?
BUT this Refusal did not convince him of the Folly of this Attempt. Consider, said he, I have a Wife and three poor Children, and for their Sakes let me out. I cannot do it, returned the Turnkey, though I very much pity your Distress, and therefore make yourself easy under your Circumstances, and do your Duty as I do mine. This was all that past at that Meeting.
THE very next Day, Hill resumed his Temptation, asking Mr. Nichols in the Press-Yard, What will no Money get me out? No, answered Mr. Nichols, all the Money your Friends can raise, will have no Effect upon me; and you are not to hope any Passage from hence, but by a free Pardon, in case his Majesty, out of his great Mercy, should be so gracious as to grant you one
SOON after a Person was sent into his Cell to put him on double Irons, which was accordingly done. When he came next to go up to Chapel, he spoke to Mr. Nichols and said, I thank you. Nichols asked for what? Hill replied, for causing me to be double Iron’d. Mr. Nichols told him, it was done not by his, but by his Masters Orders, and that Prisoners, while there, must be kept safe. Poor Hill remained however very much chagrin’d, and could not help looking when he came back from Chapel, very sternly upon Nichols.
THE Night before his Execution Mr. Nichols spoke to him, and said, Mr. Hill, I hope you have no Animosity against me. Hill answered him, No, you have behaved like an honest, trusty Servant to your Master; I have no Anger against you, but forgive you with all my Heart. Mr.
Nichols thank'd him, lock'd him up, and wish'd him good Night.
The following Account John Burton gave of himself three Days before he suffered.
JOHN Burton * otherwise Appleby (his right Name is Appleton) 18 Years of Age, born of honest Parents at Croydon in Surry who are both living, his Father is a Labourer and has had eleven Children, five or six of whom are now alive; he went to School to one Arnold Allen, at Croydon, five or six Years, and was instructed in Reading, Writing, and Arithmetic; after he left School, he went to live with one Parker, a Farmer, at Warden Court, about a Mile from Croydon. He lived there about a Year, and had four Shillings per Week, but not Victuals; his Business was to drive the Oxen , &c. He then went to Service to George Saxby, of Adscomb, he lived with him about Half a Year, and he left him because they could not agree, for his Master would have the Horses grow fat, and would not allow them Corn; afterwards, he went to live with his Son, not far from him, till he could get another Place; then he went to live with Mr. Duer, of Croydon, and drove a Waggon for him, and used to bring Oatmeal to London, for Mr. Osborn, and continued there about three Quarters of a Year; but the Work being Night and Day, it was to hard for him, and he could not hold it: in these Services, he was faithful and just. After he had received his Wages, he came to London, to buy some Cloaths in Rag Fair, and gave Half a Guinea for the Coat he had on, and there got acquainted with John Bunn, Joseph Leach, and David Shovel, who goes sometimes by the Name of Shields; † he is now living, and follows the same Trade.
HE said, that the first Robbery that ever he committed, was the Robbing James Fennel, a Taylor , near Rosemary Lane, the 21st of June last, which was about the Time he came from Croydon. They used the White Horse in Rag Fair, which is kept by one Smith, and when his Money was spent, they prevailed on him to go a Thieving.
IT having been questioned by reason of the Difference in Fennel's Evidence, on the two forementioned Trials, whether that Robbery was committed or not; he was asked, whether they did rob Fennel, he said, they robbed him the Night mentioned on the Trial, about eleven o'Clock at Night: He said, himself, Warwick, Leach, and Bunn, had been to steal some Linnen that they had seen hanging in the Day Time by White-Chapple Church, but it happened, that it was taken in, and being disappointed, they went into they Blue Anchor by Wellclose Square, and Fennel was in the House, and as soon as he went out, they followed him, that Warwick, (and not Leach) knocked him down, and they robbed him of his Hat, Wig, and sixteen Shillings, as they told him, but that he had no Part of the Money; after they had robbed him, they went into Spittle-Fields Church-yard, and getting over a Wall, into a Garden, they stole a Parcel of Linnen, and then he was taken, and impeached the other three.
AFTER he had given his Evidence, Miller, and the Husband of Elizabeth Miller, who is now under Sentence of Transportation, was ordered by the Court to carry him on board a Ship, and instead of doing that, carried him to his own
* He was Evidence against Richard Warwick in June Sessions, Trial 335, Page 203, and against Bunn and Leach in September Sessions, Trial 417, Page 242, those three are now under Sentence of Transportation.
House, and sent him a Thieving again: that he, and Bess Miller have been the Ruin of him, Shovel, &c. and endeavoured to learn him to pick Pockets, but could not perform it well at all. He attempted to pick a Gentleman's Pocket about three Months ago, on a Sunday, about the Dusk of the Evening, and he caned him so, that he never would go picking Pockets any more.
HE stole a Looking-glass out of a Gentleman's House on the other Side of the Water, and sold it to a Man's Wife, who goes by the Name of Irish Peg, who is a Fence†, for seven Shillings: He said Long Charles and another Man took him, that Irish Peg, got him taken up because he would not sell her the Goods he stole, so cheap as she would have them.
HE went down to Croydon-Fair along with Miller, and some others, and would have staid at his Father's, but he prevailed upon him to come to Town, and go to his House again, that Miller kept him a little while at his House, and gave him a small Matter now and then, but he had little or nothing of the Reward on the Conviction of Warwick, Bunn, and Leach.
HE said, the Robbery for which he was convicted, was the first that ever he committed in Company with Burrough's, that they did not take any Thing out of Mr. Johnson's Shop, for the Hole that was broke in the Window, was not big enough to take any Thing through, though it was sworn on the Trial, that some Caps were taken through the Glass.
The following is the Account John Burrough's gave of himself before he suffered.
JOHN Burrough's, about eighteen Years of Age, born in St. Giles's in the Fields; his Father was a Gunsmith, his Mother is now living; he was put to School to one Laycock, where he continued about half a Year, and was put Apprentice to one Laycock, who lives now by the Seven Dials, a Clog maker , (no Relation to his School-master) who almost starved him; but notwithstanding that, he lived with him on and off 5 Years, but run away from him several Times, and supported himself by Thieving, by which he got into bad Company, several of whom are transported; the first Thing of that kind he did, was breaking his Master's Shew-glass, and taking as many Clogs as he pawned for Half a Guinea, to one Collyer, a Pawnbroker at the Back side of St. Giles's-Church; with that Money, he went to Dartford, in Kent, and when he had spent it, he came to Town again, and went to Gravesend in order to go to Sea, but in Greenwich-Park,
N. B. There being so many Facts, and Particulars, given by these unhappy Convicts, as renders it impracticable to bring the same within the usual Compass, and yet are so necessary to be known; we are obliged to refer our Readers to the second Part of this Account, which will be published on THURSDAY next, and wherein, the Readers will find a full Relation of the several Facts committed by the other Convicts; and particularly, a very remarkable Account of Cordosa, the Jew, who made his Escape out of Newgate. As also, the Behaviour and Dying - Speech of ANDREW MILLER, who was condemn'd at the Old-Bailey, on Tuesday the 13th of December last, for murdering Mr. James Neilson, his Captain , and was executed at Execution-Dock on Tuesday the 21st of this Instant, for the same. In his Speech, will contain a very remarkable Account of his Life and Actions. Likewise several Letters to his Wife, while under Confinement, and also to his Mother and Brother.
† A Fence is a Buyer of stolen Goods.
THE ORDINARY of NEWGATE, His ACCOUNT of the Behaviour, Confession, and Dying Words, OF THE MALEFACTORS Who were Executed at TYBURN, On FRIDAY the 17th of February, 1743.
Number I. Part II. For the said YEAR.
THE ORDINARY of NEWGATE, His ACCOUNT of the Behaviour, Confession, &c.
PARK met with a young Woman who was going a Hopping, and went with her to Dartford; after all his Money was spent, he left the young Woman, and came to London, without any Design of doing any Thing farther in that Way; but meeting with a Person in the Borough-Fair who knew him, carried him to his Master, and he committed him to Newgate, where he was tried and acquitted, and his Master took him Home again. When he was sent of an Errand with Money, he used to run away, and would not return till the Money was all spent. About two Years ago, he went entirely from him. About half a Year ago, he broke a Window in Spittle-Fields, and took out as many Shoes as he sold for half a Guinea, and since that, has followed picking Pockets in Cornhill, Fleet-Street, and Temple Bar, and sometimes used to go to Drury-Lane and Covent Garden Play-houses; he said, he chose to go by himself, because what he got was his own; the most he ever made in one Night, by what Handkerchiefs he got, was 5 Shillings, and has sold three Handkerchiefs for a Crown to a Fence in Rag-Fair.
WILLIAM CLARKE, otherwise Stockley, about fifty Years of Age, was born in St. Michael's at Oxford, his Father was a Brewer, who has been dead about forty Years, and his Mother about eight Years; the first School-Master he went to, was one Jennings; he was near thirteen Years at School, under several Masters, and went as far as the Greek Testament: Immediately after he came from School, he went as a Serviteur in Christ-Church College, and was turned out for Misbehaviour, being inclined to keep Company with Women; he has been married to his present Wife, who is a Staffordshire Woman, about thirteen Years, and has one Daughter living, who is three Years of Age; after he left Oxford, he went to Worcester, and was bound Apprentice to one Willis, a Cabinet-maker , with whom he served about four Years on and off: for about 17 Years of Age, he entered into Gore's Regiment of Horse ; he said he was entered 5 Times, and bought off every Time, and his
Master and he disagreeing, was the Occasion of his entering into the Army; for he went to Leicester, and his Master came after him, and because he would not go Home with his Master, he entered into General Honeywood's Regiment of Dragoons, till the Regiment he was in, was broke, and then he listed himself into the third Regiment of Guards, and was a Corporal in that Regiment 7 Years, and after that, a Recruiting Serjeant , from which he has been discharged 5 Years, on Account of an ill State of Health he was in at that Time.
HE said, he was at the Expedition to Vigo, in King George I. Reign. There were two Men of a Troop out of General Gore's, and General Honeywood's Regiments, in all 24 Men, to go as a Guard to my Lord Cobham, but Honeywood had taken the Town before they got up, there was about an hundred Men killed in the Action. He acknowledged the Fact for which he was convicted, but said, that on the Sunday was 3 Weeks before, he was bit by a mad Dog, and hardly knew what he did, that for a Fortnight, or three Weeks, he was raving mad, and if he had known what he did, he would hardly have gone 2 Miles with a silver Cup in his Hand, publickly, and all the Way from Spittle-Fields to Smithfield, and drinking out of it; he said he sold the Plate for 5 Pounds four Shillings, and that enabled him to go down to the Salt-Water to be dipped, by which he was recovered.
HE said, that Mr. Ruddell, the Prosecutor, had made it up with him, and promised he would not hurt a Hair of his Head, and likewise said, that he had always behaved honestly, and seemed to be out of his Senses; and the Prisoner said, if he had not been out of his Senses, he should hardly have come back again, almost a Month afterwards, and lay at his Lodging, in which he committed the Robbery.
THAT Mr. C - n - l, the Headborough, who took him up, said, Mr. Ruddell, you don't know what you are about, this Fellow may prosecute you, besides there is a Reward; and then Ruddell, came into the Room, and said, Here is your Prisoner, and with the Assistance of some others, secured him; he said also, that he had then his Child in his Lap (who is about 3 Years of Age) or else 20 of them should not have taken him, but he thought the Matter was all made up, only he was put upon the Prosecution for the sake of the Reward; but there is no Reward in this Case, for it was not a Burglary.
The following ACCOUNT was giving by CORDOSA the Jew, a few Nights before his Execution; with a Request it may be publish'd, as a warning to all young Men to avoid his ignominious Death.
SINCE his being apprehended (this last Time) he looked upon himself as a Dying-Man, as one who had but a few Days to spend in this Life. It can hardly be imagined, (he thinks) that a Man sensible of his unhappy Condition, and that he is but a few Moments from Eternity, can be induc'd from any Pleasure he takes in the Review of a wicked, vicious, ill-spent Life, to recite those Crimes to the World which he must repent of, or be ever miserable. But least any one should believe that to be his Motive; he thinks it necessary to declare, that he look'd upon himself (in his dying Condition) to take Shame and Confusion of Face to himself; and for the Benefit of the World, to mention some Facts, in order to clear particular Persons, who are suspected of having been concern'd therein, and to warn Youth by his sad Example to avoid those Courses, which sooner or later end in Misery, Destruction and Death.
JACOB Cordosa, * 24 Years of Age, born in Amsterdam, his Father was a Grocer of very great Business, and have had 14 Children, 8 of whom are now living, but only one Sister in London, his Father now lives at Newcastle upon Thames, and his Mother at Amsterdam, they were all brought up in a very genteel Manner; and he among the Rest was at a Boarding School at Amsterdam; his Father one Day going to pay a large Sum of Money to his Merchants, his Uncle seeing his Father with two large Bags of Gold and Silver, prevail'd on him to go home again, and not be such a Fool, as to pay that Money away; he persuaded his Father to do as he advis'd him, and returned home, sold of all his Goods, and came to London with the Money, and his Mother went to live in a Room in another Street in Amsterdam, his Father sent Pewter and other Goods from London to Holland, and his Mother sent Hollands in Return; this went on for about two Years, but his Father getting acquainted with a Woman here, she prevailed with him not to send any Thing to his Mother, and the Children; she not having any Remittances from him for a long Time, came to London about eighteen Years ago, with him and the other Children, but could not find his Father: About 8 or 9 Years ago, a Man came and told her, that he was at Hackney; upon which she went and found him out, and he agreed to go along with her, but had not liv'd long together, before he left her, then she returned to Holland again with her Children, and sometime after sent him to London to his Father, who lived with this Woman in Prescot-street Goodman's-Fields, but had another Room in three Crown Court in the Minories; some time after he left Prescot-street, and came to live in the Minories, that he bought him all new Cloaths, and put him to a Boarding School at No. 2 in Prescot-street, where he continued about half a Year, his Father gave his Master orders not to let him go out of Doors, and ordered him to change his Name: He went one Day to see his Sister, in the mean Time his Father came to enquire for him, and gave orders that he should be punish'd for going out; but when his Master came to find that it was his Sister he went to see, he would not correct him for it, so his Father took him away from the School. Then he went to live with his Sister, and his Father paid half a Crown a Week for his Board; his Father kept a Snuff-mill, and he used to take care of the Horses , and travel into the Country with him with Snuff, in which he continued almost 12 Months, but at Northampton seeing 2 Silver Tea-Spoons lying upon a Table at the House where they lodged, he took the 2 Spoons and put them into his Pocket, this was the first Fact that ever he committed; then he went to Hockley within three Miles beyond Dunstable, and sold the two Spoons to a Woman in Hockley for a Shilling a Piece; the next Night as his Father and he was setting by the Fire, who should come in but the Landlord of the House they lodg'd in at Northampton, and 2 or 3 Gentlemen with him; one of them called his Father aside, told him he was a Gentleman, and always behaved himself like a Gentleman, and that his Son had stole 2 Silver Spoons, but he would not hurt a Hair of his Head for his Sake; the Gentleman called him into another Room, and asked him before his Father, what he had done with the 2 Spoons which he took away, he did not care to answer, but his Father bid him answer, he told them he did not take them out of the House, but found them in the Yard, and inform'd them where he had sold them; his Father paid for the Spoons and likewise the Charges of their coming there, and spent a Guinea upon them that Night, and the Gentlemen at the same Time admonish'd him, and told him the ill Consequences that wou'd attend those illegal Practises; if follow'd, wou'd bring him to a shameful End; which has prov'd too true to his Misfortune.
THE next Day his Father took half a Guinea out of his Pocket, and bid him go to Holland,* He was tried in December Sessions 1742, and capitally convicted, but afterwards was ordered to be transported, and on the 16th of August, broke out of Newgate, with John Eyres, who was condemned in April Sessions, for robbing Mr. Byfield on the Highway.
for as he bore a good Name in the Country, such a one as him would be the Occasion of his loosing his Character. Jacob did not know where to go, so the Woman of the House spoke to his Father, and desired him to forgive him that Time; and after several Entreaties, his Father forgave him, and they went together to Chester, and met a Gentleman (a Portuguese) upon the Road, who came from Lisbon with a Waggon and six Horses, and 4 Men behind: With a Lion, a Tyger and all Sorts of wild Beasts; after they had sold their Goods they came to London, and his Father sent him to Holland, because he should not do any more of these Tricks, and about 3 Years ago he came from Holland to see for his Father, but could never find him to this Time; he went down to Stamford in Lincolnshire, where he heard his Father lived, and that he was married to a young Woman there, the Woman he lived with in London being dead, he enquired for him, but could not hear of him; then he heard he was at Newcastle, which was as they said 150 Miles from the Place, he did not go there, not being certain of finding him if he went; but came back to London.
AFTER he had been in London about three Months, he met one Aaron Cordosa, a Relation of his, who had a Fancy he should travel the Country with him; (says he, Jacob) I am going to Ireland, and if you have a Mind, I will shew you where your Father is; he being desirous of seeing his Father, he went with him to Ireland, Aaron Cordosa and he walked, but Aarons Wife and Family went in the Waggon; Aaron Cordosa had a Design to entice him to continue in Ireland, that he said to Aaron I thought you told me my Father was here, but I find he is not; he said he thought he had been there, and that as he ( Jacob Cordosa) was there, he might as well go along with him, and he should want for nothing, accordingly he went along with him; they carried one Barrel of Spanish Snuff to Ireland, which they sold; he was at Dublin about six Months, in which Time he got acquainted with a young Woman, and was going to be married to her, but Aaron Cordosa hearing of it said, Jacob, I hear you are going to be married to such a young Woman, says he, I would advise you against it, for two Reasons; one Thing is, she is with Child, and another Thing is, she owes a great deal of Money; so he did not marry her: Soon after he left Aaron Cordosa there and went to Cork, and lived with one Abraham Rivers, almost 12 Months; there he had no Body to talk to, for he could not understand their Language; at that Place he stole 3 Pieces of Holland out of a Trunk, and a new Suit of Cloaths, and left his old Cloaths in the Room of them; he sold the Holland and went to Waterford, from Waterford to Dublin, from Dublin to Bristol, and from Bristol to London, where he went to live with his Sister, after he had been about a Week there, he quarrelled with her, and a Woman told him if he could not live quietly with his Sister, he should marry; accordingly she helped him to a Wife, who he left with Child, in about six Months Time and went to Holland; while he was in Holland he received a Letter from her, upon which he came to England, where he followed his own Business of Snuff-making .
SOME Time after that she was brought to Bed of a Son, but he soon left her and went to Holland again, and hearing that her Mother was dead he returned to London, this was about three Years ago, at that Time the Vestry belonging to the Synagogue hearing there were many Robberies committed by the Jews, sent several of them to Holland, and they gave him two Guineas and ordered him to the same Place; and told him if he returned within 3 Years they would arrest him, (he said 'tis a Custom among the Jews, if a Man goes abroad to any other Parts for such a Time as 2 or 3 Years or more, according to the Agreement, if he returns within that Time, he is liable to be arrested.) He received the 2 Guineas, and a Person passed his Word (according to Custom) that he should go abroad, his Child being then dead, he promised to go to Holland, and took his Wife out of Town with him; when he got as far as Bow, he would have persuaded her to have staid in England, but she said she would go with him, so he run away from her, and went to Holland, about a Fortnight afterwards his Wife went after him to Holland, and staid about a Fortnight with him, and then he sent her to London again; he remained in Holland about 5 Weeks after she left him, and then came to London, his Wifes Brother and other Friends of hers advised her to
arrest him, and put him in Goal, upon that he said he would put it out of their Power to arrest him; so he got a Divorce from her under Pretence of going abroad, but he did not; he said that after they are divorced, they are not to speak to one another, nor be under one Roof. She is now living, and is an English Woman a Jewess, after that he got acquainted with one Mary Allen, who is his present lawful Wife but not a Jewess.
HE said he had been in England about two Years, he sometimes followed his own Business of Snuff-making, and was a Piece of a Barber ; he said he had been in London several Times before, and used to come five or six Times in a Year and buy hard Ware, and Pewter, and carry it to Holland; he always went in the King's Packet Boat, because he went for nothing, only giving a Shilling or two to the Clerk for writing the Pass.
HE said he never was in any Trouble or any Goal before he was taken up for the Burglary, &c. for which he was tried in Decem. Sessions, 1742. That Joseph Isaacs who was an Evidence against him sometime ago, and likewise suffered with him at Tyburn, was the Ruin of him, by first enticing him into these wicked Practices; he got acquainted with him first, by seeing him in a public House playing at Lambs Skinit, he had play'd with Isaacs and wone his Hat and Cloaths; there was a young Woman he was acquainted with who used to meet him every Day, whose Aunt had got two Houses in little Moor-Fields, and she persuaded Joseph Isaacs, Cordosa and Robinson to go and rob her Aunt; for says she the old B - h has got Money, and you may easily come at it; accordingly they went, but seeing a Light, they would not venture. Since we are disappointed, says Joseph Isaacs to Cordosa come along with me, they went into White Chapel about seven o'Clock, and between the Bars and White Chapel Church, they met with Jack Robinson * with his Hat over is Eyes; says Isaacs, Jack will you go? Robinson said to Isaacs, who have you got with you, said he an Acquaintance of mine; as we were coming up an Alley, Robinson laid hold of a Window to pull it open, said Cordosa that will not do for me, says Isaacs what are you afraid of? he said somebody will lay hold of us, however they did not do any thing then. Cordosa said to Isaacs, what Sort of Things are you going to bring me into, Isaacs said you Fool, this is the best Way of getting Money. One Night Isaacs and Robinson attempted to break open a Druggists House in White Chapel, but could not accomplish it. The next Night they told him of it, but not being willing to go with them, he gave them the slip, and ran home. Robinson came one Day with Mac Coy, (Isaacs) to his Lodgings when he was not at home, which his Wife acquainted him with, he said to her if they come again, tell them I am not at home; Mac Coy came one Night to enquire for him, but his Wife denying him, Mac Coy said he was sure he was at home, and at the same time told his Wife, he would shoot through the Windows if he did not come to him, Cordosa was at home, but being vexed at his Behaviour, said he would break his Head if he did not go away (he lodg'd then at one Widow Leonards in Petticoat Lane) Mac Coy said he would pay him to Morrow if he did not come down and let him in, and Cordosa said, he would pay him if he did not go away.
AFTER his becoming acquainted with Jack Robinson, † he used to go frequently to his House, and go and spend Six pence with him, but did care for much Conversation with Isaacs, because he kept Company with Black Guards, and the like, in Duke's Place, and told them every Thing he did, so that if he committed a Robbery, every Body was sure to know it, for what he did in the Night, he would tell the next Day; he said that Isaacs (Mac Coy) was a Thief as soon as ever he could walk, and has been so ever since; that* He was tried with Jacob Cordosa, in December Sessions 1742, and capitally convicted on the Evidence of Joseph Isaacs, and is since transported.
Isaac's Father is living, and has five or six Wives.
Cordosa said, Joseph Isaacs and * Abraham Pass, (both Jews) broke open the Warehouse of Messures Beale and Dawson, Linnen Drapers, in Talbot Court, Gracechurch Street, in July last; they got in three Nights running, the first Night they opened the Cellar Window, between the Hours of Twelve and One o'Clock, and took out four or five pieces of Linnen; the Second Night they got some other Pieces; and the Third Night they took about three Pieces; Joseph Isaacs would not assist in bearing them off, but bid Abraham Pass carry them. Pass said, why should I carry them all, when you are to have part of the Money; there was a Difference between them, but at last to end the Dispute, Abraham Pass carried them, but going along Abraham drop'd them, being very heavy, (three pieces of brown Oznaburg) and would not carry them any farther; a Watchman hearing a Noise, and suspecting some Roguery, came up to them, upon which Joseph Isaacs ran away, but Pass would not go away and leave the Linnen, so the Watchman laid hold of him, and asked him how he came by that Linnen; he said he had been out in the Country, and was going Home with them; the Watchman said you must give a better account of yourself before I'll let you go, (Abraham could hardly speak English) so he was committed that Night to Woodstreet Compter for further Examination, and then made himself an Evidence against † Richard Clay, who was Evidence last Sessions against this Joseph Isaacs, for the Burglary upon which he was convicted.
Cordosa being asked whither Isaacs Mac Coy, had lately been in Holland, because it was sworn upon his Tryal, that he was in Holland at the Time the Burglary for which he was convicted, was committed; he said that Isaacs never was in Holland in his Life, but only kept himself out of the Way, that after Cordosa was cast, he picked up Abraham Pass, and after Pass was Executed, he thought himself safe, and then he got acquainted with Richard Clay, and committed several Robberies with him, and some other Persons.
Joseph Isaacs, John Robinson and he, broke open Mr. Francis's House, a Linnen Draper at the Corner of Red-Lyon Street in White-Chapel; Isaacs and Robinson, went one Day to Buy a bit of Linnen, for the lining of a Waistcoat, which came to a Shilling or Eighteen-pence, in Order to observe the inside of the Shop; two or three Nights after, they told him there was a good Chance at the Corner of Red Lyon Street, accordingly they went, and got into the Shop through the Cobler's Stall, which is under the Shop Window, and then opened a little Door, and took out two pieces of Blue Linnen; they hearing a Watchman coming, went out of the House, and after the Watchman was gone, they went in again, and took out about Twelve pieces of Linnen more, and went out at the Door, that opens into Red Lyon Street, and Sold those Goods that Night, to one ‡ S - x, for nine or ten Pounds, they got in about 12 o'Clock, and sold the Linnen about 3, and divided the Money exactly between them, which he said was about three Pound each. After Isaacs and Robinson were gone, Cordosa returned the same Night, and took out nine pieces of white Linnen, each about 24 Yards long; Twelve Yards of Cambrick; a piece of Printed Linnen, about 24 Handkerchiefs, a new Perriwig, and two pieces of Linnen Check, (he had Picklock-keys with him, if there had been occasion for them,) He sold part of these Goods to the same Person that Night; then he went home to his own Room, in Buckle Street, Goodman's Fields, and it not being Day Light, he had a mind to venture again, which he attempted, but by such Time as he got there, several People were coming to Market, so that he was afraid he could not get in with safety, and returned to his Lodging, without doing any thing more that Night.
† Clay was Tried in September Sessions, for breaking a Wine Vault in Fenchurch Street, belonging to Mr. Thomas Wilson, and stealing 21Quart Bottles of White Wine, and 18 large Candles, upon the Evidence of Abraham Pass and acquited.
‡ He would not tell the Name of the Person, but as he mentioned the Name of Sauchex presently after, tis very probable it was that Person.
THE next Day there was a great Noise that the Linnen Draper was robb'd, and my Partners heard that the People of the Shop, said there were more Things lost, than they had part of, and they told him they believed he had been to the Shop again, he denied it, but Joseph Isaacs's Father going into his Room, when he was taking something out of his Drawers, saw some of the Handkerchiefs and Linnen, which he had kept for his own private Use, and he told his Son of it; then it was Discovered, that he had been there again. Isaacs was angry, and said if he had told him, he would have gone back again with him, and if he did not give them part of the Goods, he would Discover the Robbery. He told him he would not give him any, that he had no right to them unless he had been with him; Isaacs said if he did not give him part he would do for him, but Cordosa would not, so it passed off, and as they would have him out with them again, they made no Noise about it, and they went a Robbing together afterwards.
THE next Fact they committed was the breaking open an old Woman's House in Well Close Square, who kept a Distillers Shop, this was committed by Robinson and Cordosa, for as Isaacs used to tell the Boys what Robberies he had committed, they would not let him go with them; the broke a Pain of Glass, and got in at the Kitchen Window, and took three Doz. of Pewter Plates from off the Shelf, half a Doz. of Candlesticks, a Warming pan, a Money Shovel, and a large heap of fine Linnen, which was ready to be Ironed, and a copper Coffee-pot, they were going with all those Things to Jack Robinson's, Cordosa went in, and handed the Things out to Robinson, who had a Bag with him, and he laid the Candlesticks in a row in the Street, and as Cordosa was putting the Pewter into the Bag, two Excise Officers came by; he stood before the Candlesticks to hide them, and Jack Robinson walked off with the Bag upon his Back; they called out and asked what is here, but they did not see the Candlesticks, but seeing somebody running before, they walked after Robinson, and cryed Hallo! Robinson hearing the Excise Officers, thought they called Watchman, so he threw the Bag down, run away and left it behind him, and the Excise Officers took hold of the Bag; then he went to Robinson's House, at Salt Peter-Bank, and asked him what he had done with the Bag, he said he thought he was pursued, so he threw it down, and left it behind, but Cordosa could hardly believe but that he had flung him, and told him he would not believe him, Robinson bid him go about a Stones throw from his Door, and he would find the Money Shovel, he would hardly believe it then, they went to look after the Warming Pan, and the Candlesticks, and found them where they left them; but the Excise Officers produced the Bag in Court upon his Tryal, * Robinson said he had lost a fine Chance in loosing the Bag.
ANOTHER Time, he and Robinson, broke open a House in * Goodman's-Yard, over against the End of Prescot-Street in Goodman's-Fields; they got in at the Cellar Window, and then proceeded up Stairs, from whence they took three Doz. of China Dishes, half a Doz. of Chocolate Cups, half a Doz. of Basons, two Pound of Tea in Canisters, four large Iron Pots, and a Fish Kettle; they Sold all but the Tea to a Fence, he mentioned before (that was S - x,) the Tea he kept for himself, S - x offered him eight Shillings for half a Pound of the Tea, but he would not part with it.
HE was asked whether he could not Bark like a Dog, he smiled and said Yes, but that it was all over with him now; (for next Friday says he, the Cord will hinder my Barking) and if he was to do it, it would frighten those that heard him, as it had done other People. The same Night they were going into that House again, but hearing some body come down Stairs, they thought it Time to withdraw, and they retired* John Robinson, who is Transported, was Indicted in December Sessions 1742, for breaking and entering the Dwelling House of Samuel Barrons on the 18th of October, 1742, and taking sundry Houshold Goods, &c, among which was a Fish Kittle, &c. So that it is likely this is the same Burglary.
Home; the next Day he went by the Door, and heard a great Noise of the People's being robb'd; he enquired what was the Matter, though he said he knew very well himself, without asking; the People who were standing by the House, said that House had been robb'd of two Pound of Tea, and likewise said, that the People who were robb'd would not have taken 30 l. for the China, and other Things, as before mentioned.
THE next Robbery he committed, was breaking the Dwelling House of Richard Blount, Esq; in Mansel Street, Goodman's Fields, in Company with Isaacs and Robinson, Isaacs brought a Knife from his Lodging with a Blade a quarter of a Yard long, which he (Cordosa) put between the Window Shutters, and opened them so far as to put a Hand in, and then unfastened the Iron Bar on the inside of the Window, (a Bar which turns round) opened the Shutters and went in. The first Thing he laid hold of, was a Silver * Tea Kettle and stand, half a Doz. of Silver Tea Spoons, gilt; two Linnen Gowns, a Footman's great Coat, 3 pair of new worsted Stockings, half a dozen of Silk Handkerchiefs, and several other trifling Things which he could not remember, there was a little Box in the same Place which they could not get out. After he came out he saw a Watchman coming by that knew him when he lived in Houndsditch, (Robinson and Isaacs kept at a Distance) he asked the Watchman what was the Matter, the Watchman said some Body has been robbed, Cordosa said aye has there? yes says the Watchman there has, then they went home presently, they kept the Things till Morning, and sold them to S - x. He said the Esquire did not care what he gave if he could have got the Tea-Kettle and Stand again: The Silver Spoons Handkerchiefs and Stockings he sunk, he kept the Stockings and Handkerchiefs for his own Use; in a Day or two they were advertised, and then his Partners reading the News, and finding such Things were lost, they charged him with sinking of them, and were very angry at it, but he denied it, and told them, he knew nothing of the Spoons, he sold the Spoons to the same Fence (S - x) for twelve Shillings. Afterwards Isaacs and Sanchex took a walk together, and Isaacs was taken up, Sanchex was afraid of the Constable and that he was a going to lay hold of him, and he run away, Isaacs had one Hand in his Breast, and the other in his Pocket, they searched him and found two Pistols in his Pocket, he was carried before a Justice on the other side of the Water, and he committed him to the new Goal, finding himself heavy loaden with Irons, and being afraid of his Life, he sent for Unwin the Thieftaker, and impeached him and Robinson; Justice Richards granted a Warrant to take them up. Unwin sent one of his Servants to Cordosa's Lodging to enquire for him, his Wife said he was not at home, they left Word for him to go to Joe Isaacs on the other side of the Water, for he wanted to speak with him; when he came Home his Wife was crying, and told him the Message, and said, she was afraid it was to take him up, he thought it was only that Isaacs sent for him because he had not been to see him, and as he was going out one Sunday Morning, Unwin and another Man came up to him with 2 Pistols, and Unwin said Jacob you must go along with me, which he did, and was at Unwin's House from Sunday Morning till Monday Night, and then went before the Justice who committed him: Afterwards Unwin and his Partner went to Jack Robinsons, and they found him sick in Bed, and carried him to Unwin's, and there he pulled out a Book, and showed them an Account of all the Robberies he had committed, with the Day of the Month to each of them, and who was along with him; because he thought to make himself an Evidence; Cordosa was put into the Tower Goal that Night, and the next Day committed to Newgate, Robinson was committed to Bridewell because he was sick. He said Robinson and Isaacs committed another Robbery in † Goodman's Fields, where they got some Candels, and he had Part of the Candels.
† Joseph Isaacs was tried for this Fact, in December Sessions, 1742, and acquitted, viz. for breaking and entering the dwelling House of Sam. Hawkins, and stealing two Boxes, containing, 3 Dozen of Candles, 4 Candlesticks, a Pair of Snuffers, a Brass Cock, three Pair of Shoes, and a Pair of Buckles, Oct. 14.
HE also acknowledged the Fact ‡ for which he received Sentence of Death, and that he and Robinson broke open the House and took a considerable Quantity of Brandy and Rum. He said, he never committed any Robberies in Holland: He was told, it was reported, that he had been guilty of Murder in Holland; he declared he never was, but gave the following Account, which, he said, perhaps might give rise to that Report: He said, he kept Company with a Girl in Holland for a considerable Time, whose Name is Sarah Stokes, and paid for her Lodging and Board; she had lived next Door to his Father's at Amsterdam, from a Child, and she was but a Child when he first came to London; and when he went back again to Holland, about 5 or 6 Years ago, he heard the Girl used to be free and drink with any body, and had a very bad Character; (her Father and Mother were very honest People, and sold Fruit) he thought with himself he would try her, for if she would go with any Body, she would go with him; he went one Day by her Stall, as she was sitting with Fruit, says she, Jacob, Will you give me a Dish of Coffee? in Holland they don't drink strong Liquors as they do here, for a Dish of Coffee there, is as good as a Glass of Wine; he went to her Lodging and gave her some Coffee, and used to go there every Day, and never thought any harm, and used sometimes to take a Walk with her; one Day he said, Sarah, You go Abroad with one and another, if you will keep with me, I will take Care of you; she said, she would; and then he took a Lodging for her, and paid 8 d. a Week; he kept with her almost twelve Months: She had left some of her Things at her Cousins, where she lodged, and they would not let her have them without she would pay more than she owed her; he went to know the Reason why she would not let her have her Things; says she, Jacob, she owes me a great deal more. So he went for a Constable; he said, in Holland, you give a Constable a Shilling and he must go with you, and likewise the People must give the Owner their Things, for they cannot stop them for Debt. Accordingly she delivered her Things to her; but as he had been so good natured to assist her, his Mistress grew saucy to him, and he gave her a Slap on the Face, she sent for a Constable, and he was carried to the Justice's, and kept in his House from Morning till Night; he told him he had beat and abused the Girl, and used her ill: He said, he did not live with her, and that he did not know her; and told him likewise, that he had a Wife in London, and traded backward and forward from England to Holland; and then the Justice discharged him.
HE said, if a Prisoner in Holland deserves Death, and any Person of good Character, recommends them for Mercy, their Punishment is mitigated to be whip'd with Rods; Jack Ketch ties the Prisoner to the Gallows, and whips the Prisoner very severely, the States looking on all the while. The oldest Statesman has a Golden Hand, with one Finger held up during the Time of whipping, and when the Finger drops down, the Executioner leaves off; then the Executioner burns him in the Back with the Arms of Amsterdam, and afterwards the States send him to the Rasp House, for 7 or 14 Years, according to the Nature of the Offence.
AFTER he came to London, several of his Acquaintance met him, and said, Jacob, are you here? 'tis reported all over London, that you were racked upon the Wheel in Holland; he said, I racked upon the Wheel; for what? why for Murder said they; he said he knew nothing of it, that he never was in Goal at all, only kept in the Justices House one Day. One shook
† He was tried in December Sessions 1742, for this Fact. He was indicted for Burgulary, &c. but was acquitted of the Burglary, and found guilty of the Felony to the Value of 39 s.
him by the Hand, and another shook him by the Hand, and said they were glad to see him. This Affair happened about 4 Years ago.
Although we have given some short ACCOUNT already of Cordosa's Escape out of Newgate; the following being more particular, it is hop'd will be more acceptable to the Readers.
ONE Night he, and Jack Eyres *, and Geo. Jefferies, who were under Sentence of Transportation, one Noble a Fine, and one Henry Rowley, a Fisherman , another Fine, who was ordered six Months Imprisonment, and twelve Pounds, for fishing in a Pond: Eyres and Cordosa were Swabbers , and were not ironed; they were all in the High Hall one Night; Cordosa saw Rowley looking out at a Window, says Cordosa, what do you do there? Nothing at all, says he, only looking out to try if I can see the Street; two or three Days after, Rowley said to Cordosa, 'tis as easy to get out of this Place as can be; as to you, said he, you have no Occasion to endeavour to get out, for you are to go to Jamaica. Rowley said, he knew a young Man a Smith in Holborn, and he would speak to him to bring a Saw, for in the Window of the Place where they lay, there were Holes big enough to put a quart Pot through; that it was only to saw from one Bar to another, and then it would be open enough for any Man to go through, being about a Foot and a half square; the Smith brought the Saw, but Rowley would not speak to him before me, because he would not let him know that I knew any thing of the Matter; but his Friends paid the Fine and got him out. There was a Woman who lay for Transportation that Rowley was very great with, and Cordosa owned he was very well acquainted with her too; he told her, if she could get a Saw, he could get her out; she spoke to her Husband, and he brought a Saw up in the inside of his Breeches; they in one Night, cut through the whole Bar; there were five or six in the Secret; Noble said to Cordosa, he must not work every Night, for fear of being discovered; but as Eyres and he were Swabbers, they used to find Opportunities to work without being observed; they had almost done on Sunday Night, but there was a Bar they could hardly get a Saw in; but the next Night they got it through. Jack Eyres's Mother brought a Rope, and they got another, and fastened it to the Bar of the Window: George Jefferies tried if he could get through, but one of the Bars stuck in his Thighs, and he could not get backward or forward, and he cried out; Cordosa said, don't mane a Noise, he being at that Time on the Outside, just going down; Eyres was then on the Inside; as Cordosa was going down, he saw somebody going to knock at the Lodge-Door, who was smoaking a Pipe of Tobacco; he said to Eyres, he would not go down yet, for he was sure there was somebody coming into the Lodge, but he told Jack Eyres he would not go down without him, and was sometime in persuading him to follow.
Cordosa had the Rope in his Arm, when he saw the Fire fall out of the Pipe upon the Ground; Jack Eyres said, let us go down; Cordosa said, as somebody was there, the going down would make some of the Dust fall down, and might discover them; in a little Time, they heard the Door clap too, and then Cordosa went down, and told Eyres he would go up Smithfield, and desired him to overtake him; he thought he heard somebody talking in the Street, and that he heard a Person say, I believe there is somebody breaking out of Newgate; but after he got down, he did not stay to look behind him, but went into Smithfield.
HE said, as Eyres came down, he fell into a Basket-woman's Basket, and fell upon her: The Woman said, to Jack, what are you breaking out of Newgate, and called Watch, Watch; he said, If you speak a Word you B -, I'll knock you down. * Eyres was condemned to die (with James Cropp, since Executed) for robbing Mr. Byfield, of Newington, on the Highway, last April Sessions; but was reprieved for Transportation.
Eyres overtook him in Smithfield, and began to run; said Cordosa, what do you run for? he said, because the Woman called the Watch. Cordosa said, they would go up into Newgate before they came after them; upon which, they both went together to Eyres's Brothers House on Windmill-Hill, and had a Dram; Cordosa said, he had not a Farthing in the World, and asked Eyres's Brother to lend him Six-pence, and he gave him Three-pence: Jack Eyres's Brother knew it was him, and bid him go away directly, for he would not let him stay there; Jack came out and said, he would go and see his Wife before he went; she lived in a little House the backside of his Brothers; he went and took his Leave of her, and then went into Shoreditch with Cordosa: Eyres said, Jacob, I wish we could drink together, before we part: they went up into Kingsland-Road, and then parted between two and three o'Clock in the Morning, and Cordosa went to his Sisters in Petticoat-Lane; she said, what Occasion had you to do any such Thing, when you know where you are to go, when you go Abroad? She gave him a Shilling, but would not let him come into the House; then he went to see his Wife, whose Mother was a Milkwoman; she seemed much surprized when she saw him, and said, how came you out? she was very angry with him; but he replied, what signifies making Words now, it is so, and said, he was to blame for doing it, his Case was as good as a free Pardon; when he came out, he did not think to have staid an Hour in London, but to have gone away to Holland directly.
HIS Wife carried him to a House in Hackney Road, near her Father's, who came to him, and said, Jacob, you look very cold, will you drink a Dram, it will warm you; they went to a House where Jacob agreed to lodge, and they drank a Dram, and he was to pay a Shilling for a Week, and to stay no longer; the Woman being poor, he used to send for Coals and other Things, and she went and enquired of one or another, whether there was not a Reward for taking him, and while he was there, a Man came who he never saw in his Life before, and said, he wished he could be shaved, and Cordosa said, he would shave him, accordingly he did, and while he was shaving, he said to him, young Man, I never saw you, or your Wife before in my Life, but I would have you move your Lodging presently; after that, the Man's Wife came up and said, the Woman that Cordosa lodged with, was enquiring whether there was not a Reward for taking him; afterwards another Woman came into the House, and said, Jacob, it is proper for you to move your Lodging, accordingly he and his Wife went down Stairs, and made the best of their Way to Hackney, about one o'Clock in the Afternoon, and staid till it was almost Night, and then came to Town, and went to his Sisters in Pettycoat-Lane, and begged of her to hide him somewhere; but she was deaf to his Intreaties, and would not take him into her House; but his Sister's Husband said, come to me To-morrow, and I'll get you on board a Lisbon Ship, and gave him Six pence, but would not admit him into the House, not that he grudged him a Lodging as he told him, but because he would not be safe, for he had been enquired after there, and they would be looking for him again; he lay at his Wife's Mother's House that Night, and the next Day she got him an empty House, where he said, he was as close as if he had been in Newgate, and thought, that as nobody came after him, he was very safe; then he thought he might as well go down, and was in her Mother's Apartment about six or seven Days: who should come to him, but Corling, who lives in his Mother-in-Law's House, and Corling's Wife said to him, keep close, don't come to any Window; but Corling came to Newgate, and enquired where the Deputy-Keeper lived, and said, he knew a Jew who was broke out of Newgate, and said at the same Time, I have dead set him. Upon which, somebody told him to go under the Gateway, and they would tell him where the Deputy-Keeper lives; accordingly he was informed; upon which, Charles Crofts, and two Persons more went to his Room, and found him just going to Bed; Charles said, don't stir, if you do, I'll knock you down, and he did not offer to stir. One of the Gentlemen bid Charles use him civilly, and not hurt him, and as Cordosa himself says, they did use him very civilly; but one Thing he took amiss of them was, to bring him to his old Lodging, (Newgate).
HE was asked, whether he had committed any Robberies since he broke out of Newgate; he said, he had not, for he was afraid of going Abroad, for fear of being taken.
HE was also asked, Whether when he broke out of Goal, he knew that if he was taken, he was liable to suffer Death? He said, he did not know that he was, if he had, he never would have broke out; but he knew, if he had been transported, and afterwards had returned, he must then have suffered Death.
HE said he had good Hopes of Salvation, and very great Satisfaction in his own Mind concerning it.
The following Letter was taken out of Leath's Pocket at the Place of Execution, at his own Request, and desired it might be made public for the Good of Mankind.
Friend D - s,
YOU see what my Follies have brought me to, and the Home to which all must come, that travel in the same Road. I write this to warn you to get out of it before it be too late. Pleasure is the Bait that draws us to these dismal melancholly Misfortunes. We see Gentlemen in their idle Hours, and are tempted to imitate their Courses; which in due Time, and in different Ways, ruin them and us. These are Mischiefs that are inseperable from our Course of Life, and therefore though it does not excuse it, ought to make us pitied.
I wish from my Heart, that my Fate may so shock you, and other of my Companions, as to be a Means of saving you from the like Evils. But remember what I tell you, the only Method to escape, is to get out of the Road of Necessity, for Gaming and lewd Women will infallibly drag you into Practices of a like Kind with those for which I suffer. Believe me, every Gaming-House is hung with Halters, and every one of those wanton Creatures, is neither better nor worse, than an Agent for the Hangman.
ONE Thing I must say, that 'tis strange to me these Gaming-Houses are suffered. I may speak this, Indulgence to them has cost me my Life. I think my Lady's a Dishonour to Quality, and I am amaz'd that Title should be a Protection to such Baseness. Let me beg of you to shew this to - and -, they all go to that vile Place; and if this does not prove a Warning to them, will follow me to this. I die in perfect Charity with all the World, acknowledge my Punishment to be but just, and am content to be a Spectacle for the Good of others.
I am your unfortunate Friend,
ON Tuesday the 13th of December, about Nine o'Clock in the Morning, Sir HENRY PENRICE, Judge of the High-Court of Admiralty , attended by Doctor PAUL, his Majesty's Advocate, and several other Judges and Learned Doctors of the Civil Law, who were nam'd in the King's Commission, came to the Sessions-House in the Old Bailey, the Silver Oar being carried before them, with the Marshal and other Officers attending them, and opened their Commission for holding a Sessions for trying Offences committed on the High Seas, within the Jurisdiction of the Admiralty of England; when the two following Persons, viz. John Fletcher and Andrew Miller, were tried, and convicted of Murder.
WHILE under Sentence, they were exhorted to an unfeigned Faith in Jesus Christ, the Son of God, and only Saviour of Sinners, from these Words, But to as many as received him, to them gave he Power to become the Sons of God, even to them that believe on his Name, John i. 12. From hence I observ'd, that as all saving Graces proceed from God, so Faith, the chief Christian Virtue, is the Product of God's free Grace; To them gave he Power; who gives us this Power? None but God.
2dly, I observed what this great Power given them by God is, To become the Sons of God; this is confirmed by the Apostle St. Paul, For as many as are led by the Spirit of God, they are the Sons of God. For ye have not received the Spirit of Bondage again to Fear, but ye have received the Spirit of Adoption, whereby we cry, Aba, Father; the Spirit itself beareth Witness with our Spirits, that we are the Children of God; and if Children, then Heirs, Heirs of God, and Joint Heirs with Christ; if so be that we suffer with him, that we may be also glorified together, Rom. viii. 14, &c.
3dly, By way of Consequence we observed, that serious and devout Christians ought to be importunate at the Throne of Grace, that it would please God to give unto us his Holy Spirit to bear Witness with our Spirit, that we are the Children of God; and what God hath promised it is our Duty to ask, according to the Precept of our Blessed Saviour, Ask, and ye shall receive; seek, and ye shall find; knock, and it shall be opened unto you, &c.
I instructed him also in the Nature of true Repentance, from these Words, Repent ye therefore, and be converted, that your Sins may be blotted out, when the Times of Refreshing shall come from the Presence of the Lord.
WE observed from hence, 1st. That Repentance is a turning of the Mind, and this must be from its former State of Sin and Impurity, to Holiness and Virtue. 2dly. That Repentance, in its necessary Consequence, implies Conversion, which is a Change of the whole Man, so that he becomes a New Creature, willing and desirous to please God in every Thing. 3dly. The great Effect of our Repentance is, to have our Sins blotted out, freely pardon'd and forgiven through the Blood of the Everlasting Covenant. 4thly. That Repentance implies Joy and Peace in Believing, in these Words, When the Times of Refreshing shall come from the Presence of the Lord.
MR. Miller had all the Instructions and Exhortations in common with the other Prisoners. He was exhorted also to prepare for receiving the Sacrament of our Blessed Lord's Last Supper, wherein all the Benefits and Blessings proceeding from the New Covenant of Grace, are ensured, sealed up, and applied to every true Believer.
UPON Wednesday the 8th of February, the Report was made to his Majesty in Council, by the Honourable Judge Advocate, of the two Malefactors lying in the Cells of Newgate, for Crimes committed on the High Seas, within the Jurisdiction of the Admiralty of England; when John Fletcher, for the Murder of John Danvers, an Officer belonging to his Majesty's Customs at Birdlington in Yorkshire, whom he shot dead, as the said Danvers was endeavouring to board the John and Joanna, to search for uncustomed Goods, about a League from Birdlington; for this Shooting of Danvers, Fletcher was convicted and found guilty of Murder by the Jury; but some Things appearing favourable on the Trial, as that the Captain commanded him, who was the Chief Mate, to shoot the first Man that came on board, although Fletcher denied his shooting any at all, but the Gun being under his Arm, which touch'd the Lock, and made the Gun go off, and so accidentally killed Mr. Danvers, as he attempted to board the Ship. These were the Circumstances that moved the Jury to recommend him to his Majesty's Mercy, and his Majesty, in Compliance with their Representation, was pleased, out of his great Goodness, graciously to order a free Pardon to be given to the said John Fletcher, and to order Andrew Miller for Execution.
ANDREW MILLER, Mariner , was indicted, for that he upon the High Seas, in the Road of Smyrna in Turkey, on Board the Thomas and Diana, at her Mooring there, upon Capt. James Neilson, Commander of the said Thomas and Diana, in the Peace of God and the King, did make an Assault, and with a Sword made of Iron and Steel, Value 1 s. him the said Captain Neilson did wound in several Parts of the Body, which Wounds proved mortal, so that in a few Hours the said Capt. Neilson did die: And the Indictment further sets forth, that the said Andrew Miller, wilfully, maliciously, and of his Malice aforethought, the said Capt. James Neilson, on Board the good Ship Thomas and Diana, at her Mooring at Smyrna, and within the Jurisdiction of the Admiralty of England, did kill and murder, contrary to the Peace of our Sovereign Lord the King, his Crown and Dignity, &c. to which Indictment the said Andrew Miller pleaded Not Guilty; but the Jury, consisting of Gentlemen and Freeholders, upon fair Hearing, and full Proof, brought Andrew Miller in Guilty of the Indictment. Death.
ANDREW MILLER, 52 Years of Age, of honest, reputable Parents in the Town of Newburgh, on the South of the River Tay, in the County of Fyfe, in North Britain. He was well educated at School to read, write, and cast Accompts for Business, and carefully instructed in the Christian Faith. He was born in a Sea Port Town, and his Father, a Seafaring Man, was an Officer on Board a Man of War in Queen Anne's Wars, who bred him to the Sea, to which he served his Time very honestly, and prov'd an expert Sailor, very capable of whatever Business he took in Hand, a Man of good Sense and Resolution, who could behave and acquit himself in a very becoming Manner. He had been for some Years on Board his Majesty's Fleet in the Station of a Midshipman, and such like Places; and then leaving the King's Service, he went into the Merchant's, and for about thirty Years was constantly employed, sometimes as Captain, at other Times
as Chief Mate of Ships, and he was once Captain of a South Sea Snow in the West-Indies; but he was not above a Year or two in this Way of Business, otherwise he might have greatly enriched himself. While under his last Misfortune he was in very low Circumstances, and had nothing to subsist on, but what the Lords of the Admiralty allowed him, as their Lordships do to all to their unfortunate Prisoners.
As to his Conduct in Life, he was regular and decent in his Behaviour, keept good Company, and was respected by his Acquaintance, neither was he ever looked upon to be a quarrelsome or malicious Person, but agreeable enough in his Conversation, and all his Friends were mightily surprized when they heard that Miller had fallen into this great Misfortune. When at Home he was punctual in going to Church, and frequently took the Blessed Sacrament in a devout Manner, as he did also while under Sentence of Death. He had sailed over a great Part of the World, through the Mediterranean, up to Turkey, along the Coast of Africa, and was sometime in the West-Indies, where he was Captain or Chief Mate of Merchant Ships, as he never served in any lower Station.
ON Sunday the 19th Instant, two Days before he died, as I was preaching in the Forenoon upon those Words of the Prophet to King David, Thou art the Man, 2 Sam. xii. 7. and describing the Sin of Murder, 1st. Negatively, what it is not; and, 2dly. Positively, What is; Miller looked up to me in the Pulpit, and with a loud Voice said, He was not guilty of direct Murder. I told him I was not speaking of him, but only of Murder in general, and let every one apply it to themselves, as they have Reason so to do. When I mentioned this to him in the Press Yard in the Afternoon, that no Reflection was intended against him, only as he was to die for Murder, I thought it my Duty to expose that horrid Crime; then he said he was very well pleased, and took all to himself.
MR. Miller was a Man of undaunted Courage and Resolution, and could not bear an Affront; which Disposition led him to be Vindictive, and to commit the detestable Crime of Murder upon his Master and Commander, Capt. Neilson, he himself being at that Time in the Station of Chief Mate of the Ship.
HE freely acknowledged the Murder, but alledged in his own Behalf the great Insults and continued Provocation the Captain gave him throughout the last Voyage. Before he went to Sea this last Time, he married a young Wife, a Country-Woman of his own, who was the only Person of his Acquaintance that visited him, and she likewise brought him such Relief, as her indigent and streightened Circumstances would afford, and never failed in coming to see him as often as she could obtain Access.
MR. Miller, by outward Appearance, seemed to be a very civil sensible Man. He declared when at Home, and Opportunity offered, he always kept the Church, and sometimes received the holy Sacrament of our Blessed Lord's Body and Blood. While under Sentence he behaved very decently and devoutly, constantly came to Chapel, and gave no Offence to any one, so that we may reasonably hope he died a good Christian. He believed in Christ as the Son of God, and only Saviour of Sinners; he repented of all his Sins, especially that of Murder, and forgave all Offences done him, as he expected Forgiveness from God.
At the Place of Execution.
THE Morning of his Death he came to Chapel between Seven and Eight o'Clock. As for Confessions, he said he was not a great Sinner, but for the most Part had liv'd a regular Life, not willing to offend any Body. He heard godly Prayers, a short Discourse adapted to a dying Person, and sung a Psalm very devoutly. He went down to the Press-Yard, where his Irons were knocked off; then he put on his Shroud, and they led him out in this Manner to the Place of Execution, and in this Habit he died. Under the Tree he was fully sensible of every Thing, read the Psalms after me, complied seriously with the Devotion, and had no more to
add to his former Confessions. After I had pray'd with him I retired, and left him to his private Devotions, for which he had some Time allowed him, the Scaffold whereon he stood was taken down, and he was turned off, praying the Lord Jesus to receive his Soul.
N. B. As for the two Murders he had committed, he expressed a hearty Sorrow for them, and sincerely repented of them.
This is all the Account, Given by Me,
Ordinary of Newgate .
AS the Happiness of a People evidently consists in just and wholesome Laws, which, as the grand Ligaments of Society, unites together the several Members of which it is compos'd, in mutual Harmony and Fellowship; so the least Attempts either to elude or violate the establish'd Rules whereby the whole Body is preserved together in a useful Regularity, cannot but be deemed highly punishable by all, in whose Judgments the Valuableness of Order and Tranquility are rightly accounted of.
HENCE it is, that Malefactors are brought in a public Manner, to undergo the Shame and Death, which as the Demerit of their flagitious Crimes, they have so deservedly brought upon themselves; that others seeing by such Examples, the Evil and Nature of Dishonesty in general, may thereby be so wrought upon, as with all watchfulness and Diligence to shun and avoid the Issue and Consequents thereof, with Respect to themselves in particular.
THE long Train of Miseries, which are found constantly to succeed a Declension from the Ways of Justice and Equity, might reasonably be thought a sufficient preservative to secure others (who have not with their Morals, their Reason also) from the Commission of such Things as having proved the effectual Means of others Ruin, must unavoidably terminate in their own. But Experience and Demonstration daily proves the contrary, that it is not Punishment, however formidable in its Denunciation, that can sufficiently guard against the violent Outrages of abandoned Men; and therefore an absolute Necessity is hereby established of inflicting Judgment on Offenders, that such who may otherwise have lost all Regard to the general Peace and Safety of the Community wherein they dwell, may yet so far respect themselves in particular, as to make their own Peace and Preservation the standing Rule of their Conduct, and if governed by no better Principles than Self-Interest and Regard, may even by them be constrained to act in some Conformity to the establish'd Rules of Justice and Equity.
OF all the Crimes which become punishably by Law, there is more of so glaring and high a Nature, as that of Murder; for whereas most other Crimes, such as Theft and Fraud, do but at most deprive Persons of their Substance, but this of their Lives; and therefore Offenders of this Stamp, have, by the united Consent of all Nations, been judg'd deserving of the most severe Punishment, inasmuch as it tends not barely (in common with other Offences) to make a Breach upon, but even strikes at the very Dissolution of Society.
AS the unhappy Person, who is the Subject of this Narrative, was upon his Trial found Guilty of this Crime, and in Consequence thereof capitally convicted, we shall here subjoin a further and more particular Relation of him, and the Captain whom he unfortunately murdered, as given us by himself some few Days before his Execution.
BUT we would only first premise, That whatever Provocation there might have been in the Matter between the Deceased and him, (which he strongly urges in his own Behalf, though nothing thereof
appeared on his Trial) it is by no Means to be brought in Justification of so horrid a Fact, or even admitted as an Alleviation of it; because there can be no Provocation given of such Weight and Regard, as once to be put in the Ballance with, or that can be thought to bear any Proportion to, a Person's Life. And although the Law has made some Provision with a particular Regard to certain special Circumstances that may sometimes attend the Commission of this Fact, in Distinction between Manslaughter and Murder, yet it is such, as this unfortunate Person was found to have no just Claim or Title to; nevertheless he could by no Means be brought to acknowledge the Justice of his Sentence, but affirm'd to the last, that it was not his own Desert, but his low Circumstances, and want of Friends to speak in his Behalf, that brought him to undergo so miserable and shameful a Death. - The Relation he gave us was to the following Purpose.
THAT he came of very reputable Parents in Scotland, who bestowed on him a useful Education, in Regard to their Intentions of breeding him to the Sea Service, which was the Occupation his Father followed, who for some Time was Lieutenant of a Man of War in Queen Anne's Reign. His Father procured him a Letter, which he served on Board the Grafton Man of War, under the Command of the Lord Forbes. After the Expiration of the said Letter, which was three Years, he then became Midshipman of the same Ship, and continuing in that Station but a short Time, he afterwards entered himself into the Merchant's Service, and made a Voyage to Gottenburgh to Sweedland, and going out second Mate and Gunner, came home chief Mate.
SOMETIME after King George I. came to the Crown, he went the first Expedition up the Baltick, under the Command of Sir John Norris and Admiral Baker, and was entered on Board the Burford Man of War as Midshipman, under the Command of Captain Hopson, who died in the West-Indies; he appointed him Schoolmaster on board the same Ship. After this he made two Expeditions more up the Baltick, in order to make a Peace between the Swedes and the Danes. After these Expeditions he was cleared off and paid.
AFTER that betook himself into the Merchant's Service, since which he has remain'd either chief Mate or Master, till this unhappy Affair. He acknowledged that he had fought several Duels, both in the Mediterranean and West-Indies, at which last Place he killed a Man, the Particulars of which has been already mentioned. The Person he killed belonged to a Privateer, upon no other Pretence than of displaying their Manhood and Valour. He had met with many signal Deliverances in the Course of his Life, with which he was no otherwise affected than often to have said, He believed he should come to be hang'd, for he could neither be shot nor drowned. This he declared on Sunday last in the Evening.
MILLER said the Ship that he sailed in, which was the Thomas and Diana, used to carry Provision to Gibraltar, as Beef, Butter, &c. When he came to the said Place, and had delivered their Cargo, he happened to meet one Mr. Nap, Master of a Scooner, who being at the same Place, he invited him to come on Board to see him, which accordingly he did, and Captain Neilson made him very welcome.
THIS Mr. Nap owing him some Money, he took the Liberty to ask him for it, and told him, if he could not pay him all, he desired he would pay him what he could conveniently spare. Upon which the Captain wondered how he could have the Impudence to ask any Gentleman for Money on board his Ship; and without any more Words beat him as long as he thought proper. But the Truth of this Circumstance is much to be questioned, as on the contrary the Captain always had the Character of a peaceable Man.
WE were bound (after we had delivered our Cargo) to Smyrna, and to take all the small Craft under Convoy, that was bound up the Streights in our Way: We came out with six or seven Sail, there being no Vessel of Defence with us, only the Ship Bospress, Capt. Richards. Having got all out, and the Wind fair, we made the best of our Way up, metting with nothing in our Way, till we came near Cape de Gattle. In the Morning we saw a large Ship on our Larboard Bow, and found her
to be a Spanish Privateer, we got all ready to fight her; and stearing our Ship towards the Bosspres, we spoke to one another as follows, viz. Captain Richards said to our Captain; you see this to be a Spanish Privateer, let us shorten our Sail, for the Ships a Stern to come up with us; for if this Privateer should tack off Shore upon them, he will certainly carry them all with him. Captain Neilson's Answer was, (as Miller says) That he would not stay for no Body, let other Ships carry Men and Guns as well as he. Captain Richards reply'd, it would show a good natur'd Action, to save any of our poor Countrymen out of the Hands of our Enemies; Miller says, he advis'd the Captain to take Captain Richard's Advice; especially knowing some of them to be our Neighbours, and had lately before suffer'd by our Enemies the Spaniards; but as good luck would have it, (which in his own Words) we frighted them away, that she made the best of her way from us, and never offer'd to attack us, but sailed away with a fair Wind.
AS to the Fact he died for, as the Ship lay in the Road of Smyrna, Andrew Miller chief Mate of the said Ship Thomas and Diana, had gone ashore to the City of Smyrna, and Captain James Neilson with some other Gentlemen of the Ship, or belonging to the British-Trade or Factory in Company, they were acquainted with the British Consul's Huntsman residing in the Factory, who invited the Gentlemen to a hunting Match, the Captain would not go, but Mr. Miller the chief Mate went; and when for some Hours they had diverted themselves with hunting, they returned to the City, and there was a Gold laced Hat from England offered to be sold, some of the Company said Mr. Miller, you wear laced Hats, what do you think is the Value of this Hat? Mr. Miller said it is worth 30 Shillings, or as the Evidence upon the trial affirmed, half a Guinea, the Captain again said, the Value of it was 28 Shillings, or according to the Evidence only eight Shillings, so that all the Difference betwixt the Captain and his chief Mate, was only for the value of two Shillings or half a Crown, a trivial Matter to occasion the Death and Murder of an unfortunate Gentleman, which however proved the fatal Means of his own. After the Gentlemen Strangers left the Ship, Captain Neilson asked Mr. Miller, why he raised such Debates and Strife about the Value of a Hat, before a Company of strange Gentlemen? Mr. Miller answered, I told the true Value of the Hat, and will stand to it, the Captain aver'd the contrary, viz. his own Way; upon this high Words arose, and Mr. Miller alledg'd, the Captain was not a very sufficient Man nor Master of his Business, and that as he viz. Miller had carried the Ship abroad to Turkey, so, by the Grace of God, he would lead her safe home to England again; a great many Words having passed between them, the Captain ordered Miller to his Cabbin, he obey'd his Captain's commands, went to his Cabbin and to bed. Some Hours after the Captain being on Deck, went to the Door of Mr. Miller's Cabbin which was open, and look'd upon Mr. Miller lying a Bed. Miller was awake and seeing the Captain look towards him, he fell into a violent Fit of Passion, and jumpt in a great Hurry out off Bed, drew his Sword, and in a most barbarous Manner stabb'd the Captain in the twinkling of an Eye in several Places of the Body; in one of his Thighs, and one of his Arms; none of these Wounds were dangerous, but one on or nigh the left Side of the Navel was mortal. The Captain would not suffer his own Surgeon to undertake the Cure, but sent for the Sugeon of the Factory, who, with all Expedition came immediately on board, and he with the Surgeon of the Ship probed his Wounds, and both of them were of Opinion, that only the Wound nigh the left Side of the Navel was mortal. The Surgeons ask'd the Captain, how it was done, and by whom? he answered, that it was done in the Manner above related, or much to the same Purpose; and as to the Person who did it, he expresly told them, it was none else, but that butcherly Dog Miller, meaning Andrew Miller his chief Mate the Murtherer, for which Murther he deservedly suffered. This Question the Surgeons repeated several Times to the Captain, that they might give a sure and distinct Account of that horrid Affair, and the Captain always returned the same Answers. All possible Care was taken of Captain Neilson, he continued some Time in the Extremity of Agony and Torture, and about twelve Hours after he received these Wounds, he expired. Immediately after the Murther, Miller was put in Irons, and taken out of Captain Neilson's Ship, and put on Board another Ship, who brought him home to England, where he met with a suitable Punishment.
THE Morning of his Execution, after he came down from Chapel, as he was putting his Shroud on in the Press-Yard, he said to a Countryman who came to take his Leave of him, that he was better satisfied with that Shroud, than a new Suit of the best Cloaths that could be made. He was buried at St. John, Wapping, the same Day he was executed, between Nine and Ten o'Clock.
The following Considerations, on a sudden and violent Death, said to be Penn'd by a very eminent Divine of our Church, were sent to him by some Friend of his, for his Improvement.
' IT is a bad Cause that robbeth us of all the ' comfort of Friends; yea, that turns their ' Remembrance into Sorrow. None can do so, ' but those that proceed from our selves, for outward Evils, which come from the Infliction of ' others, make us cleave faster to our Helpers, ' and cause us to seek and find Ease, in the very ' commiseration of those that Love us; whereas ' those Griefs that arise from the just displeasure ' of Conscience, will not abide so much as the ' Memory of others Affection, or if it do, makes ' it so much the greater Corrasive, as our Case ' is more uncapable of their Comfort. Such is ' yours, you have made the mention of our Names ' tedious to yourself, and yours to us. This is ' the beginning of your pain that you had ' Friends, If you may now smart soundly from us ' for your good, it must be the only Joy you must ' expect, and the small Duty we owe to you; it ' is both vain and comfortless to hear what might ' have been, neither would I send you back to ' what is past, but purposely to encrease your ' Sorrow, who have caused all our Comfort to ' stand in your Tears.
' If therefore our former Councels had prevailed, neither had your Hands shed Innocent ' Blood, nor Justice yours. Now to your great ' Sin you have done the one, and the other must ' be done to your Pain, and we your well-wishers ' with Sorrow and Shame live to be Witnesses of ' both. Your Sin is gone before, the revenge ' of Justice will follow, seeing you are guilty, ' let God be just. Other Sins speak, this crieth, ' and will never be Silent, till it be answered with ' it self. For your Life, the case his hopeless; ' feed not your self with vain Presumptions, but ' settle yourself to expiate another's Blood with ' your own. Would God your desert had been ' such, that we might with any comfort, have ' desired you might live. But now alas! your ' Fact is so heinous that your Life can neither be ' craved without Injustice, nor be protracted ' without inward Torment. And if our private ' Affection should make us Deaf to the shouts ' of Blood, and Partiality should teach us to forget all care of Public right, yet be assured there 'is no place for Hope.
' SINCE then you could not live guiltless, ' there remains nothing but that you labour to ' die, happy shall it be for you, if you shall give ' Ear to this my last Advice, too late indeed for ' your Recompence to the World, and too late for ' your self. You have deserved Death and expect ' it. Take heed least you so fasten your Eyes upon ' the first Death or the Body, that you should not ' look beyond it to the second, which alone is ' worthy of trembling, and worthy of Tears.
' FOR this though terrible to Nature, yet it ' is common to us with you. You must die, what ' do we else, and what differs our End from yours, ' but in hast and Violence, and who knows whether in that? It may be Sickness as sharp, as ' sudden shall fetch us hence, it may be the same ' Death, or worse for a better Cause, or if not ' so, there is much more Misery in lingering. ' He dies easily that dies soon, but the other is ' the utmost Vengeance that God hath rescued ' for his Enemies. This is a matter of long ' Fear and short Pain. A few Pangs lets the ' Soul out of Prison, but the Torment of that ' other, is Everlasting, after ten Thousand ' Years Scortching in that Flame, that Pain is ' never the nearer to his ending. No Time ' gives it hope of abating, yea, Time hath nothing to do with this Eternity.
' YOU that shall feel the Pain of one Minutes ' dying, think what Pain it is to be dying for ever ' and ever. This, although it be attended with ' a Sharp Pain, yet is such as some strong Spirits have endured without Shew of Yieldance. ' Few Men have died of greater Pains, than ' others have sustained and live. But that other ' over-whelms both Body and Soul, and leaves ' no Room for any Comfort in the possibility of ' Mittigation; here then are Executioners, or ' Diseases, their Fiends. Those Devils, that ' were ready to tempt the Graceless unto Sin, ' are as ready to follow the Damned with Tortures. Whatsoever become of your Carcase, ' save your Soul from these Flames, and so manage this short Time you have to Live, that ' you may die but once.