THE ORDINARY of NEWGATE, His ACCOUNT of the Behaviour, Confession, and Dying Words OF Abraham Pass, a Jew, Who was Executed at TYBURN, ON MONDAY the 21st of November, 1743.
LORD-MAYOR of the CITY of LONDON .
Number V. For the said YEAR.
THE ORDINARY of NEWGATE, His ACCOUNT of the Behaviour, Confession, &c.
AT the King's Commission of Oyer and Terminer, and Jail-delivery of Newgate, held (before the Rt. Hon. ROBERT WILLIMOTTE, Esq; Lord Mayor of the City of London; the Right Hon. the Lord Chief Justice Lee; the Hon. Mr. Baron Reynolds; the Hon. Mr. Serjeant Urlin, Recorder of the City of London; and Others, his Majesty's Justices of Oyer and Terminer for the City of London, and County of Middlesex) at Justice-Hall in the Old-Bailey, on Wednesday, Thursday, and Friday, the 12th, 13th, and 14th of October, and in the 17th Year of his Majesty's Reign.
The Case of these Two Malefactors was pretty extraordinary. Christopher Smith was a High German, born at Franckfort upon the Mayne, a Protestant of the Lutheran Communion , who had been but a few Weeks at London, and scarce understood one Word of our English Language; he could not speak Latin, nor any foreign Language, only a little French. A Reverend Clergyman of that Nation came sometimes to visit and exhort him, and also frequently brought him Money for the Relief of his Necessities, he being very poor, and destitute of Friends.
The other Criminal was a Foreigner, and a Jew , who though he understood and spoke English pretty well, as having been a considerable Time in England, yet being strictly tenacious of the Principles of the Jewish Persuasion, he believed nothing that I remonstrated to him.
The only Person who could much profit by Prayers or Instructions, was Margaret Stansbury, (by their Excellencies the Lords Regents reprieved for five Months, to the Beginning of April next, by Reason of her being found quick with Child) who chose rather to remain in the Cells during her Misfortune, than to be turn'd over to the Common Side among the Women, who in Truth are most improper Company for any Person under her unhappy Circumstances. She constantly attended in Chapel, and was very attentive and devout at Prayers and Exhortations, and (as may be hop'd) is a sincere penitent, she appearing very much concerned. Once when I was reading the 51st Penetential Psalm (which was always read in the Evening Service) as she heard these Words, Create in me a clean Heart, O God, and renew a right Spirit within me, she cried and wept most bitterly, and to me appeared truly affected with the Wickedness of her own Heart, and greatly desirous of the renewing Influences of the Spirit of God.
While under Sentence, they were instructed in the necessary Articles of our most holy Christian Faith, to believe in God the Creator of all Things, in whom alone it is that we live, move, and from whom we have all our Being, and in Jesus Christ as the Son of God, who, in the Fulness of Time, came into the World to save Sinners by the Sacrifice of Himself, For God so loved the World, that he gave his only begotten Son, that whosoever believeth in him should not perish, but have eternal Life.
They were instructed in the great Evil of Theft and Robbery, of the Injustice, Maliciousness, Cruelty, and wicked Designs of that horrid Crime; how contrary it is to all Policy and good Manners, which if allowed, or any ways encouraged, would necessarily destroy all Friendship and Conversation among Men, over-turn Empires and States, and reduce the World into a confus'd Chaos of Irregularity and Disorder.
They were also seriously exhorted to prepare for Death, from these Words, Behold thou has made my Days as an Hands-breadth, and mine Age is as nothing before thee; verily every Man at his best Estate is altogether Vanity, Psalm xxxix. 5. From this they were desired to observe the Brevity, Uncertainty, and Fragility of Human Life, and of Men in general, and that great Men of Power and Distinction are not exempted, but all are equally alike exposed to the common Sentence of Mortality and Death, for verily every Man is Vanity, but Man at his best Estate is as it were more than Vanity, he is altogether Vanity.
From this they were exhorted to think upon their Frame and Frailty, their Misery and Wretchedness, and therefore to prepare for Death in a serious and solemn Manner, as that which is the King
of Terrors, to which all are liable, and therefore, the same ought most diligently to be attended to, as the final Resolution of our State, upon which depends our eternal Happiness or Misery. As for Abraham Pass, the Jew, the only Person appointed to die, I did not incline to preach much upon the Misteries of our Religion to him, I thought it would be to little Purpose; and when I attempted to convert him to the Christian Faith, he gave no Attention, but rather seemed to contemn and ridicule any such Proposals.
Upon Thursday the 10th of November, Report was made to their Excellencies the Lords Regents of the Realm, in Council assembled, of the two Malefactors lying under Sentence of Death in the Cells of Newgate, when Christopher Smith, or Schmitz, of St. Martin in the Fields, for stealing a Silk Purse, value 1 Shilling, six Guineas and a Half, and eight Shillings, the Property of James Fitzgerald, Esq; in the Dwelling House of Augustin Copenal, September 16, received his Majesty's most gracious Reprieve for Transportation; and Abraham Pass was appointed for Execution.
Abraham Pass, of St. Bennet, Grace-Church, was indicted, for that he, on the 28th of July, about the Hour of One in the Night, did break and enter the dwelling House of Thomas Beate, and John Dawson, and stole from thence 250 Ells of Linnen Cloth, Value 8 Pounds, their Property.
Abraham Pass, about 18 Years of Age, born in the City of Bourdeaux, in France, of Jewish Parents, who had him Circumcised and initiated into their Religion, in which way they educated him, and taught him to read and speak a little of the Hebrew Language, to write and cast Accompts after their Manner; he said, his Father is now a considerable Merchant in that City, where there are great Numbers of Jews, and they have eight Synagogues, and that he let him want nothing of Education, commonly bestowed upon those of that Nation; but he was a most perverse, disobedient Boy, and no Ways regardful to the Advice either of Parents or Friends, and naturally inclining to nothing but Vice; he was immersed in every Degree of Wickedness, and averse to all that's Good or Virtuous.
His Father bred Abraham to trading , for which most of that Nation have a genius; but he was of so light and giddy a Disposition, that
by no means he could be restrained to abide in his Native Place, so contrary to the will of his Parents, who had many other Children, and were very fond both of him and them; he went to Foreign Lands, and travelled over Italy, where he was at Rome, Leghorn, Florence, Genoa, Venice, and many other Countries and Cities, there they have great Numbers of Jews, who are very Friendly, and keep up a desirable Correspondence among themselves, both through Italy and other Empires and Kingdoms.
Being asked how so young a Boy as he then was, could adventure to pass through so many Regions! he replied, the Jews in general whereever dispersed, entertain a good deal of Brotherly Love and Affection towards one another; and when their Youth have a longing Desire to Travel Abroad, their Parents and Relations are not averse to send them, but on the contrary, provide them with Letters of Recommendation to their Correspondants in other Countries, and this is their common way, of sending out their young ones to remote and further distant Regions, by giving them the aforesaid Recommendatory Letters; who, generally speaking, receive one another in a respectful Manner, and if they fail in Money or other Necessaries, they by Custom, observed among themselves throughout the World, give Testimonials to whatever State, or Kingdom the Person intends to go, upon which their Friends or Relations, give them the like Reception, and let them want for nothing, and this is the method they frequently pursue in traveling thro' the World, from whence they are called the wandring Jews.
The Italians are a grave, sedate, industrious People, polite in their Manners, and altho' now not like their fore Fathers, expert in Arms and War; yet they are good Merchants, Artificers, and have understanding in Things contributing to the Decreation of Life and Manners; in Furniture Sumptuous; at their Tables neat and decent; but these good qualities are stained with vices of a deep Dye reigning among them, particularly Revenge, Lust, Jealousy, and Swearing, to which they are generally too much addicted. He also travelled thro' a great part of Germany, the chief imperial and great Cities, where there is a prodigious Number of Jews, who are allowed their Synagogues and Freedom in their own way and Worship. Here he says, tho' not so Ceremonious as some, yet they are a most kind,
friendly, and honest People, civil, and hospitable to Strangers, ingenious Artificers, and most knowing in all kinds of Mechanicks; and in their Cities, and important Places, they carry on a very considerable Trade.
He was also in Spain, at Pempalona, St. Sebastian, and other considerable Places in the East and North of that Kingdom: Here, he says, they are particularly tenacious of the Principles of the Church of Rome, which makes them narrow in their Thoughts towards all others of a different Opinion, not allowing any of the Protestants to live among them; yet there are great Numbers of Jews, who have no Tolleration of there Religion; but still they live in the Country, although in immenent Danger of their Lives, being upon many Occasions, and upon divers Pretences, taken up, put into the Inquisition-House, robb'd of all they have, and at last put into the Flames, and burnt alive.
He also travelled through most Part of the Kingdom of France, where he was born, and of whom it is needless to give a Character, being a polite People, and commonly reputed a Standard for Manners to all the rest of Europe: And to compleat his Travels, he was also in Turkey, abounding with Jews, every where; here also, he was kindly received by his Countrymen, and the Turks also were civil and courteous to him. And at last, he return'd Home to his Father at Bourdeaux.
Abraham was of so unsettled a Temper, that without consulting Father or Mother, he came once more over to England about three Years ago, and since that Time, has been constantly residing in London, employed in no good Offices, but constantly intent upon Mischief. Here he got acquainted with the Refuse of his own Nation, and the Scum and Off-scourings of this Country, who suddenly brought him to Ruin and Destruction.
His Correspondency was with the most notorious Gangs of Thieves and Robbers, in or about the Town. Sometimes for a Pretence, he served a Druggist; but meeting with his
old Companions, and not capable to resist their impious Solicitations, they soon drove him off from his Business, to comply with, and follow them, in their Villainous and Abandoned Practices, of breaking Houses, and stealing and picking any Thing they can lay their Hands upon.
He did not commit Street Robberies, neither did he practice Shoplifting, but other sorts of Theft he made free with upon every opportunity. He was a most profligate, wicked young Man, wholly void of the Fear of God, disobedient to his Parents and Superiors, and unwilling to follow any settled Business.
In September Sessions last, Pass was the King's Evidence, against one Clay, and some others, and gave Account to the Number of twenty Robberies he had committed in Company of them and others, and he told how they sold the Goods, to whom, and at what rate, &c. As to the Burglary he Dyed for, he confessed, that he and another Jew pushed open the Door of the Cellar, where the Goods were kept with their Feet, then they stole the Goods as mentioned in the Indictment, together with divers others, and if they had not been Surprized by the Watchman, they had carried off many more; he likewise acknowledged that they had robb'd the same Gentlemen two or three Times-before, and if fortune (as he call'd it) had favoured them that Night, they would have carried off to the value of 50 l.
As to his Religion, he profess'd himself a Jew, but that is little to be accounted of, for in Fact he had none at all, yet he was very obstinate in his Indefidelity, and by no means could be persuaded to embrace Christianity, one of his strong Prejudices was the Trinity of Persons in God, I told him in Gen. i. v. 1. where we have an Account of God's at first creating the Universe, the Name of God is in the Plural Number, and in the same, Chapter 26, where God holds a Solemn Consultation, as it were about the formation of Man, King of this lower World, under God, the Plural Number is again used, let us make Man, every Man knows God to be one, but why, if not for some Special Reason, should the Name of the Almighty be in the Plural Number, upon no other account, but by reason of the unity of Substance, and
Trinity of Persons; and in Isaiah vi. 3. where God appears in his Glory, it is said, Holy, Holy, Holy is the Lord of Hosts, - agreeing with Rev. iv. 8. Holy, Holy, Holy, Lord God Almighty, &c. and that the Messiah was to be God as well as Man, is evident from Psalm cx. 1. God Almighty said unto God Almighty; where the incommunicable Name of God Almighty is attributed to Christ, as we understand by comparing this Text with St. Matthew xxii. 44. and the ancient Jews owned this Psalm to treat of the Messiah; but the modern Rabbi's fly in the Face of their Forefathers, and when urged with many such Texts, know not what to say or make of them, only they are obstinate and hardened in Blindness and Infidelity, as this miserable Wretch Abraham Pass, was, who could not urge any one Reason or Argument in Support of such his Principles and Persuasion; and at last he said, he doubted not of the Truth of what I spoke, but he had not Learning in the Scriptures to conceive aright of the Matter. The Jews who visited him a little before his Execution, greatly endeavoured to settle and confirm him in the Opinion and Credenda of that People, and he was further grounded therein by the Means and Arguments of another Jew, who was confined in a Cell next to him.
He had a vile infamous Woman, whom he called his Wife, with whom he used to cohabit, but (as the Manner of such Creatures is) after having brought him to Ruin and Destruction, she left him there, for she never came to see him during all the Time he was under Sentence. He was so destitute and miserable that scarce any Person came to visit him, except one to tell him, that he was reported to have so bad a Character, that his Countrymen would do nothing to get him a Reprieve. The Fact he died for he confessed, and acknowledged that he died most justly.
I took an Occasion of further insisting upon the Prophecy of old Jacob, Gen. xlix. 10. The Scepter shall not depart from Judah, nor a Lawgiver from between his Feet, untill Shiloh come; and to Him shall the Gathering of the People be. Here by Shiloh is understood the Son, viz. of God, who came into the World precisely at the Time when the Jews lost their Kingly Government, and Herod, an Idumaean and a Foreigner, by Favour of the Romans, was made
King of the Jews; I also mentioned to him the famous prophecy Daniel's Seventy Weeks, which taking Weeks or Days for Years, answers the Time of the Crucifixion of our Saviour, and after three score and two Weeks shall Messia be cut off, but not for himself, &c. Dan. ix. 24, 26, &c. he acknowledged these Texts, but neither did, nor could be made to understand them, but was rather willing to continue in Infidelity.
He spoke the Languages of those Countries through which he had Travelled very fluent, likewise the English and a little of the Turkish. He owned himself to have been a great Sinner, and said that he forgave his Enemies; I ceased not to Pray for his Conversion and Salvation.
The Place of EXECUTION.
ACCORDING to the custom of this Kingdom, when the Time for Abraham Pass's dying drew near, he was allowed, as is usual in those cases, out of Charity to such miserable Creatures in their last Moments, that they may not be put to any Confusion or Uncertainty, to allow them Clergy of their own Communion
Accordingly, he having been such an obstinate Infidel in the Jewish Way, it was ordered, that Jewish Priests or Rabbis, or some of their understanding Men, should attend and comfort him, in his great Extremity; so some such Men did wait upon him, and Comforted, and Prayed for
him, but all in the Hebrew Language, a great many of their Prayers and Litergy's being taken from the Psalms of David, the xxv, and some such others, as I knew by looking on, and reading some of their Prayers and Litergy's. They Sung most of their Prayers and Petitions, according to their manner of Worship, and that very loudly; Abraham, repeated a vast Number of those Petitions before them, in the Hebrew or Rabinical Language.
Monday Morning of his Execution, they being a little Tedious in their Service, I ordered Pass up to Chapel, and they immediately desisted, when Abraham with seven or eight of his own People walked up, I read a few suitable Collects, in the vi, xli, xxv, and xlxxx, Psalms, and the vii. Chap. of the Book of Job about Death, with all which they were well pleased.
Then I proposed the reading of the xv. Chapter of the 1 Cor. treating upon the Resurrection, but the Jews insisted he was one of their Religion, and it would be to little purpose to rehearse any Thing out of the New Testament; I concluded the Service with praying heartily, that God would have Mercy upon him and receive his Soul, for the sake of his Anointed.
At the Place of Execution, he appeared very Serious and concerned, I prayed for him, and was willing to have read either some suitable Chapters or Psalms, but he was invested with so many Jews, that there could be no Ground gained upon him.
He declared that he repented of his Sins, that he had nothing more to Confess, and hoped and believed God would receive his Soul into everlasting Mercy.
This is all the ACCOUNT, Given by ME,
Ordinary of Newgate .
AS this Part of our Paper is more immediately assigned for recounting the most particular Passages and Circumstances in the Lives of such, who by their open Breach, and Violation of the Laws of the Community wherein they dwell, do thereby Expose themselves to Ignominy, Reproach and Death; we shall, in Pursuance of our wonted Method, and to perfect the Intention of the Legislator, in making Examples of this Nature, as useful Cautions to others, here subjoin a further and more particular Relation of the foregoing unhappy Person, as communicated to us by Himself; that as his Life, (though a very short one, having not quite reached eighteen Years) appears to have abounded with many remarkable and uncommon Incidents, we conceive ourselves obliged to communicate them to the Public, at least such of them, as to us seem more especially regardful of their Notice and Consideration.
We shall also in the following Account, point out the Steps which his wicked Companions, together with his own wicked Heart, at first inclined him to take; by all which it will appear, that the Consequence of deviating from the Paths of Dutifulness and Honesty (as here exemplified) is the direct Means of securing to one's self Destruction and every Evil; and as Disobedience to Parents was the first wrong Step this unhappy Person took, we may justly account it the Spring and Source of all his future Miseries; for what besides Reproach, Calamity and Disgrace can we suppose to attend a Crime of so black and heinous a Nature as is that of Undutifulness, which, as it at first contributed to, so at length has rendered him so compleat and perfectly wretched, that in him Misery may now be seen in all its formidable and ghastly Appearance.
Abraham Pass, (the unhappy Subject of this Paper) was so unfortunate, as to add to all his other Crimes, the shameful Abuse of a good Education, which his Father, as a Man of Substance and Repute, was (as the Event shews) unprofitably careful to confer and bestow upon him. He was descended of Jewish Parents, now living and residing at Bourdeaux in France, where, he says, he was born. His Father formerly traded as a Wine Merchant to Holland, and other
Places, but sustaining very great Losses in Trade, he was thereby brought down from an elevated Station in Life, to a much lower one, which, however, was neither mean, nor contemptuous.
About the Age of twelve Years, his Father conceiving it necessary to his Son's future Advantage, sent him to School to Amsterdam in Holland, in order to learn Hebrew, High and Low Dutch, Writing, &c. And there he continued about the Space of two Years. From thence he returned to his Father at Bourdeaux, and was there again put to School to one Mr. Painser, in that City, in order for his further Instruction in the Hebrew, and Spanish Languages.
He had not continued there above a Month, but being weary of the Priviledge of a Father's House, and altogether insensible of the Blessings he enjoyed, as dependant thereupon, he did, by contracting an Intimacy with a young Man, an Apothecary, of the same roving Disposition with himself, and agreed with him to make a Voyage to England, (having heard from others, a Commendation of the Country) in order to see London, the Metropolis thereof: But as this Purpose of theirs had no other Foundation than Disobedience, and Inconsideration, and being altogether without the Knowledge and Consent of their Parents, they found themselves in some Difficulty to defray their own Expences; but this, with them, was no Argument to frustrate their Design, and therefore, the better to Accomplish their Purposes, and facilitate their Scheme, they readily agreed to take most, or all, the best Cloaths they had, and so to sell them, in order to bear their Charges and supply their Wants.
After having done this, and thereby procured to themselves some ready Money, they then took the first Opportunity of a Ship's failing for England, and embarking therein, they proceeded forthwith on their intended Voyage: When they arrived there, they travelled to London, (the Place they had purposed to see) and coming there as Strangers, they both took a Lodging in Gravel-Lane, Hounsditch. Neither of them having any Acquaintance here, and the Consequences of such rash Exploits recoiling upon them, Abraham's Comrade conceived it more reasonable and prudent to go back and partake of a well - furnished Table, at his Father's House, rather than starve in a strange Place.
Accordingly, upon these Considerations, he left his Companion, and set out on his Return Home, and Abraham abode here. But some time afterwards, going frequently as his Manner was, to the Jews Synogogue, he there became acquainted with one Mr. Isaac Malo, who, by his constant Attendance at that Place, apprehended he was a friendless Lad that wanted Business, and thereupon, asked him to come and work with him, which he very readily accepted of, and being a Druggist by Trade, he agreed to give him a Shilling per Day, and his Victuals. He continued with this Gentleman about the Space of eight Months, and then left him, but upon no other Consideration, as he affirmed, than that his Master was a hasty, passionate Man.
From him, he went to live with one Mr. Morabbia, a Person of the same Trade, who was very kind and indulgent to him; but here again, abusing the Priviledges he enjoyed, and contracting a destructive Acquaintance with some vile Persons, both Men and Women, he became quite regardless of his Master's Business, and by staying of Errands, lying out, and coming Home late at Nights, gave indubitable Proofs of his Apostacy from whatsoever was honest and praise-worthy. Hereupon, his Master rebuked him, and chid him severely, and very kindly apprized him of the Consequences of such unjustifiable Proceedings; but all this was done to very little or no Purpose, as appears by the following Circumstance.
Being sent by his Mistress one Day for a Pint of Wine, she gave him a Guinea to change, but he presently returned again with a Pretence that he had lost the Guinea, and the better to confirm her in the Probabilty of the Story, cuts a Hole in his Breeches Pocket, and then urges the Possibility of its dropping through there; but she not being satisfied with this, he very cunningly, to secure her good Opinion of him, promises to discount it with her in his Wages, desiring her not to intimate the Thing to his Master, least she should thereby endanger his Interest in his Favour. But the Truth of this Affair was, he kept the Guinea himself to serve his own vile Purposes, and the Gulph that swallowed up this, his Time, his Honesty, and every other profitable Thing, was one Sarah L - e, a young Woman in Hounsditch, to whose Account he may very justly place the chiefest Part of his present Misfortunes, and his Inti
macy with her, was what he accounted to be the Source of all his Misery. - What! is there such prevailing Rhetorick in a Gallows as to be alone able to convince Men (if we so call them) of the Truth of that, which neither Reason nor Example can do besides? Or, is there no other Remedy to be found, than the Prospect of a Halter, to restore Men to the Exercise of their Senses in this Matter, and give them to understand the Treachery and Deceiveableness of these Sort of Women? It were to be wished, they would either act as Men, or disown the Name. - But to proceed.
The Consequence of his Acquaintance with this Woman, was first a losing his Character and Repute with his Master, and presently afterwards his Place, which he was turned away from, after having lived there about eight Months.
And now being destitute of all visible Means of Support, he determined with himself to go to Holland, so leaving England, he went first to Helvoetsluys, thence to Rotterdam, and from hence to the Hague, where he staid about eight Days. He was supported on the Road from Place to Place by the Jews residing in those Parts, to whom he used to make Application for Relief, which they are obliged to afford, by a Law among that People compelling them thereto, to all such Itinerates as seek it at their Hands.
Being thus provided with Meat and Drink, this Manner of Subsistance was found best to suit with his own supine, indolent Disposition, and being altogether regardless of any other Kind of Support than what was thus afforded him, he travelled by this Means to most Parts of Europe; but was so far from improving himself in the useful Branches of Knowledge, which had he had a Mind, he certainly had an Opportunity of doing, that he hereby only confirmed in Himself a Habit of Idleness.
After this short Stay of eight Days at the Hague, his next Rout was to Amsterdam, at which Place he carried on a Series of roguish Pranks; for there he stept into a more elevated Station than what either his Circumstances or Ability could support; but the Devil and his own Heart, soon helped him to an Expedient to carry on and establish the new Character he had so lately assumed, and that was, by taking handsome ready-furnished Lodgings, and so agreeing with the Gentleman
of the House for his Board, and a Supply of all suitable Necessaries at so much per Quarter.
This Scheme succeeded pretty well for some Time, but having no Money to satisfy his Landlord at the stated Time of Payment, and fearing least his Credit should thereupon be questioned, or called into Dispute, he was wont (in order to remove any such Suspicion) to write Letters to his Father (or rather pretend only so to do) as a noted Wine-Merchant at Bourdeaux, desiring to transmit such Sums of Money to him at a particular Time, and upon a particular Occasion! Then he used to write suitable Answers thereto, promising the Remittance of such desired Sums, and so leave them carelesly in his Room, for the Inspection and Satisfaction of his Landlord; and when such poor Shifts and Evasions could serve his Turn no longer, he then made off with what he could most conveniently carry away, and so (to speak in the common cant Phrase) bilk'd his Lodgings.
This he acknowledged to be his usual Practice during his Abode at Amsterdam; but after some Time, (becoming too notorious by such iniquitous Courses) he was thereupon obliged to quit this Place, for when one wicked Method of supporting himself failed, it was seldom long before he found out another; and the next Project he formed was to commence Traveller again, having his Expences defrayed as before by the Contribution of the Jewish Synagogue.
He now purposed in himself to visit Germany, and passing through thence to go to France, but had not Inclination of seeing his Parents as yet, or the Place of his Nativity. He made no long Continuance in any of these Parts, but proceeded forthwith to Italy, and immediately upon his coming there he fell sick, and lay about eight Months, being all that while supported by the Benefactions of the Jews, who very kindly and readily ministred to his Necessities. But neither Sicknesses nor Hardships of any Kind, were sufficient to awaken him to a Sense of himself, or to an Apprehension of the unavoidable Consequence of such Proceedings; he remained still inflexible in his Purposes of Evil, deaf to the Instruction either of Persons or Providences, and utterly averse to Labour and Industry. Oh! where has Undutifulness to Parents brought him? whither will it further carry
him? Let all such therefore, in whose mistaken Notions Disobedience to Parents seems a trivial Offence, learn, from the Instance before us, to pay all due Respect and Difference to them, least by a contrary Behaviour they secure to themselves a Portion in this unhappy Persons Miseries, for the like Offences will always be attended with like Judgments.
Immediately upon his Recovery from his Illness, which was a very long and severe one, he set out to go to Rome, and there staid about a Fortnight; from hence he went to Leghorn, where he was again visited with a fore Fit of Sickness, which held five or six Months. Upon his Recovery from this, he left Leghorn, and proceeded directly to Turkey, being still supported by the old Means. But here he was altogether unfix'd in his Mind, and did nothing but rove from Place to Place, so leaving Turkey he returned again to Leghorn, from Leghorn he went to Genoa, from Genoa to Barbadoes, from Barbadoes to Port-Mahon, and so from Port-Mahon to Gibraltar, where not meeting with such suitable Entertainment as he had before done in other Places which he had frequented; a Resolution came into his Head of returning again to his Father's House at Bourdeaux. When he came there, his Father, with a great deal of Satisfaction, received his lost Son, and also, upon his promise of future Amendment, readily pardoned all his former Disobedience, and such Irregularities of Behaviour as were consequent thereupon.
This great Change the old Gentleman discovered in his Son, yeilded him some Grounds of expecting at length, much Comfort and Delight in Him; but he soon found himself mistaken herein, and that the Reformation his Son pretended, proved to be only a Reformation in Appearance, but not in Heart; for he had not continued at Home above the space of two Months, 'ere he again returned to his wonted Courses; and (without any other Reason than what was immediately fetched from his own depaved Heart) he now (for the last Time) forsook his Father's House, and at the same Inst. his own Happiness; and going to a remote part of France, he there became acquainted with two young Men, the one being twenty, and the other about Seventeen Years of Age, Lads equally as unfortunate as himself. With them he agreed to go to England, his two Companions having never seen that Country; accordingly they all three made a Voyage thither, and arriving at Lon
don, they all took a Lodging together.
They had not continued in this way long, but his two Comrades expressed their Dislike of living after this Vagabond Manner, and thereupon were determined to return Home again, which (the first opportunity that offered) the accordingly did; and happy had it been for this poor Wretch, had he made himself one of their Company. But being at this Time left destitute of all Friends, and void of any means of Support (except being now and then employed in going of Errands) he associated with the worst of Company; and now his Ruin and Destruction advanced a-pace, for as before Disobedience to his Parents had paved the Way to the Disobedience of Natural Laws, he now fell a Victim to offended Justice; and having sown the Seeds of his own Ruin in Undutifulness, he comes now to reap the fertile Crop of all his subsequent Transactions.
On his coming to England this last Time, he contracted an Intimacy with one Joseph Machoi, (a Jew ) and together with him committed the Fact upon which he was convicted. He was not immediately concerned herein as an Agent, but only as a stander-by, to give Notice and Intimation of any Watchman, or other People, that might be supposed to prevent or discover their Designs, and was employed in receiving the Goods, or whatever else they stole, out of any House, and afterwards to sell them for his Companions.
In the Exercise of this Part of his Business he was detected, for as he was going off with the Goods which his Companion had stole, he was stopt and apprehended by a Person who met him, and after taking the Things from him, he was secured and carried before a Justice, where he confessed the Fact, and declared himself an Evidence against the rest that were concern'd with him.
In Consequence of this one Clay was apprehended and tried upon his Information, but by Reason of the Invalidity of it, with respect to him, he was acquitted; and thereupon the Evidence which he gave in this Matter, was found sufficient for no other Purpose than to convict himself, which being retorted upon him, it accordingly did; in Pursuance whereof he re
ceived Sentence of Death, as the just Demerit of his multiply'd Offences, and so thereby put an End to an ill-spent, wicked Life, by a shameful, ignominious Death, his Relations and Friends being altogether Strangers to what has so justly befallen him.
The following LETTER he wrote some few Days before his Execution, and sent it to one of his Companions, who used to rob with him.
Richard C - y,
' THOUGH the Nearness of ' approaching Death, ought ' to shut out from my Thoughts ' all temporal Concerns, yet I could ' not compose my Mind with that ' Quietness with which I hope to ' pass from this sinful World, into ' the Presence of the Almighty, before I had thus exhorted you to ' take particular Warning from my ' Death, which the Intent of the ' Law, to deter others from Wickedness, hath decreed to be in a public and ignominious Manner.
' Let the sad Example of me, ' who died by the Hand of Justice, deter you not only from ' those flagrant Offences, which has ' been so fatal to me, but also from ' those foolish and sinful Pleasures, ' which in some Measure have been ' the Cause of all my unhappy ' Misfortunes, I mean in keeping ' Company with vile Women, especially one Sarah L - e, who ' lives in Houndsditch; I may very ' justly lay my ignominious Death ' to her.
' I hope all young Men especially will take Care to avoid their ' vile and wicked Company; in 'which it is but too frequent for ' young Persons to indulge themselves. Remember that I tell you ' from sad Experience, that the ' Wages of Sin, though in Appearance they be sometimes large, and ' what may promise outward Pleasures, yet are they attended with ' such inward Disquiet, as renders ' it impossible for those who have ' received them, to enjoy either ' Quiet or Ease. Work hard at ' your Employment, and be assur'd, ' that Sixpence got thereby, will ' afford you more solid Satisfaction, ' than the largest Acquisitions,
' at the Expence of your Conscience.
' That God may by his Grace ' enable you to follow this my last ' Advice; and one Thing more before I have done, I desire all young ' Persons to be obedient to their ' Parents, which is the earnest Prayers of
Your dying Friend,
From my Cell in Newgate, Nov. 16, 1743.
THE PROCEEDINGS AT THE SESSIONS of PEACE, Oyer and Terminer, FOR THE CITY of LONDON, AND County of MIDDLESEX, ON WEDNESDAY the 8th, THURSDAY the 9th, and FRIDAY the 10th of December.
In the 16th Year of His MAJESTY'S Reign.
Printed for T. COOPER, at the Globe in Pater-Noster-Row. 1742.