THE ORDINARY of NEWGATE, His ACCOUNT of the Behaviour, Confession, and Dying Words, OF THE PYRATE, Who was Executed at Execution-Dock on Wednesday the 20th of December, 1738. And also of the Three MALEFACTORS, Who were Executed at TYBURN, On FRIDAY the 22d of December.
THE ORDINARY of NEWGATE, His ACCOUNT of the Behaviour, Confession, &c.
AT the Sessions of Oyer and Terminer, and Goal Delivery of Newgate, for the Jurisdiction of the Admiralty of England, held at Justice-Hall in the Old-Bailey, before the Right Worshipful Sir Henry Penryce,Knt. Judge of the Admiralty , the Hon. Mr. Baron Parker, and others his Majesty’s Justices of Oyer and Terminer, and Goal Delivery for the said Jurisdiction, on Friday the Tenth of November, 1738.
While under Sentence, he was instructed from these Words: Then said Jesus unto his Disciples, If any Man will come after me, let him deny himself, and take up his Cross and follow me. St Matt. 16. 24. From this we observed, Ist, That it is the Duty of all Men to come to Christ, i.e. to believe in Him, as the only Saviour of Sinners, who is set forth for Salvation to all the Ends of the Earth. 2dly, we observed the goodness of God, and the infinite Love of our Lord Jesus Christ, who invites all Men, without Exception, to come and drink of the Waters freely, 3dly It was observed, that it is the Duty of all Christians, patiently to bear whatever Afflictions are by the Providence of God brought upon us, and to submit to God under all the Troubles which our Sins may have brought upon us. I exposed to him the great Evil of the heinous Sin of Murder; I shew’d him that the Law of God required, - That whosoe should shed Man’s Blood, by Man should his Blood be shed: for in the Image of God, made be Man, &c. Gen. 9. 5, 6.
He was exhorted to repent of all the Sins of his Life, particularly the heinous Sin of Murder, and to acknowledge before God, that he was shapen in Iniquity, and in Sin did his Mother conceive him; and to cry unto God, Deliver me from Blood-guiltiness, O God, thou God of my Salvation: and my Tongue shall sing aloud of thy Righteousness.
He was instructed in the Nature of Christian Sacraments, particularly that of the Lord’s Supper, in which, if we be worthy Receivers, all the Blessings of the New Covenant are sealed up and ensured to us.
While he was under sentence, he constantly attended in Chappel, and made regular Responses; but yet seem’d to be hard-harted and not so serious and affected, as one in his dismal Circumstances ought to have been.
He was indicted, for that he not having the Fear of God before his Eyes, &c. on the 16th October, in the eleventh Year of his Majesty’s Reign, then being a Mariner in the Ship called the Royal Guardian, Burthen 500 Tons, Henry Hoadly Master , with Force and Arms, in the navigable River of Canton, or Wampow, within ebb and flow, near the High Seas, &c. in and upon Michael Smith, one of the Mates of the said Ship , did make an Assault, and with a Knife, which the said Buchanan held in his right Hand, him the said Smith on the left Side, under the fourth Rib, in the River aforesaid, &c. did strike and stab, giving him a mortal Wound, of the Breadth of half an Inch, and of the Depth of three Inches, of which mortal Wound, from the 16th to the 17th of October, on the said River, he languish’d, and languishing liv’d and then dy’d.
He was 32 Years of Age, born of honest Parents, in Stirlingshire, who gave him good Education. His Father dyed and left him young; after that, he was left to the care of an Uncle, who put him to a famous School to improve his Education; but he ran away from thence, and went to Newcastle; where he entered on board a Ship, and sailed several Voyages, his Friends not knowing what was become of him: In this Time, he learn’d to be a Sailor ; and took Pleasure in Sea Business. After this, he went some Voyages to Virginia, and other Places, often in the Station of a Mate ; once he went thither to inspect a Merchant’s Affairs, and on all these Occasions he behaved well. Coming Home again, he married a young Woman with a good Portion, and liv’d some Time with his Mother-in-law; but having a little Estate in the Country, which was incumber’d with some of his Father’s Debts, and a few of his own, and willing to do Justice to every body, he sold it, and paid off all his Debts, reserving about two Hundred Pounds to himself. He said, he had lost about, 1200 l by his Guardian, who dying Insolvent, he resolved to push his Fortune thro’ the World, and leaving his Powers with his Wife (since dead) he went to North America with 180 l. and there joining with two young Gentlemen, they bought a ship or Sloop, of Which Buchanan was Master , to carry on a Trade along, the Coast of America; but touching at some Places belonging to the French, they took his Ship, and upon pretence of illicit Trade, declar’d her lawful Prize, and after having detained the Crew some Time in Prison, they let them out naked and bare, and being stript of all, he was forc’d to return home again; but being of a rambling Disposition, he came to London about five or six Years ago, and went a Voyage or two to the East-Indies, during
all which Time he was lookt upon both by his Superiors and Companions, to be a good natur’d, industrious young Fellow. About this Time, he learn’d the Business of a Sail-maker , and was capable of better Business, as he understood Navigation, and had such a long Experience in Sea Affairs, if he had fallen into the Company of Men capable to advance his Interest. The last Voyage, (most fatal and unfortunate to him) was in the Royal Guardian, Captain Henry Hoadly, Commander , bound for Cia. Upon the 16th of October, 1737, the Captain, Supercargoes, and some others, being at canton, about the Companies Affairs, there came down towards Night, some Boats with Goods; but the Men were not to be found to take them in; Michael Smith, the fourth Mate , went up and down to see for Hands, and coming into the Forecastle, he found Buchanan carousing with two of his Country-folks belonging to another Ship; upon which forc’d him out upon Deck; and after many Words and Blows had pass’d, Buchanan push’d at him under Hand three Times; but it was so dark, that the Witnesses could see nothing in his Hand; the Mate immediately cry’d out, he was murder’d, and call’d for the Surgeon; the Surgeon’s Mate attended, and found two superficial Wounds in the Belly, and a third in the Breast, which was Mortal, penetrating about five Inches deep through the Lungs; of this Wound he languish’d about 19 Hours, and died. Buchanan, after the Fact, was seen to throw his Hand toward the Sea, and ‘twas imagined he cast the Knife into the Sea, with which he stab’d Mr. Smith. Upon this, he was secured in Irons, till the Ship arriv’d safe in England. It was also sworn upon his Trial, that he had declared he would kill Mr. Smith, and that others should see it; He complain’d that he was troubled with wandering Thoughts which diverted and disturbed his Mind. When he was praying to God, or was engaged in the great Work he had to do and preparing for the great Change he was to undergo. I advised him to be importunate at the Throne of Grace, by servent Prayer and Supplication, that the Desires and Affections of his Soul might be wholly fix’d upon God, and his Thoughts upon Death, Judgement, and Eternity; he also complained of being hard Hearted, and I shew’d him, that it was the particular Promise of the Gospel, to create in us new Hearts, and renew right Spirits within us; and therefore I told him, if he depended wholly upon God, in and through the Merits and Intercession of Jesus Christ, however great his Sins were, yet God, who is infinitely good and gracious, would fulfill his blessed Promise, in loving him freely, and receivmg him graciously in renewing his Heart, &c.
As to the Murder for which he died, he own’d the whole Affair, as sworn against him by the Witnesses, that there was a Quarrel between him and the Deceased ( Michael Smith) that Smith beat and kickt him; that he did move his Hand, in an underhand way, towards Smith, to defend himself against his Blows, but that it was not he who stabb’d him. When the Dead Warrant came down, and he found there was no expectations of
Life, I desir’d him for the ease of his Conscience, to glorify God by confessing his Crime; upon which he own’d he did it, and seem’d to be in the greatest Consternation and Confusion, scarce avoiding Tears. He expressed an earnest Desire to receive the blessed Sacrament, and on Sunday Morning the 17th Instant, three Days before he suffer’d, he did devoutly partake of it; he then confessed, that the Day he murder’d Mr. Smith he had been on Board another India-man, visiting some of his Country Folks, and two of them went along with him on Board the Royal-Guardian, whom he treated with a Bowl of Punch, but Michael Smith the Mate , ordering him to help to stow the Goods, he refused, and this was the Occasion of the Dispute in which the other lost his Life. He behav’d very well, and attended in Chappel, and professed a deep Repentance for all his Sins. He complain’d of the Severity and surly Temper of the Deceased, to which he imputed the Accident. On Sunday Morning when he receiv’d the Sacrament, he cried bitterly, his Heart seem’d really soften’d; he believ’d in Christ his Only Saviour, repented of all his Sins, and died in Peace with all Men.
At the Place of EXECUTION.
HE was carry’d thither in a Cart, and employed, his Time all the Way in reading religious Books, having taken the Sacrament very devoutly before he left Newgate. At the Place he appeared with abundance of Resolution, and was very serious at Prayers and singing of Psalms. He confessed the Murther, as he had formerly done, and that the Sentence was justly executed upon him. He desired his Brother Sailors to beware of Passion, which was the Occasion of his being brought thither. He confessed that he was a great Sabbathbreaker, and observ’d that it was on the Lord’s Day he murder’d Michael Smith; and also, that he had been a great Swearer and Drinker, and not free from other Vices. He went off the Stage crying to God to have Mercy upon him, and Lord Jesus receive my Spirit. When all was over pertaining to Devotion, he desired to sidg a Psalm out of the Scotch Paraphrase, and he himself repeating the Line, the Company upon the Scaffold and he sung out the 23d Psalm.
After I had done my Duty, and had left him for about 5 Minutes, some Sailors got on the Scaffold, and endeavour’d to cut him down; on which a Scuffle ensu’d between them and the Officers; but many other Sailors coming to the Assistance of those who first made the Attempt, he was cut down (as I was inform’d) in less than 6 Minutes after I parted from him, and his Body carry’d off in a Boat, with loud Acclamations of Joy, accompanied by a great many Sailors.
The following is an Account of the three Malefactors which were executed at Tyburn on Friday the 22d of December, 1738.
Chief Justice Willes; the Hon. Mr. Justice Probyn; the Hon. Mr. Baron Thompson, Recorder of the City of London; and the Worshipful Mr. Serjeant Urlin, Deputy Recorder of the said City; and other his Majesty’s Justices for the City of London, and Justices of Goal-Delivery for the said City and County of Middlesex) at Justice-Hall in the Old-Bailey, on Wednesday the 6th, Thursday the 7th, Friday the 8th, and Saturday the 9th of December, 1738, and in the twelfth Year of his Majesty’s Reign.
While under Sentence they were instructed from these Words, - Verily every Man at his best State is altogether Vanity, Psalm xxxix. 5. From a Consideration of the Vanity of all earthly Things, and their Insufficiency to make Men happy, they were exhorted to a patient and resigned Submission to the Will of God, who had suffer’d Justice to overtake them, for their scandalous Neglect of their known Duty, and open Violation of the Laws both human and divine.
They were advised to abstract their Minds wholly from this World, with which they had but little more to do, and to endeavour to settle their Affections upon God, the Centre of all Happiness, upon Heaven and Holiness, and the Glory of the Life which is to come. And in order to prepare them for this State, they were exhorted to exercise a lively Faith in Christ, as the Son of God, and only Saviour of Sinners; and then to think much upon the infinite Love of God, who loved us so as to give his only beloved Son for us, that whosoever believeth in him might nor perish but have eternal Life; and to repent of all their Sins, which had brought them to Shame and Sorrow, so as to loath, detest and abhor themselves in Dust and Ashes, and to resolve by the Grace of God, if their Lives had been spared, to have become new Creatures. They were also urged to renew their Covenant with God, and to devote themselves to him, whose Service is the most perfect Freedom. And that they might be endowed with Faith, Repentance, Love, and other saving Gifts and Graces: They were pressed to be importunate at the Throne of Grace, for a plentiful effusion of the Holy Spirit into their Hearts, without whose Assistance we cannot do any thing aright; who would lead them into all Truth, and enlighten their dark Minds, and enliven their dead Hearts.
They having broke their baptismal Vows in repeated Instances, they were instructed in the necessary Obligation incumbent upon them, to renew their baptismal Vows by receiving the blessed Sacrament of our Lord’s last Supper, wherein Christ’s Sufferings and Death are represented to us in a significant and lively Manner, and all the Benefits and Blessings redounding from thence are exhibited to every true Believer.
These, and many other Instructions were given them; and they all attended in Chapel, and were attentive to Prayers and Instructions; most of them cried bitterly upon their first appearing in that Place of publick Worship, no doubt it put them in mind of their approaching
Dissolution, and the miserable Circumstances their extreme Folly had reduced them to.
Upon Thursday the 14th of December, Report was made to his Majesty in Council, of the four Malefactors lying under Sentence of Death in the Cells of Newgate, when John Rigby, for assaulting John Evans and Peter Smalt on the King’s Highway, and robbing the said Mr. Evans of a silver Watch and some Money, receiv’d his Majesty most gracious Reprieve; the other three, viz. James Gardiner; William Bollingbroke, and Constantia James, were order’d for Execution.
I. James Gardiner, for stealing a Gold Watch, two diamond Rings, ten holland Shirts, &c. from Henry Waldron, Esq ; the Property of the said Waldron. He was about thirty years of Age, born in the Parish of Aldearn, in Aberdeenshire, of honest Parents, who gave him good Education at the publick School of that Parish; he also made a good Proficiency in the Latin Tongue; but not inclining to follow his Books, and his Father being a Country Farmer, he was not put to a Trade, but while young follow’d Country-business under his Father; but being more advanced in Years, and not liking that manner of Life, he left his Parents, in order to serve Noblemen and Gentlemen; and in the Quality of an under Butler he serv’d one of the chief Nobility, between two and three years. In this Place he had instructed to his Care all the Plate of that noble Family, amounting to the value of some thousand Pounds. He afterwards liv’d with another noble Earl some years, and then with a Gentleman of good quality; and in all these Families his honesty was never call’d in question, though in each of them he was entrusted with Things of great Value. Some years ago he married a Wife, Daughter of a Farmer in his own Country, by whom he had two Children, a Son and a Daughter, who are now living with the Wife’s Mother, at a Farm in Scotland. He said he was never acquainted with Gangs of Thieves or Robbers, but kept honest sober Company; neither did he ever commit any other Thefts or Robberies, but this one for which he suffer’d; though he was several Times at London with the People he serv’d, yet he did not reside altogether here, till within these four or five years past, and till this unhappy Affair, he was always look’d upon as a poor honest Servant. He said he had not been much addicted to lewd Women, though not altogether innocent that way; nor did he use to drink to excess, though he had been provided for with Liquors in the Houses where he liv’d. But some time ago, his Master Waldron going to Somersetshire, intending to go to Bath, and being a single Gentleman, to leave the Care of his Lodgings to his Man Gardiner, while he was abroad and at a Distance, some idle People making him believe that his Master, before he returned to London, intended to go to France, and perhaps might be a long Time before he returned, and possibly (as they added) he might not return in haste, if he did at all. He was buoyed up with such wicked Suggestions as these, and thought he might, without much Danger, make free with his Matter’s Goods, and accordingly stealing his Gold Watch, two diamond Rings, ten holland Shirts, &c. as in the Indictment. But the unhappy Wretch quickly found himself dis
appointed in his foolish Imaginations, for immediately after this Injury was done, Mr. Waldron judged that no other Person but his Servant could have robb’d him; he was taken up on Suspicion, and carried before a Justice, where he confess’d all, and owned he had been base and ungrateful to the Gentleman his Master, who consided in him; for which vile Action he expressed a very deep Regret and Sorrow. During the short Time he was under Sentence, he behaved decently, gravely, and religiously, to appearance; so that we are oblig’d in Charity to believe, that he was penitent for all the Miscarriages of his Life. He was far from being so wicked as most of these unhappy Creatures, being free, for the most part, of those Vices which hurry them head-long to Destruction, having always endeavour’d to shan bad Company, Drinking, Gaming, &c. till lately, to support some Extravagancies, he ventur’d to rob his Master, thinking to make his Escape some way or other, to his own Country, or to a very great Distance from London. He was very much grieved, that he should disgrace himself and Relations, who are honest People. He declared, that be believed in Christ as the only Saviour of Sinners, and his Saviour in particular, that he sincerely repented of all the Sins of his Life, especially the scandalous Crime he died for; that he forgave all Injuries done him, as he expected Forgiveness from God. He often lamented and wept bitterly, both in Chapel, and upon other Occasions.
2, William Bolingbroke, was about 39 Year of Age, born of honest Parents in the City of Norwich, who gave him good Education, and his Father being a Weaver brought him up to his own Business, and he serv’d out his Time honestly: Then he follow’d his Employment, and was looked upon to be an honest Man for some Time; but as he encreas’d in Years, he advanc’d in Wickedness, and took to robbing and Housebreaking . About 20 Years ago, a little after he was out of his Time with his Father, he marry’d a Wife, by whom he had several Children, three of whom are now living with their miserable Mother in Spittlefields. He made no Complaints of wanting Business, but said he could have provided very well for his Family, and that it was not Necessity made him to follow dishonest Courses, but an idle vicious Temper, which inclin’d him to a loose disorderly Life, and prevented him from confining himself to Business, and led him to associate with vile Company. He was acquainted with all the Gangs of Thieves about Spittlefields, White-chappel, Shoreditch &c. and was intimate with all the House-breakers that infest that End of the Town; he own’d that formerly, himself and his Companions had committed a vast number of Buglaries, and other Robberies, though he would not confess that he was guilty of such Irregularities, lately, but his refraining from them was not owing he said to any good Principle, but for fear of the Punishment; and upon that Account he left his own Business of a Weaver, and went to Sea , having serv’d on Board several of his Majesty’s Ships, and been in many Parts of the World; viz. New York, the Baltick, Holland , Flanders
France, &c. and when at Home, he sometimes followed his own Business of a Weaver, so he had several Ways of providing for his Family, but he was so habitually accustomed to thieving and robbing, and so engag’d with the Gangs in that corner of the Town, that he could not withstand any Opportunity that offered, nor the least Solicitation of his Companions. He was of a light Disposition, and had led a very irregular Life, being addicted to all the Vices which are generally practised by such Wretches. As for the Robbery he died for, he was not willing to acknowledge the same as they swore it, but reflected on the Man and Woman, as if their Characters was little better than his own, alledging they were not possessed of some of the Goods they laid to his Charge. I told him it was to no Purpose to deny the Thing now, being found guilty by the Jury, and if the People he robb’d were poor, he was so much the more wicked in wronging them, and his Character having been so bad before, no Body wou’d doubt of his committing the Robbery, and that if he went to Eternity with a Lye in his right Hand, it wou’d be a great Aggravation to his Crime, therefore exhorted him to glorify God, and ease his Mind by a plain Confession; and being pressed with several Reasons to this Purpose, he cou’d not deny his Guilt, but own’d that he suffered most deservedly, for the most scandalous and sinful Life he had led. He lamented and mourn’d for his Wife and three Children, in bringing them and himself to so much Disgrace and Shame. He was admonish’d to Submit to God’s Will and Providence in that Affair, which was most justly inflicted upon him for a Life so vicious, irregular, and scandalous. He own’d that God in Justice afflicted him, into whose Hands he resign’d himself, since his Sentence could not be reversed. I desired him, as he tended the good of his Soul, to forgive all Offences done him, for certainly no Man with Malice in his Breast can appear before a just God. He declar’d that he had no Prejudice against any Body; he behav’d tollerably in Chappel, both at Prayers and Exhortations, but seem’d too hard-hearted and indifferent. He believ’d in Christ our only Saviour, repented of a very sinful Life, and forgave every Body, as he hoped to have Forgiveness from God.
3. Constantia James, was about 30 Years of Age, born of honest Parents in Norham, who gave her such Education as they could afford. While she was young she liv’d at Home with her Friends, and afterwards was employ’d in the Country Business , and in carrying Goods to Market , on both Sides the Tweed. After some Time she grew weary of such Business, and having many of her Relations in the Town of Berwick upon Tweed, she went thither, about 3 or 4. Miles below Norham, and serv’d there for a Year or thereabouts; from thence she went to the City of York, where she serv’d an old Widow Lady about half a Year, and during that Time behav’d well; but a Gentleman of a great Estate being at York, to see the Races, happen’d to meet with Constance, and judging her a proper Person to be his House-keeper , he, with much ado, and many Intreaties, prevail’d upon her
to leave her Lady, and to engage herself in his Service, promising her 6 l. per Ann. Wages, and by Way of Encouragement, to encrease her Wages. The Bargain being made, he gave her half a Guinea Earnest, the greatest Sum ever poor Constance was Mistress off before. Accordingly she followed the ‘Squire to London, and from thence went to his CountryHouse, where she liv’d 3 Years, but he being profuse, and taking little Care of his Affairs, and the Conduct of his Housekeeper being not very extraordinary, between them both, Matters did not go on mighty well After some Time she prov’d with Child by her Master, and her being debauch’d here, she said was the Occasion of all the ensuing Wickednesses of her Life, for after this she commenc’d a most abandon’d common Prostitute , and her Master’s Circumstances having no good Aspect, she was oblig’d to leave him and come to London, where she gave herself up to all manner of Wickedness and Debauchery. Having been some Time in Town, she marry’d a poor young Man, who Was a Drawer in a Tavern, who never could prevail on her to settle in any Business, she delighting more in walking the Streets every Night, and not caring for any other Way of Life; and if she had no Opportunity to rob Men in the Street, she would decoy them, into some House of her Acquaintance, where they knew her Designs, and then she never fail’d of getting their Watches, Money, or whatever she could lay hold of, and then run away with the Plunder. She has been twenty Times a Prisoner in Newgate, besides several other Goals about the Town, was several Times tried for her Life and acquitted, but the last, Time she was so well known having been so often there, and the Proof against her so clear, that she was convicted. She desired her Husband’s Honesty to be vindicated, as being no Partaker in her Crimes. I asked her if she had three Husbands all living at this Time, as was commonly reported, she said it was false, and both she and her Husband, whose Surname is James, and others of her Friends affirm’d, she was never marry’d in her Life but to the said James. She wept very much when I first spoke with her, always behav’d well, and made regular Responses with the rest.
On Sunday after Sermon, the 17th Instant, when her Sister saw her in the Press-yard, they embrac’d one another very kindly, and cry’d most bitterly, as for her Repentance, she having been so obstinate and irreclaimable a Sinner, it will be a hard Matter for any Man to judge. As for the Crime she died for, she own’d the Fact for which she suffer’d, but said Mr. Davis desir’d her to go to his House or Lodgings, and when they came thither, he left her in the Dark, upon Pretence of bringing down a Light, and then missing all his Money, one Half of which was his Sister’s, they brought down a Light, and charg’d her with the Watchman, who carry’d her to the Watch-house for that Night, and next Morning she was brought before a Justice, who committed her to Newgate, where she was such a noted and well known Guest, that her Character must do her no great Service. Davis, as she affirm’d, recover’d all his Money, but the odd half Guinea, which she own’d, she swallow’d; he swore the Robbery upon
her in the the dark Passage, and upon his Oath she was committed. She believ’d in Christ, was penitent for her Sins, and forgave every Body.
At the Place of EXECUTION.
THE Morning so their Execution I read Prayers to them, and they all appear’d to be very serous and devout. After I had done praying by them, they were carry’d from Newgate between the Hours of Nine and Ten o’Clock in the Morning. When they came to the Place of Execution, Constantia James cry’d and wept bitterly; when they was all ty’d up, I went into the Cart, and pray’d by them for some Time, they were very attentive and serious, repeating the Lord’sPrayers and the Creed. They said they had nothing more to add to their former Confessions, but desired the Prayers of the Spectators, and to take Warning by their ignominious Deaths, and not follow ill Practices, which was the Occasions of their being there to suffer this untimely End. James Gardiner just before the Cart drew away, be desired all Gentlemen Servant to take warning by his unhappy End; and particularly to avoid lewd Womens Company which was the whole Cause of his Ruin; and likewise desired them to be diligent in their Master’s Service, and not to wrong them as he did his Master; for which he ask’d his Pardon, hoping he would freely forgive him, as he did all Mankind, and hoped that the Lord Jesus would receive his Soul. They all went off the Stage, crying to God to have Mercy on them, and that the Lord Jesus would recive their Spirits.
Mr. Buchanan, 'As I cannot possibly to Day come to you my self, I take this Opporrunity to write to you and Mr. James Gardiner*, (your unhappy Companion earnestly wishing and hoping, you will both endeavour to work out your own Salvation with Fear and Trembling Your Time, you know, is but short; but yet if it be well used, may be of happy Consequence. A compassionate Man, if he arrests, or puts in Prison his Debtor, and then sees him very diligent and careful, in the best manner he can, to make all the mends and Restitution that is in his Power, and that is possible, he may
* Gardiner, who was convicted for robbing Mr. Waldron was confin’d in the same Cell with Buchanan
be mov’d to forgive and release him. And can you hope for less, from the God of Mercy and Consolation, if he sees your Repentance sincere, and that you are truly penitent in his Sight? No, surely, he that spar’d Nineveh on their Repentance, and Ahab on his Repentance, though neither was truly lasting, will much more have Mercy on, and save you, if he sees your Heart sincere, and your Repentance true and unfeigned. You are told by our Lord himself, (Luke 5.) That Joy shall be in Heaven, more over one Sinner that repenteth of his Sins, than over ninety and time that need no Repentance. In the same chapter you’ll find the podigal Son coming home to his Father, and saving, Father I have Sinned against Heaven, and in thy sight I am no more worthy to be called thy Son; upon which he is favour’d more than his eldest Brother. If your Repentance be real and unfeigned, you have Examples in holy Writ, which may afford great Consolation to you both.
First, David for the Murder of Uriah, when he was told by the Prophet Nathan that he was the Man Upon his Confession and Repentance, the Prophet told him, God had taken away and had forgiven his Sin. He was inindeed a King, and therefore ’twas not in the Power of the Laws of the Land, to put him to death: but if you consider how deep his Repentance was, how earnestly he pray’d to be deliver’d from Blood-Guiltiness, and how much Evil he liv’d to see on his Family before his Death; - as the ravishing his Daughter Tamar, and the Murder of his Son Amnon, and the Rebellion and Death of his beloved Son Absalom No doubt, (Mr. Buchanan) were he now alive, and had it offer’d to him to live or die, I dare say he would rather have died, as you must do, if he had but Assurance of the Favour of God. Again,
Onesimus, who was a Servant to Titus, as we see in St, Paul’s epistle to him, he, it seems, went away from his Master, and wrong’d him, as your Fellow Prisoner did his Master, and yet we see, by reading that Epistle, by the Blessing of God, and the Pains which St. Paul took with him, how good a Christian he become. These Things (my dear Friends) I hope may comfort you both, by your seeing the great Long-suffering and abundant Mercy of God, though our Lod Jesus Christ! How ready he is to pardon and save to the uttermost, all that come to God by Him. Suffer me to be plain and ingenuous with you both, as you know I am entirely a Stranger to each of you, never having seen either of you till Saturday Evening, yet as I wish well to your Souls, I would gladly do any thing in my Power, in order to promote your Salvation, and obtain your Peace with God. And I must tell you Plainly my Opinion, so far as I can understand the Holy Scriptures, I take it, that open and plain Confession, and also Restitution, so far as is in our Power, are essential to true and sincere Repentance; therefore I would entreat you, whatever others,may tell you) to be open in your Confession. This Job tells us was his way, ch. xiii.v.33.
e did not cover his Sin as Adam coneal’d his Sin in his Bosom, i.e. keepg it in his own Breast, or telling it nly to a few, privately. It seems to he evident, that where a publick Crime committed, publick Confession to he World, and to the Glory of God, hould be made; otherwise the more ious and better fort of Mankind would e apt to imagine of such a Person, hat he went to his Death either haren’d and impenitent, to dy’d with a ie in his mouth. Nay, God has exresly told us himself, prov. xxvii. And iii. He that covereth his Sins shall not rosper, but whosoever confesseth and rsaketh them shall find Mercy. Now y Friends I shall not trouble you, or ake up your Time any longer, but arnestly recommend you to the Mery of the Almighty God, and his rich race; beseeching you to spend the ttle Time left you, in Prayer, and eading the Scriptures: And may God pen your Understanding, that you ay understand them. Read particularly Psalms 25, 38, 40, 42, 51, and 19. Isaiah 55. Jeremiah 3. Rom. 8. nd many more Places, which I hope ou well know, therefore I shall menion no more. Only it may be proper o add the History of the Sufferings of our Lord and Saviour; and this I take o be useful for you both, on a two-fold Account.
1. To put you in Remembrance of what our Lord suffer’d for you, the Just for the Unjust, that he might bring s Sinners, even the greatest, to his God and Father.
2. This may take away from your minds all manner of discontented Thoughts, as People in your Circumstances are apt to imagine, they have been more hardly dealt with, than others in the like Cases have been. I hope you entertain no such Thoughts, but humbly commit your selves to the Mercy of God thro’ Christ, saying with the penitent Thief on the Cross, We indeed justly suffer, for we receive the due Reward of our Works.
And now I shall take Leave of you beseeching the Almighty Redeemer, who is exalted a Prince and Saviour, to give you Repentance and Remission of Sins; to have Compassion on you, and forgive you your Sins, for this Name sake: That you may both in your last Moments, have his divine Consolations to refresh your Souls, that as it happen’d to the penitent Thief I just now mention’d, you may, through the divine Mercy, have good Hope through your Redeemer, that that Day you shall be with him in Paradise. So earnestly wisheth and prayeth, while you live,
P.S. Let me know by the Bearer, if there is any thing in my Power I can do for you, and you need not doubt but it shall be done, either before, or after your Execution, with regard to your Burial.
I Was born in Sterlingshire, in August 1707, of reputable Parnis. At the Age of 15 I went to Sea , and serv'd seven Years on board the Colraine, Francis Pemberton, Master . When this Time was expir'd, I went on board the Vessel Sloop, John Robinson, Master , and was on the Scotch Station eleven Months, Thn I came home and staid some Years with my Friends; after which I went in the Grafton Brig. with Capt. Charles Cartwright, to New England, as a Passenger , and carry’d with me a considerable Cargo of Goods to dispose of in the Country. This Trade I carry'd on for some time, and made several Voyages, till the Brig. was taken in Martinico by the French,under Pretence that we carry’d on an illicite Trade. The Ship was here condemn’d and we were all confin’d; but at the End of 14 Days I was discharg’d, because I happen'd to be on shore, and was not on board when the Brig. was seiz'd; the rest of our Company were detained on board a Vessel belonging to Nants, call’d the Bon Esperance. After I was discharg'd from my Confinement, I took Passage in this Vessel for Nants, and from Nants I went in her again to the Coast of Guinea, and from Guinea I return’d to Nants; and from thence I went first to Rotterdam, and then to Philadelphia; from whence I came to London, where I enter'd on board with Capt. Steward in an Indiaman, and made a Voyage with him: After which, I went again the Indies with Captain Hoadly in the Royal Guardian. while I was with Captain, Steward be bad the Misfortune to be his Son, who was kill’d by a Tyger, in the Month of November, in the River of Bengal, He went on shore with the second Mate, the Doctor and others a shooting and was seiz'd upon the Throat by a Tyger, which flew out of the Woods upon him, and grip'd him in such a Manner, that he dy'd without speaking a Wod, and had it not been for the Courage of the Doctor, the Creature world have gone off with the body but be kept his Ground 15 Minutes, and encouraged the rest of the Company to fire upon him; he fir'd himself upon hint with small shot, but that did not make the beast let go his Prey, upon which be fired again and again, and the, fourth shot made him quit his Hold, and then the D lubb'd his Musquet and struck him with . utend, which made him immediately leave the Body, and fled into the Woods again. I took particular Notice of the Place from whence this furious Creature sprung upon the Poor young Gentleman, and found the Ground mark’d several Inches deep by his Hinder-feet. We afterwards set an Indian trap for him, and caught him, but the trap had kill'd him, and we knew him to be the same by the Wounds he bad received from the Doctor's shot. However, his Head was taken off, and is now to be seen at the Captain's House in Well-close square.
While I was in the Royal Guardian, I was in the Office of Sail-maker , which Business I learn'd during the three Years
I was in the French Service ; and on Sunday the 16th of October, 1737 as we lay in at Wanpow, a River of Canton, there happen’d some Boats to come in the Evening from the Town, with Goods, which we were to take on Board. Upon this, there was a Call for Hands, to stow the Goods, and Smith, (the fourth Mate) coming into the Frcastle, found Oliver Carter and James O Cane, whom he immediately sett upon, to drive them to work; and after be had done with them, be seized me, and struck me. I asked him what he beat me for? He told me, he would not let me know, and call’d directly for a Light. I went out upon Deck; he follow’d me, and there receiv’d the Wound that kill’d him Upon which be immediately cry’d out, Doctor! Doctor! I am stabb’d! I am stabb’d!* And it being laid to my Charge, I was immediately seized, and laid in Irons, in a very severe Manner, and kept thus, ’till the Ship arrived at the Nore; then I was put on board Commadore Lestock, and in six Days Time, was brought to London, by Order from the Lords of the Admiralty, and was confin’d 9 Weeks and three Days in the Marshalsea Prison; then I was brought to Newgate, and being tried for the Fact, I was capitally convicted, and received Sentence of Death on the 10th of November last.
I WAS born in the Parish of Aulderon in the Shire of Nairn, in the North of Scotland of honest and creditable Parents; and am now about 30 Years of Age. My Father was a Farmer; he gave me a very good Education, for one in his Station, and kept me in a Condition rather above, than equal to his Circumstance. My Behaviour while I was under his Care, was such as admitted me into any Gentleman's Company, in that part of the Country where I was born.
When I was about 16 Years of Age, Sir Archibald Campbell took a Fancy to me, and made me his Butler : He took Pains with me, to make me a compleat Servant, and on Account of my Parents, he shew'd me more Regard, than he did to any other of his Servants, and treated me more like a Relation, or Friend, than a menial Servant. I liked my Situation with him, and took as much Care as I could, to please him; but it pleasing God to call my dear Father from Time to Eternity, while I was in his Service: He, out of Respect to the Family, insisted on my going Home to assist my Mother in the management of the Farm, and after he had given me abundance of the best
*By this unhappy Man’s Account it appears, that tho’ he does not herein expressly acknowledge his Hand gave the Deceased his Death’s Wound, yet he does not deny it: and what he has himself related concerning the Fact, is exactly agreeable to what the Witnesses swore upon his Trial. See the Trial of the Pirates Printed for J, Roberts, in Warwick-Lane,
Advice, he assured me, that my good Behaviour would secure his Assistance and Help upon every Occasion, and that if I behaved well. I should never want for any Encouragement he could give me.
Had I taken his Advice, I should have been happy (in all probability) to this Day; but being young, and my Mother allowing me too much Liberty, I spent but little of my Time in Business at home; my delight was in publick Meetings, such as Fairs, Wakes, Dancing-bouts so that I spent and run through what my Father had left, in a very little Time, and by making imprudent Bargains, had got myself very much in Debt, to the Ruin both of myself, and my unhappy Mother.
when Sir Archibald heard of my Mismanagement, he was exceeding angry with me, and in order to keep me more at Home, be advised my Mother to look out for a sober Wife for me; and accordingly she proposed an agreeable young Woman to me, who had some little Fortune, in that part of the Country. I was pleased with the Proposition; but the Parents of the Girl would not give their Consent, because I had been wild and extravagant However, I lik’d her so well, that I watch’d all Opportunities to get into her Company, and at last, prevail’d upon her to go away with me, from her Parents, in order to our being married without their Consents. Accordingly we were married, and imagin’d that when the Thing was done, they would have relented, and have given us something to begin the World with; and after some Time, I found her Father was willing to part with something but his Wife prevented it, and the Expectation of my Creditors on this Account, being disappointed, they press’d upon me very hard for their Money. One among them, in particular, was very severe upon me, and tough I offer’d him Oxen off the Farm, yet he arrested me; then all the rest of them fell upon and Sir Archibald to secure his Rent, seiz’d upon my Effects.
In this Distress my own Mother could not, and my Wife’s Friends would not do any Thing for me, so I left her, and went to Edenburgh, where I had some Friends, who (I imagin’d) might have got me into some Business, Here I continued three Weeks, but nothing offer’d to my Advantage; so having quite spent the little Money I brought with me I endeavour’d to get into some Gentleman’s Service, and at last I had the good Fortune to be hir’d in the Quality of under Butler to the Duke H -.
In this Station, I had not been long before the Lady C - (his Grace’s Sister) made me her Footman , and ‘twas a very profitable Place to me, for I had all the Card-money and many other Perquisities, so that I got more Money than I made good Use of I continu’d in her Service three Years, and then her Ladyship being obliged so come to London, (which Place I then had never seen) she told me, I could not serve her any longer, as I was a perfect Stranger to the Town; but she would leave Orders with Lady; Eggleton and some other Ladies in Edinburgh, to assist me in getting another Service; and accordingly she gave me a very good Character to them.
I was very sorry to leave my Place, and though I had several Services offer’d me, yet I had a strong Inclination not to
settle in any ‘till the Duke return’d from London, in hopes, that if I was then unprovided, I should be taken again into his Family. Nor was I deceived in my Expectations, for upon the Return of his Grace, I was made his Butler , and had some Thousand Pounds-worth of Plate put into my Custody, and which was under my Care till his Grace return’d to London, and then I deliver’d up my Charge very faithfully to his Grace’s Gentleman of the Horse, and came up with him to London, where I serv’d the Lady again, as her Footman , till she was about marrying, and then because she did not propose to prefer me to the Office of Butler (which I knew was in her Ladyship’s Power) I left her Service.
Upon my turning myself out of Lady C - Service, his Grace was displeased with me, and sent me Word he had no farther Business for me. This was an unhappy Affair to me, for I had liv’d in that truly worthy Family five Years, very happily, and have never been happy since.
After this, I got into my Lord Orkney‘s Service , but I had been with him but 8 Months before he died, which was a great Loss to me. For after his Death, it was two Months before I got another Place, and in that Time, I spent all the Money I had sav’d in Service. But my Lord Orkney’s Gentleman giving me a good Character to the Countess of Stafford, I got into her Service; I liv’d there six Months, and might have continued in that noble Family longer, had I been wise enough to have taken the Advice that Lady condescended to give me.
After this, I serv’d Mr. Bathurst, a Wholesale Distiller on Bread-street-Hill, where I continu’d eleven Months, and the kindness I found from Mr. Bathurst and his Wife, was beyond my Expectation Here I might again have liv’d very comfortably, in this sober, kind Family, had I follow’d the Advice, which, they were so considerate as to be constantly giving me.
While I was in Mr. Bathurst’s Service, I was one Day returning form his Country House at Turnham Green, with my Master’s Horse, which I was to put up in the Meuse, and meeting with Mr. Waldron, he asked me, how I did? I gave him my Hat, and asked him how he did, and how James did? He told me James was about to leave him, and asked me if I knew of any Footman I could recommend to him? I answered directly. - that I should be proud of serving him myself, to which he answered, - he was very willing I should serve him, provided he liked my Character, and at the same Time appointed me to meet him at Forrest’s CoffeeHouse. I took him to be a good-natur’d Man, and imagin’d that as he was a single Man, I should live better with him, than in a Family.
Accordingly I waited on Mr. Bathurst, and being satisfied with my Character, I went into his Service on the 18th of Sept. last and had not continued in it above three or four Days, before I had the Misfortune to meet Gordon, the Person, who had lived with him before) and asking him some Questions about my Master, he answered them in such a Manner as made
me very uneasy, and among other Things, he inform’d me my Master was going to France, where he would continue for Some Time.
I was a little vexed at my leaving Mr. Bathurst, but however I went Home, and Mr. Waldron gave me an Inventory of all his Cloaths, which being lock’d up, he kept one Key and I another, and he told me he was going into the Country for a little while, I must stay at his Lodgings till he returned, and if I wanted Money Mr. Murray’s Landlord was to supply me. I waited on him to the Coach, and at my return Home, I found the Washer-woman had brought home his Linnen. I took it, intending to lay it up in his Drawers, but Mrs. Murray coming up she open’d the Drawers, and told me. my Master had order’d her to take Care of his Things. I did not say much, but it made me imagine, all that Gordon had told me was true, and upon this I watch’d my Opportunity, and like a Fool, took away and pawn’d as much of my Master’s Linnen, and as many of his Cloaths as I imagined my Wages came to, not with any Design to defraud him of them, if he should return again to his Lodgings, but when he return’d to raise Money, and recover them all again; and accordingly when he did return, I borrow’d some Money, and redeem’d most of them again.
After this I was told he intended to turn me off, and believing it, I resolv’d he should suffer for it, so I took his Rings and his Watch, and went away with them directly, but he sent a Hue and Cry after me, and advertised me in the next Day’s Papers, offering 10 Guineas Reward to the Person who should take me, I conceal'd myself for some Days, but as I knew it would be difficult to keep myself long from the Hand of Justice, I went on Sunday Evening following to a publick-house in Church-Court in St. Martins-Lane, where I was taken, and being carry'd before a Justice, was committed to the Gate-house, and was immediately honoured with bearing the weight of 6o l. of lit the King's Plate,* which I wore upon my Legs for a Month. Mr. Waldron had all his Goods again, for I had disposed only of the Watch, and that was returned him after I was committed. While I was before the Justice, he was sent for and came, and I brought myself to my Knees before him, and begg’d his Pardon, and that he would be merciful, but all, would not do. I was indeed perswaded in my Mind, that he would not take away my Life, and that was the Reason: I made so trifling a Defence upon my Trial.
And now after this long Account, I come to make some Reflections upon myself.
I have despised and made a very ill use of many Mercies I have receiv'd from the Hand of a good and gracious God, who has bestow'd on me more Favours than I have deserved, nor have I had a thankful Sense of such Blessings as I have constantly enjoy'd.
And here I must mention, as an Aggravation of my own Folly, that kind Providence, at my first setting out into the World, upon the Death of my Father, bestow'd on me a comfortable Possession, on which, had I been wise, I might have liv'd comfortably, but I follow'd the Imaginations of my own foollish Heart, and did not hearken to the
*Meaning the Irons with which he was there shackled.
Advice which my best Friends gave me. So I may say with Job, - The Lord gave, and for myself, - I have taken away, and destroyed what the Lord gave, but yet I will add - Blessed be the Name of the Lord.
And in particular, I look upon the Breach of my Marriage Vows made in the Presence of God, to a modest and virtuous Woman, to be so great a Crime, as to deserve the Punishment I am to Suffer, tho’ I was innocent in every other Respect This is a great Grief upon my Spirits, I have been the Occasion of the Reproach which must fall upon my innocent Wife, and my poor Children, nor dare I say, I have not criminally consorted with lewd Women, since my Lot has been cast in England, but must confess - this Vice has brought many Difficulties upon me, and the keeping them Company is the real Cause, to which my last Misery, is owing. ’Twou'd be happy for Mankind, if they could be perswaded to avoid them, as they wou'd the Sight of a venemous Serpent or Basilisk, for all that are fond or them must go on (as I did) to inevitable Destruction I and Misery. And it would be some Mitigation of my Misery, if every one, - young and old, would take Warning by me, and would be thankful for the Mercies and Goodness of God to them instead of provoking to Anger the High and Holy One, and putting a Stop (by their reiterated Crimes) to the Blessings which they enjoy, out of his abundant Goodness, who alone is able to support under, and extricate out of every Difficulty, to which Men are liable. Every Man's Eyes will be open'd some Time or other! What would I give could I recall my mispent Life! I am soon to appear before an Omniscient God, who will call me to Account, for all my Works done in the Body! What Account can I give! Many have been the Counsels and Exhortations which I have had! Many have been the Calls of his Ministers to come and accept of the Offers of Grace and Mercy! But I have rejected them, I have despised Instruction, and hated Reproof! I have profaned God's Holy Day, and have turned my Back upon many Invitations to that holy Ordinance, instituted by Christ himself for Believers, in Commemoration of his dying Love to and sufferings for Mankind. I may now justly fear he will laugh at my Calamity and mock now my Fears are come upon me. I have hem like the deaf Adder, and have not listined to the Voice of the Chamer, tho’ he charmed, ever so sweetly. For this Reason God has with-held his tender Mercies from me, and shut up his loving Kindness in Displeasure. To this Cause I must impute the falling of this just Judgment upon me.
And I would advise all Persons who are, or may be in the Station I have been, to watch, and pray to God, that the Charge committed to them, be not a Means of their falling into Temptation, and to consider that they have another Master in Heaven, the observance of whose all searching Eyes, their most secret Frauds can't escape, and who will most assuredly demand of them a strict Account of their Stewardships, when they can be no longer Stewards, and who will not suffer them to escape his righteous Judgment. James Gardiner P.S.
Poor Gardiner, I AM very sorry to acquaint you with the melancholly News concerning the Success of our Endeavours, to save your Life. We had all some Hopes of obtaining a Reprieve for you Yesterday, but to Day L - C – E dined here, and said Mr. M – had been to L – H – and D – N – with your Petition, but no Favour will be extended to any Man who has robb’d his Master, or betrayed the Trust reposed in him. We have done all that was possible, and are much concerned that we think it incumbent upon us to advise you to prepare for Death, and to make your Peace with God, before you go hence and be seen no more. You have but little Time before you, so be earnest with that God, before whom you are soon to appear, If it will not be inconvenient, I will call and take my last Leave of You To-morrow in the Forenoon. I am, &c C - M - Gardiner’s Answer.
SIR, I AM sensible of your Goodness, to me, during the Time of my Confinement, and likewise in applying all the Interest that lay in your Power for me I interest it, as the greatest Favour from you, the only Friend I have had in my Affliction, that you would return my beaty Thanks to -, who has been so good as to endeavour to get my Liberty I believe you know - , - , and C - M -, thank them for their Application; and I desire my Blessing may be given to my Wife and Children, and my Love to all my Friends, which is all from your old Friend. James Gardiner.
P. S. In our last Account of the Malefactors we were very much straiten’d for Room, and could not insert the following Paper relating to Deant Bryant, who was executed at Tyburn on Wednesday, November 18, for the Murder of his Wife, we shall therefore give it a Place here, as it comes underiably attested to our Hands, from erend Divine, who charitably visited him, Assisited him in his last Moments.
I Came home between the Hours of one and two in the Morning of that faral Day, on which my Wife was murder’d and was let in by her. Words arising between us, I Stabbed her, with the knife was found lying by her, and not with the knife that was found in my Pocket, And to the best of my Knowledge, she did not live above four Minutes after it; for I kiss’d her last Breath, and then left her. As to B – n, I don’t remember that I saw him in the House that Morning I was taken, nor do I know him; and I was surprised when I was carried before a Magistrate that he did not appear, &c. I say not this to clear myself of a Crime which I am guilty of, for what I have here declared is as true as I expect Mercy from God.
As to the Declaration of me Dean Bryan, in the Daily Advertise of Sept. 20, it is possible I might set my Hand to a Paper, not knowing the Contents thereof, I being at that time in a high Fever, and consequently might be light-headed. Those Persons, in my opinion, were not my Friends, who urged me to sign it. But thus much is true, That with Respect to any premeditated Malice, in the Murder of my Wife, or Mrs. D – consenting to it, or being asked by me to poison her Husband, it is altogether false, no such Thing being mention’d between us, But, as to Criminal Conversation with her I leave the World to judge of it, because it is too noturuous to be deny’d And that Paper, (of Sept. 20.) with Respect to other Things, contrary to what is here mention’d, is an Imposition on the Publick.
As to the Character of my Wife, (if any should out of Ill-nature asperse it) she was a most tender, indulgent, virtuous Woman, and had I been ruled by her, with Regard to the latter Part of my Life, I had never come to this unhappy Fate. I hope it will be a Warning to all Men, to beware of Drinking, - lewd Women, - and Passion.