THE ORDINARY of NEWGATE, His ACCOUNT of the Behaviour, Confession, and Dying Words, OF THE MALEFACTORS, Who were Executed at TYBURN, On WEDNESDAY the 19th of JULY.
Number IV. For the said Year.
THE ORDINARY of NEWGATE, His ACCOUNT of the Behaviour, Confession, &c.
AT the King's Commission of Oyer and Terminer, and Goal-Delivery of Newgate, held before the Rt. Hon Sir John Barnard, Knt . Lord-Mayor of the City of London, the Honourable Mr. Justice Probyn, the Honourable Mr. Baron Thompson, the Honourable Mr. Baron Fortescue, the Worshipful Mr. Serjeant Urlin, Deputy Recorder of the said City; and others this Majesty's Justices of Oyer and Terminer for the City of London, and Justices of Goal-Delivery of Newgate, holden for the said City and County of Middlesex, at Justice-Hall in the Old-Bailey, on Thursday, Friday, and Saturday, the 18th, 19th, 20th, of May, 1738. and in the 11th Year of his Majesty's Reign.
As also at the King's Commission of Oyer and Terminer, and Goal-Delivery of Newgate, held before the Rt. Hon. Sir John Barnard, Knt . Lord Mayor of the City of London, the Rt. Hon. the Lord Chief Baron Reynolds, the Hon. Mr. Justice Comyns, the Hon. Mr. Justice Chappel, the Worshipful Mr Serjeant Urlin, Deputy Recorder of the City of London, and others his Majesty's Justices of Oyer and Terminer for the City of London, and Justices of Goal-Delivery of Newgate, holden for the said City and County of Middlesex, at Justice-Hall in the Old-Bailey, on Wednesday, Thursday, and Friday, the 28th, 29th, and 30th of June, and on Saturday the 1st of July.
Ten Men, viz. John Green, William Newington, Isacc George, William Moreland, Jonathan Austin, John Fellows, Godfrey Walker, John Wright, Benjamin Read and George Greenaway, were by the Jury found guilty of Capital Crimes, and received Sentence of Death.
While they were under Sentence, they were instructed in the Duty of confessing their Sins, from these Words, Confess your Faults one to another, Jam. v. 16. and from the Example of Achan, Josh. vii. 19. And Joshua said unto Achan, my
Son give, I pray thee, Glory to the Lord God of Israel, and make Confession unto him, and tell me now what thou hast done, hide it not from me. And Achan answered Joshua and said, indeed I have sinned against the Lord God of Israel, and tus have I done.
From these Texts I show'd them the Necessity of confessing their Sins, 1st, to God, and 2dly, in Case of notorious Offences, we ought to confess our Sins to Man, whom we have in divers Respects injur'd, and this we have confirm'd by the Apostolical Precept, Confess your Faults, i. e your Sins, to one another, and by the Example of Joshua, who commanded Achan the Troubler of the Camp of Israel, to confess his great Crime of transgressing the express Command of God before he died, by the Hand of Justice for his Iniquity; and this Exhortation Achan comply'd with, by which Means he ded with the greater Peace of Mind, as having confest and begg'd Pardon of God and Man, before he went hence, and was no more. 3dly, The Necessity of true confessing our Sins to God and Man is evident, from the good Effects that are consequent thereon; it tends to give us inward Peace of Mind, and is a Token of the Sincerity of our Repentance.
I represented to them the absolute Necessity of turning unto God with all their Hearts, of loving God with the whole Heart, Soul, Strength and Mind, of hating all Sin, especially those Sins which had brought them into so much Shame and Sorrow; and that it was altogether necessary to become holy in Heart and in Life, in Soul, in Body, and in Spirit, Since without Holiness no Man can see the Lord, Heb. xii. 14.
They were inform'd, that whatever Duties they perform'd, they were all to be done with our Eyes fixed upon Christ, in whom alone God is well pleased, in whom all the Promises of God are yea, and in him, Amen, unto the Glory of God by us. 2 Cor. i. 20.
Godfrey Walker having been Convicted of Murder, I exposed to him the heinousness of this the greatest of all Sins, and represented to him, that it was an Affront and Indignity done to the Sovereign Majesty and Authority of Heaven, a Breach of that brotherly Love and Charity which God hath naturally implanted in our Breasts towards one another, and a perverting and over-turning all the Laws of Society and Friendship. This I illustrated by the dismal Consequences of this Sin in Cain, the first Murderer; David, who in other Respects, was a good, religious Man, Manasseh King of Judah, &c. I insisted upon the Aggravations of his Crime in particular, he having murther'd a Man, his Neighbour and Acquaintance, with whom he had no Difference, and one who had not offended him: All this he own'd, and expressed the greatest Grief and Sorrow for his Crime, promising by God's Grace, to double his Diligence in working out his Soul's Salvation, &c.
I exposed to them their great Sin of revolting from God, and how necessary it was to renew their Baptismal Vows, by participating in the Sacrament of the Lord's Supper, wherein Christ's Death and Sufferings are represented to us in a lively, significant, and familiar Manner, &c.
While under Sentence, they all attended in Chappel, and behav'd decently and attentively, at Prayers and Ex
hortations, but not with that Seriousness and feeling Sense, becoming Persons in their most lamentable Circumstances. William Wall most of the Time was afflicted with Sickness, and a Lameness in his Legs, but when he had any tolerable Measure of Health, he constantly attended in Chappel, and behav'd christianly and devoutly. Isaac George, the Blackamoor , was most of the Time ill, but he behav'd always with a deal of Submission and Resignation, and cry'd incessantly unto God and to Jesus Christ, to have Mercy upon him, and to receive his Soul. He was very poor and miserable, and had no Friend to assist or relieve him.
Upon Thursday, the 13th of this Inst. July, the Report was made to his Majesty in Council, of the fifteen Malefactors under Sentence of Death in the Cells of Newgate, when Thomas Cross, for forging a Note of 75 l. Portugal Money, to defraud Benjamin Hoare and Company of the said Sum, was reprieved till such Time as the twelve Judges argued the special Verdict upon Richard Car, indicted and try'd for the same Crime; William Eady, for assaulting Samuel Lewis on the King's Highway, putting him in Fear, taking from him an Iron Key, value 1 d. a Nutmeg, value 1 d. a Copper Ticket for the King's private Road, value 1 d. three Copper Medals, value 2 d. two Pieces of Silver Coin, value 2 s. 10 d. five Guineas and an half, and 13 s. 1 d. in Money, August 27, 1736; and for assaulting Thomas Bullmore on the King's Highway, putting him in Fear, and taking from him a Silver Watch and Chain, value 50 s. a Steel Seal, value 6 d. and 16 s. in Money, Aug. 26, 1736.
John Wright, for that he being a Person of an evil Disposition, and the Laws of this Realm not regarding, after the first of June, 1723, viz. on the 13th of June last, knowingly, unlawfully, and feloniously did send a certain Letter in writing, without Name or Date, directed to William Dolley, demanding the Sum of 30 l. and containing divers Threats of Life, and burning the House of the said Dolley, if the said Money should not be paid, according to the Directions of the said Letter, to the great Damage of the said Dolley, against the Form of the Statute, to the evil Example of others, and against the Peace, &c.
Godfrey Walker, of St. Luke's, Middlesex, for that he not having God before his Eyes, &c. on the 25th of May, on John Pike, feloniously did make an Assault, and with a certain Hatchet made of Steel, value 6 d. and which he held in both his Hands, upon the fore Part of the Head of the said Pike, feloniously did strike, giving him a mortal Wound and Bruise, of which from the said 25th of May to the 11th of June, he languished, and languishing lived, and then died: He was charged also by the Coroner's Inquest for the said Murder; these receiv'd his Majesty's most gracious Reprieve.
The remaining Ten, viz. William Wall, John Wisdell, Joseph Hodsdon, William Newington, Isaac George, William Moreland, Jonathan Austin, John Fellows, Benjamin Read and George Greenaway, were appointed for Execution.
bow'd Scissars, value 5 s. a Silver Spatula, value 4 s. a Silver Probe, value 6 d. a Steel crooked Needle, value 1 d. a Fish-skin Case with Silver Hinges and Clasps, value 10 s. 6 d. three Lancets, with Tortoiseshel Scales, value 3 s. a Gum Lancet, value 1 s. a black Shagreen Case, value 5 s. a Silver Seal, value 2 s. 6 d and Seven-pence in Money, April 30.
1. Isaac George, 22 Years of Age, born in New-England; his Father was a Native of Guinea, and his Mother a Mulatto. He had been taught to read and write, and had been received into the Church by the Sacrament of Baptism. He never had been put to any Trade, but went to Sea, and being an able Sailor , was constantly employed in Sea-Business, having made eight or ten Voyages between New England and London. He said he had never wronged any Body of a Farthing till of late: For being taken ill in London, he was put into the Hospital, and when he was discharged, he got into a Service at Stepney, where wanting Money, he associated with some loose, disorderly young People of that Place, who advised him to these unlawful Courses, and he had not Power to resist their Solicitations, but too readily complied. At first he denied his knowing any Thing of the Robbery of Mr. Grovener, either directly or indirectly, I pressed upon him to glorify God by confessing his Crime, shewing the great Sin of continuing obstinate, that it was adding of Sin to Sin, and would certainly aggravate his Condemnation in the great Day of the Lord; but he could not be persuaded by any Means to an ingenuous Confession, till such Time as the Dead Warrant came down; he was then sick in the Cell, and in a miserable Condition; I went to visit him, desiring him for the good of his Soul to confess his Crime; he then finding there was no Hope of Respite, freely owned his Robbing of Mr. Grovener of the Things mentioned in the Indictment, and likewise treating the Gentleman in a barbarous Manner, as sworn against him, that there was only one Partner in Company, who made his Escape, and was not apprehended. He was not willing to confess any other Robbery. He was attentive to Prayers, cry'd constantly to God to have Mercy upon him, and to receive his Soul for Christ's Sake. He appeared not to have been so wicked as most of these Wretches are. He declared his Belief in Christ, as the Son of God, and only Saviour of Sinners; that he repented of all the Sins of his Life, and died in Peace with all the World.
2. William Wall, 24 Years of Age, born in Gloucestershire, of honest Parents, who gave him indifferent Education. He was not put to any Trade, but his Father being a Farmer , he did his Business, and liv'd for some Time with his Parents, who let him want for no Encouragement they could give him, and while he was with them he behaved honestly: But going to a Fair at Bristol, he met with Company, who informed him of a Gentleman who wanted a Servant ; he hired him for a Footman to him, and served him for some Time; but while he continu'd in this Service, the Gentleman was robb'd of a considerable Sum of Money, and tho' he had a strong Suspicion that his Man Wall was concern'd in the Robbery, yet being of an easy Temper, he only discharg'd him from his Service.
After this, he hir'd himself to a Doctor of Physick at Bristol, who likewise losing a large Parcel of Guineas, while this Man liv'd with him, he was again suspected, and turn'd out of this Service. Since his Condemnation, a Gentleman desired me by Letter, to question him, concerning this last-mention'd Fact. I did so, and the Prisoner absolutely deny'd his ever having wronged the Doctor of a Farthing, telling me, he had been half a Year out of his Service before they had any Suspicion of him, and upon the Words of a dying Man, as he was to answer to God, he declar'd that he knew nothing of that Affair directly or indirectly. From Bristol he came to London, and serv'd in five or six Places here, and at the other End of the Town, and (as he affirm'd) behav'd honestly, and injur'd no Man. The last Gentleman he serv'd was Mr. Lane, in Covent Garden, whom he robb'd, while he was abroad, of 39 Guineas. Having got Possession of this Money, he knew not what to do with it, but hir'd a Coach, drove through the Town like a Mad-man, bought a Gold Watch for 13 or 14 Guineas, drank the rest of the Day with a Soldier and the Coachman, and towards Night (being drunk) the Coachman set him down at an Alehouse near his Master's, and thither immediately came in a Fellow-Servant of his, who caus'd him to be taken up, and carry'd before Colonel Deveil; he confess'd nothing that Night, though some of the Money was found upon him, particularly a Guinea in one of his Shoes; but next Morning being call'd before the Justice, for Re-examination, he own'd every Thing, that as his Master was abroad, he broke his Escrutore, took out the 39 Guineas mention'd in the Indictment, went through the Town in a Hackney-Coach, and spent the preceeding Day in drinking at se
veral Alehouses with the Coachman and a Soldier, who appear'd in Evidence against him: Then he directed his Master to find the Gold Watch and 13 Guineas which he had hid under some loose Bricks in a Necessary-House, where they were accordingly found; so that Mr. Lane recover'd almost his whole Money, and he foolishly lost his Life for the Pleasure of one Day. A great Part of the Time of his Confinement he was sick, and lame in his Legs and Feet, but whenever he was able to move, he came constantly to Chapel, and seemed devout and serious. He was not so harden'd as many of these wretched Creatures are. He believ'd in Christ, repented of his Sins, and forgave all Men, as he expected Forgiveness from God.
John Wisdell, and John Temple, were indicted for assaulting James Little in a certain Field and open Place called Constitution-Hill, putting him in fear, &c. and taking from him a Silver Watch, value 40 s. a Guinea and 24 s. in Money, Jan. 2. Wisdell found guilty. Death. And John Temple acquitted.
3. John Wisdell, 22 Years of Age, born in Leicestershire, his Father was a Miller , and having a large Family, and being but in indifferent Circumstances, he could give his Children but little or no Education. The Prisoner was not put to any Trade, but follow'd his Father's Business, and served in several Places both in Country and Town, maintaining for some time a good Character. About three Years ago he listed himself a Soldier in the first Regiment of Guards, and behaved indifferently, like too many in that Station, till getting acquainted with one Wheatley, they agreed to turn out on the Highway. And the first notable Fact they committed was last Year upon a Laundress in his Majesty's Palace of Kensington; he with Wheatly and two others took up one of the trees new planted, and carried it to the Window of the Apartment of the said Laundress, by which he got in at the Window and handed out a great quantity of wet Linnen to his Companions, which they pawn'd and dispos'd of.
Wisdell last Sessions was cast, on this Account, for Transportation; but the Robbery of Mr. Little upon Constitution-Hill being sworn upon him, he was detained in Jail, and being tried for it, was found guilty. He acknowledg'd his being principally concern'd in this Robbery, and that he used the Gentleman very ill, he himself having proposed to murder him, after they had robbed him. He alledged that he was honest in the preceeding part of his Life, and was not willing to own the Commission of any other Facts, but in general, that he had been a most debauched youth, and had kept company with lewd women, who brought him to destruction; tho' he had a Young Wife and Child who came sometimes to visit him He was very negligent of his Duty to God, and vastly ignorant of the principles of Religion, being very stupid, and but of an indifferent Capacity. He always behaved well, attended constantly in Chapel, complied with Prayers, and was attentive to Instructions. He declared his Faith in Christ our Saviour; that he was truly penitent for his past scandalous and vicious Life; and died in Peace with all the World.
Joseph Hodson, was indicted for privately stealing from the Person of John Pye, June 23, a promissory Note, No H. 229. and subscribed Daniel Race, on Behalf of the Governor and Company of the Bank of England, bearing Date, June the 2d, Value 500 l. By which Note the said Daniel Race, on Behalf of the said Governor and Company, did promise to pay to Nat. Bracey and Company, the Sum of 500 l. the Property of John Pye, the said Sum of 500 l being then unpaid and unsatisfy'd to the said John Pye.
4. Joseph Hodson, alias Johnson, (his true Name) 45 Years of Age, born of honest Parents in London, who gave him an Education to fit him for Business, and as to Religion,-that he least minded. He never was put to any Trade or Business, but pretended to be a Dutch Trader; but his Business, by which he maintain'd himself and his Wives, was by private Robberies and artful Cheating. For this Purpose he dress'd well, and used to frequent Guildhall, the Royal Exchange, Westminster hall, Masquerades, Assemblies and Installations. Wherever there was any Confluence of fashionable People, he was sure to be present. He was an intimate Acquaintance of the late Jonathan Wild's, and the Pretence of his being a Holland Trader arose from his being employed by him to carry over his ill-gotten Goods to Holland. He refused to acknowledge any thing relating to the robbing of Mr. Pye of his Pocketbook, tho' the 500 l. Note was found upon him. He was utterly averse to the making any Confession of the Sins of his Life; yet behaved always with abundance of Civility and Modesty, attended constantly in Chapel, and appeared to be very devout and serious in Prayer, and attentive to Exhortations. His Wife, (or one he call'd so) daily visited him; but few Strangers came to see him, excepting one or two Persons of very bad Fame. A Gentleman came once to see him, who told
me that he was his School-Fellow, and that the Prisoner, when a Boy, was always employed in picking Pockets, which I find hath been his main Trade ever since. This Gentleman, when he was going up to Chapel, spoke kindly to him, but Hodson was not willing to take him by the Hand, would scarce speak three Words to him, and in order to shun him, hurried up Stairs to Chapel. He declared his Faith in Christ; that he repented of his Sins; and forgave all Men as he expected Forgiveness of God.
William Moreland, and John Fellows, were indicted for stealing four Cloth Coach-Cushions, filled with Feathers, the Goods of Temple Stinton, in the Parish of St. Botolph Bishopsgate, May 26. Both Guilty
William Moreland, and John Fellows, were a second Time indicted with Jonathan Austin, of Christ Church, Spittlefields, for assaulting David Nix, in a certain Alley, called Smock-Alley, near the King's Highway, putting him in fear, and taking from him a Hat val. 7 s. May 23.
5. William Moreland, 27 Years of Age, born of honest Parents, in Spittlefields, who gave him an Education to fit him for Business, and instructed him in the Principles of Christianity. His Father intended him for his own Business of a Barber and Perriwig-Maker , but he was too soon attach'd to the worst of Company, both of Men and Women; and tho' he was young when he suffer'd, yet about eight Years ago he was Prisoner in Newgate, and was try'd for a Crime and acquitted. He has often been in Bridewell, and has receiv'd the Discipline of the House, yet could not be reclaim'd. About two or three Years ago, he married a Wife, who has the good Fortune to have no Children by him alive; she was ashamed to come near him, and his own Parents are broken hearted on his Account. At first he pretended to have committed no more Robberies, but the two he was this Sessions convicted of, and that the Evidence against him persuaded him to these courses: But when he saw, after the Report was made, that there was no farther Expectation of Life, he owned, with Tears in his Eyes, himself to have been an obstinate wicked Wretch, that he had been a Thief from a Child, and a Street-Robber ever since he was able to assist in these desperate Attempts; that he was guilty of all the Vices common to these abandoned Wretches, such as keeping bad Company, Drinking, Swearing, &c. As to assaulting and robbing of David Nix of his Hat in Smock-Alley, Spittlefields, he acknowledged he and the Evidence were the principal Persons concern'd in that Fact, the other two having been entirely under their Direction. He said he had committed a vast number of Street Robberies, and innumerable petty Thefts, in this Way acknowledging that he had maintain'd himself a great while. He behaved well, and professed Penitence, but was not duly affected with his deplorable Circumstances, yet he hop'd for Salvation thro' the Mercy of God in Christ, and dy'd in Peace with all the World.
6. John Fellows, 15 Years and 3 Months of Age, born in Town of mean Parents, who could give him but little Education at School, and took as little Care of him with Regard to Religion. When he was 7 or 8 Years old, his Father put him to a Weaver to be employ'd in what he was capable of, but he soon got a Habit of loitering away his Time in Gardens, and Skittle Grounds. After this he drove Coaches for his Father and others, but his ill Conduct made his Father disown him, and then getting acquainted with Moreland and Miller, he engag'd to go out with them. Five Robberies he was concern'd in Bishopsgate within, and two other Robberies in Spittle-fields, for the last of which he died. Besides these 7 Robberies he own'd he had committed innumerable petty Thefts, and as Occasion offer'd. He was a very wicked profligate Wretch, and had scarce ever been in a Church; he was very ignorant of Religion, in which I endeavour'd to instruct him. A great part of the Time he was under Sentence, he was very sick, but when he recover'd, he attended constantly in Chappel, and was attentive to Prayers and Exhortations, behaving well, and seemed penitent for his many and great Sins. He professed his Faith in Christ, that he sincerely repented of his Sins, and died in Peace with all the World.
7. Jonathan Austin, 18 Years of Age and one Month, born of honest Parents in White-Chappel, his Father was employ'd in turning a Throwster's Mill, and some few Years ago, came to an unfortunate publick Death. The Prisoner's Mother settled him in a Charity School, where he was taught to Read, Write, and cast Accompts, and was carefully instructed in the Principles of our holy Christian Faith. When of Age he was put to a Brocade Weaver , in Spittle-fields, but too often neglected his Master's Business, and at last falling out with his Mistress, who reprov'd him for some Fault, he suddenly left his Service, and associated with Moreland, Miller, and their Gang, on the Saturday before last Whitsuntide. He was initiated into their Society at an Ale-house, where
having drank liberally, they agreed to go out and attack the first Man they met with, who happen'd to be David Nix; Austin snatch'd off his Hat, but he seiz'd him, and cry'd out, Thieves, Robbers, &c. upon which the rest took to their Heels, but Austin was held fast till he was carried before the Justice, who committed him. Miller the Evidence, 3 or 4 Days after this, being taken up for another Robbery, inform'd against the rest, and they were convicted of the Robbery; but Miller declar'd he would not have put Austin into his Information, if he had not confessed the Fact before Justice Booth. His Master and some others gave him a good Character, and he declar'd that this was the first Crime he ever committed. He behav'd well, and professed Penitence, but was not so deeply affected with his miserable Circumstances as he ought to have been. He entertained Hopes of Salvation thro' the Mercy of God in Christ, and forgave all Men, as he expected Forgiveness of God.
Benjamin Read, of St. Mary White Chappel, was indicted for breaking and entering the Dwelling-house of John Chettle, between 2 and 3 in the Morning, and stealing 3 Linnen Shirts, value 8 s. and a Linnen Table-Cloth, value 2 s. the Goods of Martha Lawton, May 30.
8. Benjamin Read, 28 Years of Age, born of honest mean Parents at Poplar, his Father was a Sea-faring Man, and left him young when he died, the Mother marry'd another Husband, and put him out Apprentice to a Captain of a Vessel . When his Time was out, he went Abroad in Merchant's Ships; but his Employment lately has been in his Majesty's Ships of War, and at different Times had been in the West-Indies, at Gibraltar, Port-Mahon, and several other Places, at the Time he was taken up for the Burglary he died for, he belonged to a Man of War, and was in a Day or two to have gone to his Ship at Portsmouth, had he not been prevented by this fatal Adventure. While he was at Home, his chief Pleasure was in the worst of Company, and this hurry'd him apace to his Destruction; he had married a Woman, who had been tried and acquitted for a Fact of the same Nature with which he suffer'd. He own'd his Guilt, and that his Share of the Prize came only to 2 s. 3 d. which was shar'd the Day following. He acknowledged himself to have been a most profligate, abandoned, and irreclamable Youth; and that 2 Years ago he was admitted an Evidence to convict others, and then was set at Liberty. He own'd he had committed all kinds of Thefts, had broke many Houses, and had been guilty of a great many Street-Robberies. He professed Penitence, cry'd, and seem'd discontented with his Fate, but 'tis to be fear'd, he was not so sincere in his Repentance as he should have been, tho' he pretended to make very strong Resolutions of new Obedience, in case his Life had been saved He could not read, and was very ignorant, but acquired what Knowledge the shortness of the Time allowed. He declared that he hoped for Salvation by the Mercy of God in Christ, that he was penitent for a profligate Life, and that he forgave all the World, as he expected Forgiveness of God.
9 George Grinway, alias Greenaway, 28 or 29 Years of Age, of honest reputable Parents at Reading in Berkshire, who gave him a very good Education, and design'd him for the University, but George was of too roving a Disposition for a sedate Life, and therefore chose his Father's Business of a Bargeman , and for some Time he was employ'd in his Father's Barge, between Reading and London. After this he resolv'd to go to Sea, and for that End studied Navigation, Astronomy, and what other Sciences were necessary to accomplish him for a Mariner , and he accordingly went several Voyages, and was commonly employ'd as Mate. He for some Time follow'd the West-India Trade, and had been often at Antigua. At other Times he traded at Leghorn, Ancona, Loretto, and many other Places in the Mediterranean. In this Way he might have succeeded very well had not he constantly spent when he came Home, all the Money he had got Abroad in bad Company, altho' he has a Wife at Newbury still living, yet he was always better pleased with Women of the Town, who, as he confessed with Sighs, and Tears in his Eyes, had brought him to a speedy Ruin. He was Heir to a considerable Estate of some Hundreds per Ann. and had several rich Relations, Men of Credit, both in Town and Country, but his vicious Disposition and indirect Practices, cut him suddenly off from all Hopes of what Advantages he might have obtained on this Side the Grave. He was a Man of tollerable good Sense, and not entirely ignorant of Religion, and his great Misfortune was, that his
Course of Life was no ways answerable to his Knowledge. He confest that he was guilty of committing very many Robberies on the Highway, mostly on Horseback, but sometimes he robb'd on Foot, and when he wanted a Horse, he generally stole one out of the first Field or Stable he came to, to enable him the better to persue his unlawful Designs. For some Years past, by these villainous Means, he supported himself and his Women, in all their Extravagancies, and for a long Time past, was suspected for a Highwayman all over the Country, but was so well acquainted with the Roads, that he always escaped. But Parson Goodwin whom he robb'd on Hounslow-Heath, was a Gentleman so well belov'd in the Country, that some Men immediately went upon the Search, and found him out at the Half-Moon, a little Alhouse, in the Parish of Bellfount in Middlesex. The Parson, tho' in his Conscience he believ'd him to be the Man, yet did not directly swear to him, but his Servant swore positively to his Face, which, with other Circumstances, convicted him. This Robbery he own'd, and that he took what Money was charg'd in the Indictment from him, as also the Horse, Saddle and Bridle, from Jude Storer, which were found upon him: He confest his Sentence was just, and according to Law, and that he deserv'd his Punishment for many other Crimes unknown to the World. He behav'd very well while under Sentence, and professed a deep Penitence for the many Wickednesses of his Life. Sometime before he was taken up, he was so abandoned, that his Relations knew nothing of him, neither did they desire to hear of him. After the Dead Warrant came down, he refused to eat, nor could he be perswaded to take one Morsel of any kind of Food, by which Means he brought himself into a very weak and languishing Condition, and continu'd so for some Days before he dy'd, in an almost delirious Condition. While he had his Senses, he professed his Confidence in the Mercy of God, thro' the Merits of Jesus Christ, that he sincerely repented of the manifold scandalous and crying Sins of his Life, and that he forgave all Men, as he expected Forgiveness of God.
William Newington of London, Gent . was indicted for falsely, making and forging, and causing to be made and forg'd, in the Name of Tho. Hill, a Paper-writing, purporting in itself, an Order for the Payment of 120 l. which Order is contained in the Words and Abbreviations following, viz.
SIR, Your Humble Servant,
The Indictment farther charged the Prisoner with assisting in making and forging the said Order, June 27.
And likewise with uttering and publishing the said Note, knowing it to be false, forged and counterfeit, June 27.
10. William Newington, 21 Years of Age, of honest, reputable Parents in the County of Sussex, nigh to the City of Chichester, who gave him a genteel Education, such as is proper for a Gentleman ; nor was he ignorant of the Principles of the Christian Religion. His Friends some Time ago sent him to London, and put him to an eminent Attorney at Law, to whom he served as Clerk for some Time, and then was discharged with Credit and Approbation. Then he agreed with another eminent Attorney at Law, to serve him as his Clerk, and liv'd with him for two Years past, and during that Time also he preserv'd an untainted Character, having done Business for many Gentlemen, and was never suspected of Dishonesty; one Gentleman in particular had entrusted him in an Affair of 9000 l. and he discharged his Trust very honestly. He was in a short Time to have practised for himself, having a large Acquaintance with People of Honour and Substance; but his Resolutions this Way, were frustrated, by the wicked Project, which on a sudden enter'd into his Head, and which he as immediately executed; for as it was observed in the daily Papers, on Tuesday, the 27th of June, he writ and forged the Note, and was apprehended; on Wednesday he was committed to the Compter, on Thursday a Bill of Indictment was found against him by the Grand-Jury at Hicks's-Hall, on Friday he was indicted, try'd and capitally convicted at the Old-Bailey, and on Saturday he was condemned to die. A most fatal Week's Work to Mr. Newington! He had been look'd upon as an honest Youth, and was esteem'd as
such by all his Acquaintance, and wanted not Money for necessary Uses; the Reason he gave for his committing this unreasonable and wicked Action, was, that the Devil prompted him to it, he having forged the Paper, and sent the Porter with it for the Money, all in the Compass of two Hours Time. He said, he had never been guilty of the least Dishonesty in any Respect before, and that it was his first and last Crime (as he solemnly declared) that he ever committed. He was a Youth not addicted to the Vices frequent among these unhappy Creatures.
He did not trouble his Friends for a Bed, because he imagin'd his Continuance in the Cells would be but short, therefore he took a Part of Mr. Greenaway's, who was pretty well provided; but Greenaway falling sick, a few Days before they died, Newington was put in a Cell by himself; and as I visited Mr. Greenaway, I found It written upon the Side of the Wall with his own Hand,
By my Example learn to shun my Fate,
How wretched is the Man who is wise too late.
He always behaved well, and in a Christian Manner, under his Misfortune, attended constantly in Chappel, complied devoutly with Prayers, and was attentive to Instructions, and sometimes he wept over his most unhappy Fate.
He declared his firm Belief in the Christian Faith, and Hope of Salvation through the Merits of Jesus Christ; that he sincerely repented for all his Sins, particularly the great one he died for; and died in Peace with all Mankind.
At the PLACE of EXECUTION.
ABOUT Nine o'Clock they were brought out of Newgate, and convey'd to Tyburn in three Carts, viz. Moreland, Austin, and Fellows in one Cart; they three being concern'd in Robbing one Nix of his Hat, and some Money in the Street: Read, Wall, and George, (the Black ) in the second Cart. Wasdill, Greenaway, and Mr. Newington, in the third Cart. Mr. Johnson, otherwise Hodgson, went in a Mourning Coach, attended by the Rev. Mr. Broughton. When they came to the Place of Execution, they were all put into one Cart, but Johnson was some Time before his Coach could come up. They all appear'd very serious, being desirous of Prayers and singing of Psalms. Mr. Hodgson, otherwise Johnson, continu'd in his obstinate and sullen Temper, and would not speak any Thing relating to the Fact he suffer'd for, whether he did it or not; but that he was concer'd in the Robbery is not to be doubted, since his Wife (some Time before the Report was made to his Majesty) returned all the rest of the Notes, which Mr. Pye lost. Mr. Newington, when he came to the Place of Execution, was very much shock'd and terrify'd; but recovering himself, he express'd a strong Confidence of the Mercy of God in Christ Jesus, and that he willingly left this World for a Better. William Wall was very much displeas'd at his being ask'd about Robbing his late Master Doctor Logan at Bristol, and only said, he would say no more upon the Subject; so that it is probable he did commit the Robbery, else he would declare to the contrary. All of them adher'd to their former Confessions, and went off the Stage, cry-to God to have Mercy upon their Souls for Christ's Sake.
This is all the Account given by me,
THE Case of this unhappy Person being very uncommon, and entirely different from that of the many Criminals, who are the usual Subject of these Papers, we thought it might not be amiss to give the World what Account we have been able to get, with Relation to him in particular.
He was born of Parents, who profess'd themselves Quakers; and at a proper Age, was put to
a Shoe maker , by which Business he has hitherto maintain'd himself. From a Child, he was uncommonly serious, and not a little inclin'd to Melancholy. When he arriv'd at some Degree of Maturity of Judgment, he set himself to a careful Reading the Scriptures, especially the New Testament, and soon became dissatisfy'd with the Tenets of the Religion he was brought up in the Profession of. He was convinced of the absolute Necessity of Baptism, and the Obligation he was under (from the Command of Christ) to commemorate his Sufferings and dying Love to Mankind, in the Institution of the Sacrament of the Lord's Supper. These Convictions led him to associate himself with some rigid Predestinarians, whose uncomfortable Notions relating to the absolute Decrees of God, Election and Reprobation, he greedily imbibed, as they were suited to his gloomy, melancholy Temper.
Among these mistaken People he settled, and after some Continuance with them, he was baptized, and receiv'd the Sacrament. And now being convinced of the Truth of the Doctrine of Election and eternal Reprobation, such Scruples as must necessarily arise from thence, in the Mind of every considerate Person, began to fill his already too gloomy Mind with Horror and Perplexity. Tho' he never was guilty of any gross Enormities, but on the contrary, had liv'd a sober, inoffensive Life, yet he could not help thinking himself too great a Sinner to be one of the happy Number whom God had fore ordain'd and elected to eternal Happiness. Upon this, tormenting Reflections wrack'd his Soul, such Reflections as naturally follow the Belief of this Doctrine, so uncomfortable to the poor Creatures of God, and so unworthy of him. He revolv'd in his Mind his many Failings in his Duty, which confirm'd him in his Opinion that he was a Cast-away; and being throughly persuaded of it, he thought it would be to no Purpose to aim at pleasing God, and that all his Endeavours to serve him, and secure his own Happiness, would be to no Purpose; nor would they be accepted by the supreme Being, from one, whom he had (from all Eternity) devoted to Destruction. That therefore it would be as well for him, to throw off all Regard to Religion and Duty, since his utmost Care, and his most conscientious Behaviour, could not reverse God's eternal Decree concerning him. And among his Friends he has often express'd himself to this Purpose; but possess'd with a Dread, and Fear of offending his Maker, he never broke out into any open Commission of Wickedness.
For some Time he bore the Burden of Life, under these continual Terrors of Mind, 'till weary of the Load, and even wishing to know the worst of his design'd Portion, he was tempted to lay violent Hands upon himself, and under the Force of this Temptation he made several Attempts to destroy himself; in some of which he was prevented by others, and in some, by the Dictates of his own Conscience, which represented to him the Heinousness of this Crime. But the Uneasiness of his Mind still increasing, a Life being grown insupportable, yet not daring to destroy Life with his own Hands, he meditated, and put in Execution, the Project relating to Mr. * Rawlinson's House, not with any Design that it should take Effect, or with any Intention to prejudice him, but that, by attempting the Thing, he might be rid of his Life by the Hands of another. For this Fact he was try'd, and the Jury taking the Depositions of the Witnesses who appear'd for for him, and his Confession before the Magistrate who committed him, into Consideration, they acquitted him.
Upon his Discharge, his Friends endeavour'd to bring him to a more easy State, and to reason him into some Degree of Contentment; but as they were all of them in the same Way of thinking, with Respect to these Doctrines, they were very improper Persons to remove his truly unsurmountable Scruples, and all their Advice was but like preaching Patience and Resignation to a Man doom'd to languish in the burning Agonies of a continual Fever.
However, he wore away the Time, till now, more weary of Life, he resolved to do the Thing effectually, and for that Purpose wrote the Letter to Mr. Dolley, and himself was the Bearer. And tho' Mr. Dolley was not at Home, yet he deliver'd the Letter to his Servant, and without any Compulsion, staid till Mr. Dolley came and seiz'd him; the Consequences of this Action, were Commitment, Trial and Conviction. For the Particulars of which we must refer our Readers to the printed Trial in the last Sessions Book.
See his Trial for that Fact, Sessions Book, No IV. 1737. p. 94.
While he was under Sentence of Death, a sober Clergyman hearing of his melancholy Circumstances, was so kind as to go and talk to him. He asked him, what was the Inducement to his committing this Fact? Wright answer'd, Sir, my Life is, and has been a great while a heavy Burden to me; and upon the Word of a dying Man, I never intended to get any Money by this Design; but the Burden of my Mind, is what I cannot bear, and is it not better to fall by the Hand of another, than to lay violent Hands on one's self? He was asked, what was the Cause that his Life was thus burdensome to him? He answer'd, because he was convinced that he was decreed to be a Vessel of Wrath, in whom God would shew forth his Justice and Vengeance; and to prove this, he mention'd that Text, - He that believeth shall be sav'd; but he that believeth not, is condemn'd already. Why! (says the Minister) do you not believe that Christ came into the World to save Sinners; and that he came to seek and to save that which is lost? Yes, (he reply'd) but that's no Comfort to me; Christ came to save his elected Ones, and to them he is precious; but I, who am ordain'd to Destruction, can receive no Benefit from the Attonement he made by his Death and Sufferings for the Sins of his People. He was immediately asked, what Reason he had to conclude himself predestinated to Damnation? Because (says he) I am taught from the Word of God, that he that is born of God committeth not Sin; and tho' I have not been guilty of gross Sins, yet I am sensible, too sensible that I Sin daily and hourly; and no Thanks to me, that I have not broke out into the Commission of notorious Crimes; 'tis God's Grace, that hath kept me from that, 'tis not owing to any Goodness of mine. It was then represented to him, that this was a State of Imperfection; and that no Man liv'd and sinned not: That the Words he had mention'd, viz. He that is born of God sinneth not, could not be so understood as to imply Perfection, but rather, that a good Man could not live in an indulged Habit of Vice, nor persist in a habitual Course of Wickedness; that his Frailties and Imperfections were his Trouble, and which no meer Man could entirely be freed from, while he liv'd in a World of Sense, and carry'd about him a frail Body. Instance from Scripture were mention'd to him, and many Arguments were made use of to bring him to a better State of Mind, but to little Purpose: After all that was said to him, he sigh'd, and wish'd for David's and Peter's Repentance, and imputed their Acceptance and Recovery, to their Election, which Doctrine he desired might not be touched upon, because he was as throughly assured of the Truth of it, as he was that he had Eyes in his Head.
From hence 'tis no difficult Thing to discover the Source of this unhappy Creatures Troubles: His Mind seems full of Anxiety, and he to labour under such direful Apprehensions, as to make him weary of Life, and even willing to know the worst of his Condition with Regard to Futurity.
" AS I am depriv'd of the Opportunity of seeing you, on the Account of Mrs. Oaden's " ill Treatment to me before the Turnkey and a " numerous Multitude, charging me with things " I know nothing of, which very much increases " my Scandal, and aggravates my Misfortune. " Pray William be so good to me and my innocent " Babe, as to leave me a Letter to justify my Innocence, or I fear I shall be depriv'd of any " Employment to support me and my tender Infant. Pray leave a Copy of what you write to " me in the Hands of your Brother, which I hope " will prevent for the future, those unhappy Reflections I labour under at present,
As your most Affectionate Sorrowful Friend,
" I want Words to express my Concern in " your unhappy Case, for my Grief overcoming " my Reason; and I am at this Time in such " Confusions that I know not what to say or do " without the Assistance of a Friend. I hope the " infinite Mercies of God will extend to you, " that your Miserys may end in this World: Again, I hope you will die in the Favour of " God, and then you will live with God to all " Eternity. These Hopes is some Comfort to " me in my sorrowful Case I am in at present.
July 18th, 1738.
N. B. Pray let me have an Answer by the Bearer waiting at the Door.
" THESE are to certify to whom it may " concern, That Elizabeth Casse never was " no Instigation of bringing me to this shameful " End, for quite on the contrary, she was the " best Friend that ever I had in my Life (excepting my Father.) So that all Reports are " false in any kind whatsoever. So excuse me " my Dear for not writing more. So I remain " your ever loving Husband before God, though " not before Man. And as for Mrs. Oaden, she " is an impudent Slutt. So I desire of my Father not to fetch no more Beer from there. " My Duty to my Father, and kind Love to my " Brother.
Your unfortunate Friend,
WE now come to take Notice of one, whose Character and Way of Life, was directly the Reverse of the former*. The one seems to have disturbed his Head, by dwelling too much upon, and entering too deeply into the Abstrusities of Religion, while the other never concerned himself about any Religion at all.
He was born in, or near the Parish of St. Lawrence Jewry, and was about 42 Years old when he suffer'd. His Father was a Porter, and ply'd about King-street and Guild hall. He was a very personable Man, but one of no other Accomplishments than he acquired in the Streets. For he was not much troubled with Schooling, when he was a Child; nor was any Business provided for him, when he grew up. But his Time was spent, while he was a Youth, in Guildhall Yard, Moor-fields, and Places resorted to by such unhappy, neglected Creatures as himself Here he began to practice upon Pockets, for Handkerchiefs, Snuff boxes, and such trifling things; and by this Means he about 18 Years ago) he Berry, (since Executed) with whom he commenced a strict Friendship; and they both agreed to go upon grandeur Exploits together. After some Intimacy together, they agreed the Kid Lay should be the Business they would follow; and accordingly they were constantly upon the Watch in the Streets, for Porters and Boys with Bundles; Barbers and Taylors Apprentices, carrying Perukes and Cloaths home on Saturday Evenings, whom they would hire to go to the next Tavern, &c. to ask for Mr. What d'ye-call-im, or the Gentleman's Great Coat, while they took Care of the Bundle; and Six-pence extraordinary was never minded, provided the Cull would make haste, and would not let the Gentlemen wait too long with it in the Street, for his Return.
About twenty Years ago, he was clapp'd up in Newgate for biting a Sword upon the Kid Lay, and receiv'd Sentence of Transportation for the Fact. While he lay in Newgate, he got acquainted with an Irishman under the same Sentence, who had got a stolen Bank Note for a good Round Sum. Johnson and this Man went away together in the same Draught, and by Virtue of this Bank Note (which they shew'd the Captain, promising him a Gratification out of it,) they got to New York, where they took Lodgings in a Tavern; and before the Captain left New York, they had run about 80 l. in their Landlord's Debt, for Lodging, Eating, Drinking and Necessaries. Both Landlord and Captain wanted their Money, so Johnson told them, that both he and his Friend were then out of Cash, but if either of them would take the Bank Note, they should both be paid. The Captain happen'd to have the most Money, so he took the Note himself, and deducting his Gratification, and paying the Landlord, he gave Johnson and the Irishman the Overplus.
Soon after the Captain sail'd to Rotterdam, and offering the Bank Note to a Merchant there, who had been advised by his Friend in England of the Loss of this Note, the Captain was question'd about it, was thrown into Jail, 'till he could prove how be came by it. The poor Man was forced to lie in Prison, 'till he got Testimonies from New York, of its having fairly come into his Possession; so after about 6 Months Confinement, he was discharged.
*Not Moreland, but
Soon after their Return from Transportation, they got acquainted with I - ;, A - t, and A - n, and with them Johnson immediately fell upon the Chiving-Lay.* For this Purpose they all equipped themselves like Gentlemen, with lac'd Hats and Swords, and never fail'd appearing at all Public Assemblies, Balls, and even Churches where they exqected a Throng, and while one or two of the Gang stood Bulk, (that is, standing before the Person that was to be robbed) the other would cut a Girdle in two, and draw it off gently; or whip off the Tail of a rich Gown; and to prevent Discovery, would immediately shift it away into the Hands of another, to carry off. Johnson was a Fellow of the utmost Caution, and whatever Diamond Buckles came to his Share, he, to prevent Discovery, always broke to Pieces, and taking out the Diamonds, would sell them by Weight. For this Purpose when he had got a Parcel he used to appoint a certain Jew to meet him at Sarah Fox's † in Newtoner's Lane, and here he used to dispose of most of his Jewels; some few he would now and then sell to Jewellers, and as he always went well dress'd, he always escap'd without Suspicion.
At the Season of the Year when Masquerades and Assemblies were not so frequent, Johnson and his Companions used to travel the Countries, even an 100 Miles from London; those of them that could talk best travell'd as 'Squires, the others in Liveries as their Footmen. It was their Custom always to put up at the best Inn in the Town they visited, and live elegantly for a Fortnight, three Weeks, or a Month (as their Business could be accomplish'd) and by entertaining the Landlord, and People that knew the Country, would discover what Farmers or Country People had Money by them. When they had learn'd this, they would by some Means or other (if it was possible) make themselves and their Equipages be taken Notice of by those they intended to bite, and when that was done, they used to send a Footman (in which Quality Johnson generally assisted on these Occasions) to desire the Country Man or Farmer would let the 'Squire his Master speak with him. When the Farmer came, the 'Squires had always their Tale ready, - " That they were come down to " see an Estate at such a Place, with which they " were so well pleased, that they bargain'd for it, " and were to pay down so much Money; but not " having Cash enough in the Country with them, " except they parted with some old Family Pieces " (which they would not willing dispose of) they " made bold to ask him if he car'd to lend them " such a Sum for a valuable Consideration, and if " he would assure them that the Family Pieces " should be forth-coming upon the Re-payment " of the Money, they should be told over to him " and seal'd up, and they should be deposited in " his Hands for his Security." The Farmers upon the Sight of the Broad Pieces, which were to be lodged with them as a Pledge, generally brought out their Money, upon which one of the Cheats would very carefully seal up the old Gold in a Green Velvet Purse, and with many Desires they might be ready for the 'Squire when he sent for them again, by Dexterity of Hand, another Purse, (which they had ready on these Occasions) made up and seal'd exactly like the other, was palm'd upon the Farmer, with Half-pence and Half-Crowns in it.
By these Means they have boasted they have gotten upwards of 2000 l. among them in a small Compass of Time; and by offering such Pledges as these, and allowing half a Guinea for the Use of a small Sum, till the 'Squires got Home, they have got Money from poor Country People, which has been fetch'd out of Holes in a Chimney behind the Ashes, by Persons, the Smell of whose Dirt and Nastiness has so offended the 'Squires, and even their Footmen, that they have said, they have been all obliged to hold their Noses while they were triking them of their Money.
Thus they would travel the Countries for Months together, and when they had collected what they could, they used to come within 5 or 6 Miles of London, and send for their Wives to come to them, and take the Money, that they might take a fresh Course for more.
In this Manner Johnson lived many Years, and except when he was out upon Business, he always kept himself very close, and was very shy of be
* The Chiving-Lay is to frequent Masquerades, Balls, Assemblies, Installations and Places resorted to by Ladies of Quality, where by the Assistance of the Gang, the Ladies Girdles are cut with a keen Lancet or Penknife, and by drawing them off they often get a rich Buckle, and frequently a Gold Watch, &c.
ing seen. He had a little obscure House on the other Side of the Water, in which he resided, when he was not upon his Projects in the Country, and when he was at Home, he would not suffer his Wife to open even a Casement, lest some Body or other should discover him and his Habitation.
As to the Fact for which he suffer'd, there's Reason to believe that others were concern'd with him in it, one of whom is since dead; but it is evident the Prisoner was the principal Person, because his Wife since his Conviction, has return'd Mr. Pye all the other Notes which were lost with that found upon him. And it is as plain, that he had Associates in the Fact, because when he was taken, they had a Consultation together to bring him off, and it was agreed, that it would not be adviseable for him to deny the Possession of the Note in Question, but rather to set up a Proof that he came by it, as the Captain did by the Bank Note at New-York, and that he was ignorant of its being stolen.
He was an intimate Acquaintance of the late Jonathan Wild; but Jonathan used frequently to complain of his locking * all he got, without consulting him, by which Means Jonathan often lost the Reward proposed to be given, when Watches, Buckles, &c. were advertised.
WAS born at, or near Chichester, in Sussex, where his Mother (a poor Widow) now lives. He was very well brought up, and had all the Education his Parents Circumstances would afford him. When he was fit for Business, he was put as a Clerk to Mr. Cave of Chichester, with whom he liv'd about 6 Years. Then he left Mr. Cave and came to London; where he had not been long, before he was employ'd by Mr. Studley, an eminent and worthy Attorney at Law in Nicholas Lane, Lombard-street, as a Hackney-Writer : In this Business he continu'd about 2 Years and a half; but being naturally of a gay Temper, and inclin'd to Company, (which is always too easy to be had in this City) Mr Studley upon some Dissatisfaction, on Account of Newington's Behaviour, discharged him.
After this he serv'd Mr. Gabriel Leaver, an eminent Scrivener in Friday-street, as a Clerk , and liv'd with him between 2 and 3 Years, and during his Continuance with Mr. Leaver, his Honesty was never call'd in Question. He left this Service about a Twelvemonth ago, since which Time, we have not been able to find that he was fix'd in any settled Business. However, he always appear'd well dress'd, and kept a pretty deal of Company; and if this unhappy Affair had not happen'd, he was to have been marry'd, in a Month or two, to a young Gentlewoman of a very handsome Fortune. 'Tis imagin'd that under these Circumstances, he might be in some Necessity for Money, to support his Gaiety, and carry on his Design. This laid him under a Temptation, by this bold Attempt, to remove all his Difficulties; and for this purpose (he own'd) he drew this Note upon Sir Francis Child in the Name of Mr. Thomas Hill, who he knew kept Cash with this Gentleman; but the Hurry and Confusion of Mind he was in, even while he was writing the Note, occasion'd his forgetting to date his Draught, which was one Cause of its being more narrowly inspected, and discover'd to be counterfeit. His Defence upon his Trial was very trifling and insignificant, and rather confirmed, than removed, the Circumstances of Guilt he appeared under at the Bar; of which he himself seem'd sensible, and therefore rely'd more upon the Character that was given him in Court, by the many reputable Persons who appear'd for that Purpose, than on any Thing he could say in his own Behalf.
When he was brought up (on Saturday) to receive his Sentence, he read the following Lines, from a Paper he had in his Hat; which were tasten from his Mouth, by the Person that took down his Trial.
May it please your Lordship!
" This my most melancholy Case was occasion'd by the alone inconsiderate Rashness of my " unexperienced Years. The Intent of Fraud, " is without Doubt strongly, and most plainly " proved against me But I assure your Lordship, I neither wanted nor abounded, and in " my Life, I never had any Thought tending to " willful Injustice, 'till a few Minutes before the " immediate Execution of this rash Deed. I hope " your Lordship has some Regard for the Gentlemen who have so generously appear'd in myLoking Goods, is selling them outright to Persons who make it their Business to buy and dispose of stolen Goods.
" Behalf; and as this is the first Fact, tho' of so " deep a Dye, my Youth and past Conduct may, " I hope, in some Measure move your Lordship's " Pity, Compassion, and generous Assistance.
After Sentence, he was confined in a Cell; and till the Dead Warrant came down, he had no Belief that he should die; but seem'd pretty confident that the Intercession of his Acquaintance would prove effectual, to the saving his Life; nor was he without Hope even after he knew he was appointed to die. A Gentleman discover'd to him, that he was one of this unhappy Number, on the Evening of the Day the Report was made. He receiv'd the melancholy News with some Emotion, and seem'd at first to be very much shock'd. But recollecting and composing himself, he said, - God's Will be done. And bursting into Tears, he bewail'd the Concern his Mother must feel, when she should hear his Doom; and mourn'd, that she, who had been so tender of him, should live to see him made a Spectacle to the World by such a shameful Death; and that he should be the wicked Occasion of bringing her grey Hairs with Sorrow to the Grave.
When she receiv'd the dreadful Tidings of her Son's wretched Circumstances, she set out from Chichester with a Heart over-whelm'd with Sorrow: And when she arriv'd in London, it was a Week before the Load of Grief she was under, would suffer her to see her unhappy condemned Child. On Saturday the 8th Instant, was their first Interview: And she, upon Sight of her Son in that miserable Condition, with Difficulty was prevented from swooning; while the Son stood, a mournful Spectator of his Mother's Distress. When she had recover'd herself a little, she fell on his Neck - He dropt down on his Knees and threw his Arms round his aged Mother's Neck, imploring her Blessing, and Forgiveness of his Folly, in bringing himself and her to Disgrace. The moving Scene drew Tears from the Eyes of those who were accustom'd to Scenes of Black, Distress and Death. The Evening before his Execution she took her last Leave of him, under all the Distress that a tender Parent must feel, for a beloved and only Child under such direful Circumstances.
Copy of a Letter to --
Most Honoured and worthy Sir,
I Beg you'd excuse this Freedom, but my unhappy Circumstances are such, as oblige me to be thus troublesome, and I do now stand in great Need of your Pity, Compassion, and generous Assistance, in this my most deplorable Case; tho' I confess with Shame, I intended to wrong you, nay, basely to have wrong'd you, and with Pleasure I shall resign myself to Death, to make Attonement for the Injury, which is all the Restitution I am able to make. And from my Soul I do forgive every Person that was any ways accessary to my Prosecution, as I expect Forgiveness from the Great God, and Judge of my Soul, which is now standing on the very Brink of Eternity. Oh! good Sir! Let the Cries and Tears of my Mother, an almost distracted Widow, prevail on you to grant me your Assistance; she is inconsolable, and so overwhelm'd with Grief, that she cannot see me, nor hath not been with me, tho' she has been in Town this Week past. I am so unfortunate as to be included in the Dead Warrant, and am order'd for Execution on Wednesday next; therefore I humbly hope you will lend me your Assistance in this my great Extremity, that my Execution may be respired for a little Time, and that I may not be hurry'd out of the World, into an awful Eternity, in so short a Time, to the immediate Destruction both of my Soul and Body. I have not Sir, been in Prison but little more than a Fortnight, and what a Hardship it is that I, in the Prime of my Years, should be so suddenly taken out of the World, by a shameful and ignominous Death, with all my Load of Sins about me unrepented of, to the eternal Destruction both of my Soul and Body, to the Disgrace of my Family, and the Dishonour of my Friends, and my Country, only for writing a Line or two, and no Body has been injur'd by it, tho' I must acknowledge my Intention was to have done it, and therefore in the Eye of the Law my Crime is the same. But as it was my first Fact, tho' my Offence is of so deep a dye, yet I hope my tender Years may move your Pity. I assure your Honour, that I never in my Life was guilty either by Word or Action, of injuring any Man, till the immediate Execution of this rash Deed; and for which I am willing to suffer, in Case I may have a little more Time to make my Intercession to God, for the Forgiveness of my Sins, as I freely forgive all Mankind. Oh, Sir! consider what a horrible Thing it is to appear loaded with Guilt,
before the Judgment-Seat of an Almighty, and incens'd God, so unprepared as I am.
May the God above, (who only can extricate me out of all my Troubles) influence and direct you herein, which are the hearty Prayers of,
Honoured SIR, Your Unhappy, And Dying Servant,
To my Lord B - of C -.
I Most humbly hope your Lordship will excuse this Freedom, but my unhappy Circumstances are such, that I stand in Need of your Lordship's Pity, Compassion, and generous Assistance. I make no doubt but your Lordship is not unacquainted with my unhappy Case, therefore I shall not trouble your Lordship with a Repetition of it; but the Bearer hereof can inform your Lordship authentickly, if your Lordship thinks proper. Oh! my Lord, with Horror do I name it, I am now under the fatal Sentence of Death in Newgate, London, and am (to my unspeakable Grief) order'd for Execution on Wednesday next; therefore, in Regard I am a Native of the City of Chichester, and one who always had a good Character, and that for 3 Years past I have lived with Messieurs Gilbert and Leaver, your Lordship's Chapter-Clerks of St. Paul's, and always behav'd with great Approbation, as appears by their generously appearing to my Character on my Trial: I assure your Lordship, I, in my Life, never had any Thought tending to wilful Injustice, till the immediate Execution of this rash Deed, for which I am now to suffer that ignominious and shameful Death, to the immortal Destruction of my Family, and Dishonour of my Country.
Oh, my Lord! let the Tears and Intreaties of almost a disconsolate Widow (my Mother) move your Lordship's Assistance to relieve me. My Lord, I was taken upon Tuesday was a Fortnight last, and it being the Time of Sessions there, I was order'd on to my Trial, and on the Friday following was capitally convicted, and receiv'd the fatal Sentence of Death: My Lord, as I have been so unhappy to be convicted.
I most heartily beg your Pity, and that your Lordship would please to give a Letter to such Persons as your Lordship's Wisdom shall think fit, in order to get my Execution respited, for some little Time, that I may have Time to make Intercession, to the great God, and Judge of my Soul, (whom I shall soon appear before) for the Forgiveness of my Sins.
May the God above, who only can extricate me from all my Troubles, be your Lordship's Direction herein, which are the daily Prayers of, My Lord,
Your Lordship's Dutiful, And Dying Servant,
My most dear Friend,
I Hope you'll excuse my Freedom, but my unhappy Circumstances are such, that obliges me to be thus troublesome; upon my Friend's Return to me this Afternoon from Chichester, tells me, that not a Person in the Corporation will sign my Petition, tho' for what Reason he does not know, and, to my unspeakable Grief, I am a Stranger to; but God's Will alone must be done, Mr. John Fletcher, and others of my Friends, advise me to get a Petition drawn up and sign'd by such of the Gentlemen (that will be my Friends) that are Voters for the City, and present it to the Duke of R -, at Goodwood; and likewise a Petition to the Duke of N -, and send it to Mr. Fowler, at Walberton, who will do me all the Service he can, which Petition I have desir'd my Friend, Mr. Evans, to draw up; therefore most humbly beg, for the Sake of Almighty God, that you will use your utmost Endeavours to save my Life, by spiriting up your Acquaintance. I have not Time to say any Thing more, because I am call'd to Chappel; but that I am
Your most Unfortunate, And miserable Servant,
To Mr. -
I Hope you'll excuse this Freedom, but my unhappy Circumstances are such, that obliges (as oblige) me to be thus troublesome. I make no Doubt but you have heard of my most melancholy Misfortune, which is, that I now stand captily (capitally) convicted for publishing a Note of 120 l. supposed to be drawn by Tho. Hill of Cleave-land-Court, St. James's, Esq ; on Sir Francis Child and Comp. which Note proves to be forged I was apprehended on Suspicion, upon Tuesday was sev'n-night, and it being the Time of Sessions at the Old-Bailey, I was try'd on Friday, and was convicted for publishing thereof. And for various Circumstances that appear'd on my Trial in my Behalf, and in Regard to my Master's, and a great Number of other Gentlemen appearing in my Behalf, I was by the Jury recommended to the Favour of the Court, and their Intercession to his Majesty for Mercy. And under these deplorable Circumstances, I have by the Advice of my Friends (here in London) made Application to - the D - 's of N - and R - each of whom has had a Petition signed by the Prosecutor Mr. Hill, and the Jury, and my Master, and several others of my Friends; humbly requiring their Intercession for me, in Regard that I liv'd with Mr. Cave at Colchester, about 6 Years, and at the Time of the late Election for that City, and for some Time after, therefore I am induc'd to hope, that your Honour must remember me Soon after which I left Mr. Cave and came to London, where I served two very eminent Gentlemen in this City, viz. Mr. Studley, Attorney, in Nicholas Lane, and Mr. Leaver a Scrivener in Fryday-Street, in the Capacity of a yearly Clerk , and acquired the Approbation of both, to their great Satisfaction, as appeared by their generously appearing in my Behalf on my Trial. I assure your Honour this is the Substance of my unhappy Case, in the concisest Manner I could possibly set it forth, without troubling your Honour as little as possible, in Regard your Honour has on all Occasions been a Suppor and an Assistant to the unfortunate and afflicted, and continually doing Good to those that ask. I most humbly hope, that the Tears and Entreaties of an almost disconsolate and dying young Man, who always, till the immediate Execution of this rash Deed, was the Support and only Comfort of an aged Mother, and a Blessing to all my Family, which your Honour's Nephews Messrs. F - ds, (with whom I have been intimated) can verify. I do assure your Honour, I, in my Life, never had Thought tending to wilful Injustice, till a few Minutes before the Execution of this rash Deed; and as this is my first Fact, (tho' of so deep a dye) my Youth and past Conduct may, I hope, in some Measure, move your Honour's Pity, Compassion and generous Assistance, that I may not suffer that shameful and ignominious Death, to the immortal Destruction of my Family, and Dishonour of my Country. As the noble -are apprized with my unhappy Affair, I most humbly submit to your Honour, that a Letter from you, to one or both of them, would do me great Service, and may the God above, who alone can extricate me from all my Trouble, direct your Endeavours and Proceedings to serve me, are the continual Prayers of,
Honoured Sir, Your most unfortunate, unhappy, devout, dying Servant,
To Mr. C - at Doctors-Commons.
I Have heard that there has been some severe Reflections cast upon Mr. G - by you, that he was privy to my unhappy Affair before it was put in Execution. And in order to do Justice to that Gentleman, if your Curiosity will induce you to come to this melancholy Place, any Evening about 7 or after, I will with all the Truth and Sincerity of a dying Man, reveal to you all such Questions as concern my most unfortunate Case, and am,
Your most unhappy, unfortunate Servant,
From my Cell, Tuesday Morning 11 o'Clock.
To Miss G -, Miss B -, Miss H -, Miss S -, Miss W -, and Miss E -.
I Make no Doubt but you have heard of my most melancholy Misfortune, and my unhappy Circumstances are such, that obliges me to trouble you, as I stand now in Need of all your Pity, Compassion, and generous Assistance. I have been under great Grief and Affliction for a
Week past, otherwise I should have troubled you with a true Relation of my most deplorable Affair before now, and do most humbly and earnestly beg and require your good Endeavours with M -, to assist me. The Fact for which I stand convicted, varies but little from the Account you have had in the News Papers.
I was taken into Custody upon a violent Suspicion on Tuesday last was Se'nnight, and it being the Week that the Sessions was held at the Old Baily, I was try'd there on Friday following, and was found guilty captively, (capitally) and receiv'd the fatal Sentence of Death on Saturday Morning, for publishing a Note of 120 l. supposed to be drawn by Thomas Hill, Esq ; of Cleaveland-Court, Sr. James's, on Sir Francis Child and Company: And a late Act of Parliament makes the publishing or uttering a forged Note, subject to the same Punishment with the Forgery itself. But, Ladies, for your clearer understanding my Case, I have herewith sent you the Sessions Book, in which, (I cannot but confess) my Trial is inserted in a very exact Manner. When my Trial was over, the Jury, (on Account of my Youth, and the Character the Gentlemen gave me) recommended me to the Favour of the Court, but how far that will have Effect, Time only must discover. In this my most deplorable Condition, I have made Application to - and to - and the Prosecutor and other proper Persons have sign'd two Petitions. One of which was sent down to Chichester, in order to get some Gentlemen's Hands to it, but to my great Surprize and unspeakable Misfortune it was return'd without any one Hand to it. The Reason of which I am an entire Stranger to; but am induced to think, that it proceeded in a great Measure from the ill Conduct of the Person who was sent with it, and from his irregular Proceeding, in making his Application. This, Ladies, is as concise an Abstract of my deplorable Misfortune as possible. I could have been much more brief, (more particular) was I not fearful of giving you too much Trouble; therefore I earnestly beg your Assistance, and your Interest with M -, which I am perswaded will be of great Service.
I am informed by Mr T - that the M - and D – R - will do me all the Service they can. But these Circumstances are very precarious; yet upon them my Life depends, and I am very fearful of the Event, because I am convicted in so unhappy a Time; for there are no less than 16 poor unhappy Creatures under Sentence, and three of us are for Forgery. Tho' the Cases of the other two differ somewhat from mine, for they drew several Bills upon Mr. Hoare, and actually receiv'd several large Sums, with which they went off. The Bankers in general will, to be sure, be against us all; but yet, I hope you Endeavours will succeed in my Favour, and that I shall have the unspeakable Pleasure of assuring you, in Person, that I shall always look on myself as under a lasting Obligation to pray for you I am, Ladies,
Your Unhappy, Miserable Servant,
Dear Mr. NEWINGTON,
MISS G - desired me to let you know, that her Mother is out of Town, otherwise she would have come to have seen you before now. She hopes (if she can possibly) to come To-morrow; if she can, she will. My dear Friend, I hope we shall have the Happiness of seeing you in Person very soon, out of that unhappy Place. Pray God it may be so. All your Friends are in great Hopes of seeing you at Liberty very soon. Miss H - will do what she can; she was to come to see you Yesterday, but something fell out, that she could not possibly. Miss G - gives her Love and Service to you, with Tears in her Eyes, and please to accept the the same from your Well-wisher,
My dear Friend,
F - e Tavern.
H - D -
My Birth, Parentage, and Education.
I WAS born in Reading in Berkshire. My Parents and Relations had all of them unspotted Characters, till this fatal Time. They gave me very good Education, in the English, Latin, and part of the Greek Tongue; and when I was taken from School, I must follow their Business, they having but one Son, until this unfortunate Accident happen'd. I was drinking with a Soldier, which I had some little Knowledge of, when he quarter'd in Newbury, some Time before; and this Soldier committed a Robbery that Night, and the next Morning he was appre
I marry'd a very honest, modest and virtuous young Woman of Newberry in Berkshire, which always proved an indulgent and loving Wife to me; and after the abovesaid Misfortune, I left her and went to Sea for fear of Shame and Disgrace, this was about 5 Years ago; and I went to Sea on Account of this Robbery that the Soldier did, and afterward when I' came home, I was employ'd as a Corse-Bearer for a Master Bargeman: Now you must know, that a Corse-Bearer is one that takes in Goods, and receives and pays Money for the Master Bargemen, and I might have lived very well; but I had been abroad so many Years, that when I came home, I did not greatly agree with my Wife, but loved other Women better; and so I spent my Money upon them and ruin'd my self. I used the Sea, on and off about 6 or 7 Years, and I went several Voyages to Newfoundland, and several other Part. in the Straites, and the Canaries Island, and Lisbon, Cales, and several other Parts too tedious to mention, until I learnt the Art of Navigation; but my roving would not let me stay long in one Shipp, which was a great Misfortune to my Preferment, altho' several Captains were desirous of me. I have belonged to three Men of War, and where respected in them; the one was the Romney, my Lord Muskkery Commander; our Station was for Newfoundland, and on the first Occasion I left him at Lisbon, by his Consent, and sailed home in another Ship. Then I went on board the Success to Antegoa, and as we were coming home, I was press'd out of the Success into the Deptford, and I continued in her 6 Months, because the Wages was good. After this I desired my Friends to help me to be made a Midshipman on board another Ship, that was a Man of War, or else to get me discharged from the Deptford, and my Friends wrote a Letter to a Gentleman, who prevailed with my Captain to let me have that Place I wanted; but then I could not be easy in my Mind, 'till they had got my Discharge from that Ship; and so I shipp'd my self with Capt. Tower, who was going to Leghorn; and when I came to Leghorn, I did not like to stay in that Ship, so I left it, and went to Genoa, where I continu'd a Month, before I could get any Business, but at last I went aboard the Julian Galley with Captan Brim, and we were bound for Ancona, and the Gulph of Venice, where we unloaded the Ship, and then we went to Zant, and took in Currants; then we came to Hambro', and staid three Months; then I shipp'd myself for England again, and as soon as I arrived, I went to see my Friends at Reading, and after I had staid some Time at Reading, I came to London, where I got acquainted with some young Women, and left my Wife, who was a very sober good Woman, which was the Reason of my Misfortune; and I hope no Body will reflect upon her for my bad Actions, she being ignorant of them, and always gave me good Advice, which if I had taken, I should not have come to this End: and I hope no Body will be so inhumane as to blame my Father and Mother, for they gave me a good Education, and it is my Fault that I come to suffer this shameful Death; for they instructed me in that which was good, if I had minded them; but I did not, and so the Lord have Mercy upon my Soul.
After the Dead Warrant came down, he refused to eat, nor would he take any Manner of Food, by which he impair'd his Health so very much, that some Times it was imagined he would expire in his Cell. But some Hours before his Execution, he came surprizingly to himself, talk'd rationally, and told one who came to see him, that his Fellow Prisoners would have more Occasion for the Assistance of the Minister than he should, for he could say all the Prayers in the Common-Prayer-Book perfectly by Heart.
Copy of a Letter from Greenaway's Sister to him after Condemnation.
WIth a hart full of Sorrow I rite to you to prepare yourself for another World, and mistly beg of God to forgive you your Sines, and pray do not bild to much upon hops of haveing a Repreeue of Transporttation, for we have endevered all that lys in our Power for you in this Case, for the King is very strict in this you now, for God Sake dear George consider what a terable Case it is to lance into a State of Ettarnity withou being prepared, it is a Thing of so great Consiquace, that all the terras in this World is not to compair to it, for we are hear but a Moment, but when we are gon it is for ever, and if you are fit to dy you are fit to live.
From your loving Sister and Friend in Sorrow,