THE ORDINARY of NEWGATE his ACCOUNT, Of the Behaviour, Confession, and dying Words of the Malefactors, who were executed at Tyburn, on Monday the 22d of this Instant December, 1729.
AT the King's Commission of Oyer and Terminer and Jail-Delivery of Newgate, held (before the Rt. Honourable Sir Richard Brocas, Knt . Lord Mayor of the City of London; the Rt. Honourable the Lord Chief Justice Eyre; the Honourable Mr. Justice Reynolds; the Honourable Mr. Baron Carter; the Worshipful Mr. Serjeant Raby; and others his Majesty's Justices of Oyer and Terminer, and Jail-Delivery for the City of London, and Jail-Delivery of Newgate, holden for the said City and County of Middlesex) at Justice-Hall in the Old-Bailey, on Wednesday, Thursday, Friday and Saturday, being the 3d, 4th, 5th, and 6th of December, 1729, in the third Year of his Majesty's Reign.
Six Men, viz. James Drummond, Adam Marsh, William Caustin, Jeoffrey Younger, Peter Coffey and Jervis Rhodes; and two Women, viz. Elizabeth Mills, and Mary Cox, were by the Jury found Guilty of capital Crimes, and receiv'd Sentence of Death.
They were exhorted to prepare for Death, from Rev. 14. 13. And I heard a Voice from Heaven, saying, write, Blessed are the Dead which die in the Lord, from henceforth: yea, saith the Spirit, that they may rest from their Labours, and their Works do follow them. I shew'd them what it is to die, and that in the Lord, Whether Men be in a prosperous or adverse State, they are all liable to the inevitable Stroke of Death, and this the Apostle calls the Dissolution of this House of our earthly Tabernacle, 2. Cor. 5. 1. But then, although our corruptible Bodies return into the Dust, from whence they came, yet our Souls, which are of a nobler Substance and spiritual Nature, and in that Respect Partakers of the Divinity, do not perish with the Body, but depart into permanent and eternal Regions: And this has been the Belief of all Mankind, that the Souls are Immortal, as appears from the Gods whom the Heathens worshipped, which we cannot suppose them to have done, had they not believed them to be still existing in a future State. But we have a more sure Word of Prophecy than this, since Life and Immortality is now brought to Light through the Gospel. This is so plainly reveal'd to us in Scripture, that he who runs may read. I told them, that without Holiness no Man can see the Lord, Heb. 12. 14. And therefore that we may die in the Lord, it is necessary to keep a good Conscience, void of Offence towards God and Man, which if we do, then at the Hour of Death, a joyful Serenity ariseth in our Minds, from the Reflection upon the Innocency of our past Life, in Conformity to Christ Jesus, who was Meek and Lowly, Gentle and easy to be intreated; who was in a transcendant Manner possess'd of all those Virtues and Perfections, which adorn his Disciples and Followers, and render them Happy in Life and Death in Time, and to all Eternity. I shew'd them, that the Blessedness of those who die in the Lord, consists in the Souls being immediately after Death, and the Bodies, by their Re-union to the Souls at the Day of Judgment, being made perfectly bless'd in the immediate Vision and Enjoyment of Almighty God, the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost to all Eternity.
I inform'd them, how they were dedicated to God in Baptism, and what solemn Vows they had then made, to addict themselves wholly to the Service of God, but they having broken those Engagements in divers Respects, that it was Incumbent upon them, before they left this World, to renew themselves by Repentance, and devoutly to receive the Sacrament of the Lord's Supper, where Christ communicates his Love to the faithful Soul, and where assured Pledges of everlasting Life are given to us.
While these and many like Exhortations were given, all of them who attended behav'd very Gravely in Chapel, but did not show those outward Signs of Repentance, which ought to appear in Men, who were in their dangerous and deplorable Circumstances.
Adam Marsh never came to Chapel but once or twice, but lay, all the Time he was under Sentence, upon his Bed, wrap'd up in a Covering, hiding his Face, groaning and moaning in a most miserable Manner. Younger was also much afflicted with Sickness most of the Time, but constantly declar'd a deep Sense of his Sin and Guilt.
Upon Thursday the 18th of this Instant December, the Report of the above eight Malefactors, lying under Sentence of Death in Newgate, was made to his Majesty in Council; when Elizabeth Mills, of St. Helens, for stealing a silver Tankard, in the House of Robert Wyat, and his Property, October 31. Mary Cox, of St. Martin's in Candle-week-Ward, for stealing a Gold Watch, value 14 l. a Gold Chain, value 6 l. a Seal, value 20 s. the Goods of Edward Yeats, November 15. Peter Coffey, of St. Michael Bassishaw, for feloniously Forging and Counterfeiting an Indorsement on a Pro
missory Note, for 18 l. 14 s. drawn by J. G. payable two Months after Date, dated the 20th of June, payable to John Gardner, for Value receiv'd, by Indorsing upon the Back of the said Note, Pay the Contents to the Bearer hereof. John Gardner, July 11.
And Jervis Rhodes, of St. Giles's in the Fields, for assaulting Elizabeth Kent on the Highway, and taking from her a Cotton Handkerchief, value 6 d. and 2 s. 6 d. in Money, November 2. receiv'd his Majesty's most gracious Reprieve. The remaining four, viz. James Drummond, Adam Marsh, William Caustin, and Jeoffrey Younger, were order'd for Execution.
James Drummond, of Stepney, was Indicted for assaulting Jacob Wakeling, Jun . on the High-way, and taking from him a Silver Watch, value 4 l. a Seal, value 1 d. and 4 s. in money, together with a Cane, value 1 s. and an Iron Key, value 1 d. the 29th of October last.
James Drummond, was a 2d time Indicted for assaulting and robbing William Isgrigg on the Highway, and taking from him 16 Guineas, 7 half Guineas, 3 broad Pieces, 1 Moidore, about 20 s. in Silver, and a Silver-watch, value 2 l. October the 29th.
James Drummond, about 40 years of Age, born in the Country, came to London with his Parents, when he was 3 years Old. His Father was a Sailor and liv'd in Wapping, he Died and left him Young, and his Mother being Poor, could not put him to School, by which means he had no Education. When of Age, he went to Sea, and became a Sailor , and having been a diligent and expert Man, in the practical Part of Navigation, he had constant Business. He married a Wife, whom he commended for an honest sober Woman, and by whom he had five poor Children alive, which gave him a great Uneasiness. He serv'd on Board some of his Majesty's Ships, having been in the Fleet which went up the Baltick, and were upon the Coasts of Sweden, and of the Swedish Provinces, Conquer'd by the Muscovites, and he likewise serv'd in the Fleet, which beat the Spaniards upon the Coast of Sicily in the Mediteranean, and he was Cockswain in the Admiral's Ship, when the Fleet went to the Coast of Spain, 3 or 4 Years ago. He said, that by his being always Employ'd, he got abundance of Money to subsist his Family, and that he had no occasion to follow wicked Courses, having very good credit and Business to maintain his Family. For when he was at Home, and not engaged in any Voyage, he was commonly employ'd in assisting to fit and Reek out Ships in the River. And of late not inclining to go to Sea, for fear of being Press'd on Board one of His Majesty's Ships; he went about in the Country with his Wife, and sold China and small Goods ; this being the Employment which she follow'd, when he was at Sea; and in this way (he said) they gain'd abundance of Money, and were in very good Credit; for the Gentleman he had Dealings with would have trusted him to the value of 100 l. upon his Word; and the People in the Neighbourhood, where he liv'd, said, that he bore a very good Character, and took a great deal of Pains, to maintain his Family; and that they were all mightily Surpriz'd to hear, that he had committed a Robbery on the Highway, being what they least expected of him, who always liv'd in good Reputation; both he and his Wife having had Credit to a considerable Value, as being reputed honest People, and of a good Character, by every body in the Place where they liv'd. He said further, that he never was a Thief, nor Dishonest, but lov'd to give every one their Own; and that he liv'd regularly, went to Church, and kept a Sober quiet House; that he did not use to Drink to Excess, that he never kept Company with lewd Women, and did not Swear much, which are the Vices commonly incident to such unfortunate Wretches. As to the two Robberies of which he was Convicted and for which he Died, he own'd, that Jacob Wakeling Jun . met him and his Brother on Horseback, as he was going to Bow, between 10 and 11 at Night the 29th of October last, that Mr. Wakeling unwilling to deliver his Money, he pull'd out a Pistol, and that his Brother drew a Sword and prick'd him in the Arm, that then he took his Watch and 4 s. in Money, and the other things mention'd in the Indictment; and when Mr. Wakeling pursu'd and took him, with the Assistance of the Watch, he own'd, that he shot his Pistol under his Arm, and that his Brother also who was on Horseback, shot his Pistol at Mr. Wakeling and the Watch, and then made his Escape. He said also that they robb'd Mr. Isgrigg the same Night of his Watch, and the Money mention'd in the Indictment; and that all the Evidences on both Indictments declar'd precisely what was true, and that he could not blame them in the least point, with respect to what they said against him. I ask'd him, what mov'd him to go out and rob upon the Highway, he having been a Sober Man in the preceeding part of his Life? He declar'd as a Dying Man, that such a thought never enter'd into his Mind, but that upon the Day mention'd in the Indictments, upon which he committed the two Robberies; he was working upon a Ship on the other Side of the Water, his Brother came and importun'd him to leave his Work, which he did with great Reluctancy; and then they went to a Publick House, where they drank very extravagantly, till he became Fuddled to a high pitch. The main Subject of his Brother's Discourse was, advising him to go along and commence Highwayman with him, for that there was no fear of Danger, it having been the main Trade or Business he had, and still with Safety followed for some Years past. By this time Drummond being intoxicated with Liquor (as he said) to the highest Degree, he had ever been in his Life, for which, without further consideration, and having neither Grace nor Fore-thought at that Time, he mounted the Horse behind his Brother, on design to take himself to his Feet, as Occasion offer'd, and attack the Foot
Passengers, by Direction, and under the Protection of his Brother, who was to be his Safeguard, as being well Mounted and Arm'd. They prosecuted their Design accordingly, and with the Success, as above narrated, the Horseman escaping, and poor Drummond, the most Innocent of the two, falling a Victim to the Devilish Counsel of his vile Brother. He said, that his Brother was a very wicked Man, that he formerly had been a Chapman in some Northern Town, but either failing in his Business, or willing to barter Commodities at an easier rate, than the ordinary way of Exchange and Trade, he had applied himself to the Highway, for four if not Six or Seven Years past, and that he was the sole Instrument of his Ruin. He own'd the Justice of his Sentence according to Law, but said, that he had never been Thief or Robber, excepting the two Facts for which he died. He lamented much for the Disgrace he brought upon himself, his Wife, Children and Relations, and hop'd, that the World would not upbraid them with his Crimes and ignominious Death. All the Time he was under Sentence, he behav'd with much Gravity and appearrent Devotion, and was very attentive to Prayers and Exhortations, whether in Publick or Private. He hop'd to be sav'd by the Mercy of God, through the Merits of Jesus Christ, seem'd Penitent for all the Offences of his Life, particularly the Crimes of which he was convicted, and died in Peace with all the World.
William Caustin, 36 Years of Age, had Education at a School in the Country, in reading and writing, and when of Age his Parents put him out 'Prentice to a Baker , to which Trade he serv'd out his Time, and afterwards work'd Journey-work, and marry'd a Wife, and for some Time he set up for Master-Baker in some Place about the Town; but soon failing in his Business, he turn'd Journeyman again, and was very Diligent at his Work; upon which Account he was esteem'd by his Masters, and needed not to be out of Business, having had the Reputation of an honest industrious Fellow.
He said, that his Wife, who died while he was under Sentence, had been long Sick upon his Hand, and he himself out of Business for above a twelve Month, which occasion'd his going astray and joyning himself to bad Company, which prov'd his Ruin. He denied, that he had been notoriously Wicked in his Life, in the Practice of those Vices, which commonly lead young Men to Destruction. He acknowledg'd the Crime of which he was convicted, and said, that it was only by the Persuasion of others, who engag'd him to associate with a Gang of Footpads, of which (as he said) Bradley the Evidence was the Chief, and thro' his Persuasions he betook himself to such a wicked Life. Although he was not in a good State of Health, and very Naked, yet he always came to Chapel, and appear'd abundantly Devout and Grave, and was very attentive both to publick and private Prayers and Exhortations. He appear'd to have been a Fellow of an easy Temper, and therefore so much the Readier to comply with wicked and pernicious Counsels. He said, that the Highway Robbery for which he died, was the only Act of Theft or Robbery ever he committed in his Life. He acknowledg'd the Justice of his Sentence, declar'd his Faith in Christ, his sincere Repentance for his many Offences, and that he forgave all the Injuries done him, as he expected Forgiveness from Almighty God.
Jeoffrey Younger, of St. George, Hanover-Square, 34 Years of Age, born in Northamptonshire, of honest Parents, who educated him at School in reading and writing, to fit him for Business, and instructed him in the necessary Principles of Christianity. When of Age, he went 'Prentice to a Baker in Northampton, and serv'd out his Time Honestly, with Approbation. Afterwards he serv'd in the Station of a Journeyman for some Time, and about seven Years ago he came to London, and here (as he said) he never was out of Business, and got Plenty of Money to supply such a Man as he was, and had the Character of an honest industrious young Fellow, till of late, he fell into a Set of bad Company, both Men and Women, who hurry'd him to his Destruction. He being constantly employ'd had Abundance of good Cloaths and Linnens, and upwards of ten Pounds in his Pocket; and then thinking himself too Good for Business, he follow'd idle Company, and went to Publick Houses, and being acquainted with Bradley, the Evidence, one of his own Business, he took him to a Gaming House, at the Back of the Town, and advis'd him to venture his Money, which he readily did, in hopes of gaining more; but here he took a Tartar, for they were a Company of Sharpers, and at once trick'd and cheated him out of all his Money. Not having a Farthing left, he had nothing to do, but Pitifully to lament over his necessitous and indigent Case. His Companion comforted him, telling, that he would be as good as his Word, in putting him upon a way of recovering his Money, and getting much more. Then he advis'd him to go on the Highway with him, assuring him of Impunity, for that they should go to such and such Places, or Fields, where they were sure to meet some rich Gentleman, of whom they were to take 80 l. from. Upon those Assurances, he went with his Associates upon their Adventures, and was present only at three Robberies, for the last of which he suffer'd, and he did not receive for his Share of all he was concern'd in so much as two or three Guineas, for the 80 l. Chap never appear'd.
He blam'd Bradley very much for leading him into this bad Way, for the Company where he lost his Mo
ney, was a Gang of Thieves, Robbers, Whores, and Pick-pockets, from whom all Manner of Vice, and Wickedness may, but no kind of Good can be learn'd, He said, that his Ruin was entirely owing to bad Company, of which lewd Women made up no small Part. In the greatest Part of his Life he had been Sober, and Industrious in plying to his Business, but of late, when he lost his Money at Gaming, he turn'd very Wicked, and addicted himself at once to Gaming, Whoring, Drinking, Idleness and Swearing. He profess'd a deep Grief and Sorrow for his Sins, and when he came to Chappel appear'd Grave and Devout; but most of the Time he was under Sentence, he was much afflicted with Sickness, having been a Fellow of a low, timorous and poor Spirit, and terribly frightened at the Approach of Death. He said, that he never thiev'd nor robb'd any Person, excepting those three Facts upon the Highway, of the last of which he was convicted, and for which he died. He profess'd his Faith of being sav'd through the merits of Jesus Christ; Declar'd that he was a true Penitent for all his Sins; and that he freely forgave all Injuries done him, as he expected Forgiveness from God; and he own'd the Justice of his Sentence.
Adam Marsh, about 24 years of Age, born at Harrow on the Hill, of mean Parents, who gave him no Education at School, and it may be presum'd, that he was neither capable nor willing to receive any. He was bred to no Trade, but (when he was so well dispos'd as to do any thing at all) work'd for the Farmers in the Country. His Father was try'd for the Murder of his Mother, about two Years ago, and was acquitted upon Account of his Lunacy, and is now kept in a Work-house, to prevent his doing further Mischief; he appear'd as an Evidence against his Father upon his Trial. He was the Person who was into the Old Condemn'd Hold, when he was first Committed to Newgate, when Dyer and Dumbleton, then under Sentence of Death, (who were Executed on November the 21st, for a Street-Robbery) were detain'd in the same Place, and of whom it was told, that they rob'd Marsh of what Money he had. I ask'd Marsh if it was true as was Reported of them? He affirm'd, that they took all the Money he had, which he said, was very little. But Dyer and Dumbleton being ask'd the same Question, said, they took nothing from him, but gave him both Victuals and Drink; and likewise said, that Marsh being in Liquor that Night he first came to the Prison, he made a great Noise, and disturb'd them in their Devotion, and upon that account they Reprov'd him; this was what they declar'd just before their Execution. Marsh never came to Chapel but one or twice, and when I visited him in the Cell, he seem'd rather to be possess'd with a Spirit of Laziness and Sloth, than any bodily Indisposition, but he pretended a weakness and lameness in his Legs. He bless'd me, when I pray'd for him; but when I exhorted him, among other Duties to forgive his Enemies, he sometimes said, he forgave Mr. Newman his Prosecutor, but this, after much Intreaty and Persuasion; at other times, that he could not forgive him, and the Night before he Died, he said in a most spiteful Manner, I'll tear him to Pieces. After all the Arguments, and Motives which could be Advanc'd, he still deny'd his setting Fire to Mr. Newman's Sheep-House and Granges. The Character he bore was, That he was an Idle Thievish Fellow (for he us'd to pick up and steal every thing he could get his Fingers on.) He was grosly Ignorant in Religious Matters. I endeavour'd what I could to Instruct him in a private Way, but he was so dull of Capacity and Inattentive, appearing like a crazy mad Person, full of Malice and unwilling to receive any good Impressions, that whatever endeavours were us'd for that End, little Success could be Expected. He did not deny, but he might have spoke rash Words, but utterly deny'd his actually commiting the Fact.
At the Place of EXECUTION,
THEY were all very Devout in Time of Prayers, and praising God, and said they had nothing to add to their former Confessions; only Younger said, he had been a very dissolute young Man, but as to Thieving and Robbing, he had never done any such thing, excepting that (instead of three Robberies which he mention'd before) he had committed five Foot-pad Robberies, and that for his Share of the Booty, in all of them, he receiv'd but a Triffle. Marsh went to Death denying the Fact which was prov'd upon him, and for which he died. He forgave freely all those who had any way injur'd him, and his Prosecutors. James Drummond was very earnest in his Prayers, and was very desirous to speak to his Sister, whom he spy'd at the Place of Execution, but the Crow'd being so great that she could not come to him. Just as the Cart was going to draw away, they all cry'd out, Lord Jesus receive us, and have Mercy on us.
This is all the Account given by me,