THE Ordinary of NEWGATE HIS ACCOUNT OF The Behaviour, Confessions, and Last Speeches of the Malefactors that were Executed at TYBURN on Friday the 27th of January, 1715/1716.
AT the General Sessions held at Justice-Hall in the Old baily, on Friday the 13th and Saturday the 14th of January, 1715/1716, Seven Persons, viz. Five Men and Two Women, that were then convicted of several Capital Crimes, did accordingly receive Sentence of Death: But One of the Women being brought in to be with Quick Child, and One of the Men having obtain'd a gracious Reprieve (which I wish they may not abuse to their greater Prejudice hereafter) Five of them are now order'd for Execution.
While they lay under this Condemnation, I constantly visited them, and had them brought up to the Chapel of Newgate, where I attended them twice every Day, and there read Prayer and the Word of GOD, which I expounded to them, earnestly exhorting them to apply themselves with their whole Heart to the Throne of Grace for Mercy, that they might have Repentance towards GOD, and Faith towards Our Lord JESUS CHRIST.
On the Lord's Day the 15th instant, I preach'd to them and others there present, both in the Morning and Afternoon, upon part of the Second Evening-Lesson for that Day, viz. Rom. 13. 8. Owe no Man any thing, but to love one another; for he that loveth another has fulfill'd the Law.
Which Words I first explain'd in general, shewing how Christian Love (which the Apostle does here universally recommend) is the Completion of the whole Law, in what concerns our Duty both to GOD and Man; and then I proceeded in particular to discourse upon these several Points arising from the Text.
I. The Nature and excellent Properties of Christian Love.
II. The Degrees and vast Extent of it.
III. The indispensable Obligation we lie under of loving one another.
IV. ult. The strong Motives we have to it, and transcendent Advantages which may accrue from it, both to Ourselves and Others.
Having enlarg'd upon these, I endeavour'd to make all my Auditory (chiefly the condemn'd Persons) sensible of this Truth, That, the Want of Christian Love is the Cause of most, if not all, the Injustice and Mischiefs committed, and of all the Troubles and Miseries suffer'd by Men, who (thro' their unlawful and wicked Practices) commonly bring Destruction upon them
selves in this World, and (which is must to be fear'd) Eternal Ruin both of S Body in the next.
On the last Lord's Day, the 22d instant, I preach'd to them again, both in the Morning and Afternoon, upon part of the Epistle appointed for that Day, viz. Rom. the 12th Chapter, the former Clause of the 17th Verse; the Words being these, Recompense to no Man Evil for Evil. -
From which Words, first explain'd in general, and illustrated by several parallel Places that enforce not only the Duty of forgiving Injuries, but even that of returning Good for Evil, I then in particular shew'd,
I. How we ought carefully to refrain from Revenge, and from doing any Ill thing to those that provoke and wrong us.
II. How we should strictly endeavour (so far as we are able) to do Good, even to those that do us Evil.
III. How far we may, or may not, be angry when provok'd.
IV. ult. How we ought to commit our Cause to GOD, and to the Publick Magistrate, for Redress in the Injuries offer'd to us; that so the Offenders may receive their condign Punishment, and the peaceable and honest Persons may have Right done them, and be protected from the unjust Practices of such wicked Men as seek the Hurt of Others.
After I had largely spoken to each of those Points and Particulars, I concluded with suitable Exhortations to the Condemn'd; admonishing them to look back upon their past Lives, and seek and seriously consider, How little Good, and how much Evil, they had done in this World, and so take it to Heart, as to repent in good earnest of all their Evil Deeds, and make the best Amends they could to their injur'd Neighbour. As I thus admonish'd them daily in Publick, so I did often in Private: And then it was they gave me the respective Accounts of themselves, which follow.
1. Mary Knight, condemn'd for privately stealing 9 Guinea's with some Silver, from the Person of William Kane, a Seaman , on the 16th day of December last. She said, she was 31 Years of Age, born at Yarmouth in Norfolk, and brought up with an Uncle of hers, that kept an Inn at Hoddesdon in Hartfordshire; That about 10 Years since, she came up to London, and serv'd an Apprentiship of 7 Years with a Fish-woman at Billingsgate, and then set up for herself in that Place. That, not long after this, she marrying a Seaman, who prov'd a bad Husband, was thereby brought to great Poverty; and so, being disabled from continuing her lawful Employment, and not knowing which way to turn herself, was driven to follow an ill Course of Life to keep herself from Starving. Hereupon I told her, That the best and safest way for her to have got a Livelihood, and been comfortably reliev'd in her Necessity, was to have kept herself honest, and to have look'd out for some Place in a good Family, or for some other lawful Employment. All this she own'd was very true, being now very sensible that her wicked way of Living deserv'd the Punishment she was now under. Then she freely confest with great Concern, That she had for these 12 Months past been a very loose Woman, a Night-walker, &c. and, That she had deluded as many Young Men, and others, as she met with in her Way, and could perswade to go along with her: That being sometimes taken by the Watch, she was carry'd to the Bridewell in Clerkenwell, from whence (after some slight Correction) being discharg'd, but not reform'd, she return'd to her former vicious Life. She was very ignorant and Stupid; yet understood so much as, That without true Repentance she could not be sav'd; and therefore desir'd me (saying, she did what she could herself) to pray GOD, that He would please to give her Grace so truly to repent, that she might have all her Sins pardon'd, and her Soul sav'd: In which she had the best of my Assistance.
2. John Hope, condemn'd for privately stealing 8 dozen of Candles, value 48 s. (put up in a Box) out of the Shop of Mr. Adam Hunter, on the 27th of December last. He said, he was about 29 Years of Age, born in the Parish of St. James, Westminster: That his Parents gave him good Education, and then put him out Appren
tice to One Mr. Ruddock, a Cook in Finch-lane, London; That, when he had been two Years with his Master, he grew weary of his Service, and to the end he might be remov'd from it, complain'd (tho' without any the least Cause for it, as he now confest) of being hardly us'd by his said Master: That, upon this Complaint, his Parents agreed with Mr. Ruddock for his Discharge, which he accordingly had; and then went to serve as Under-Cook in a Person of Quality's Kitchin: That, when he had been about 10 Months in this Service, he was hir'd by Dr. Hickman, late Bishop of London-Derry, then in London, to be his Cook , and went (to that purpose) with his Lordship into Ireland, where he serv'd him about a Twelve-month, and then was forc'd to come away, by reason of the Bloody-flux, which he got, and could not be cur'd of there, that Country not agreeing with his Constitution: That, being return'd to London, he liv'd a while with his Parents, and then went to Sea , and serv'd above 6 Years alternately on board the Chester, and other Men of War, under the Command of Capt. Matthews; then returning home to his Friends, he was admitted again into the Bishop's Service, in the same Capacity as before: That about 3 Months after that, his Lordship dying at Fulham, he was left without Employment or Service; and before he could find any, he fell into bad Company, which debauch'd him, and entic'd him into those unlawful Practices that brought him to his Ruin. He confest the Fact he was condemn'd for, and withal own'd himself a great Offender in other Respects, which he would not at first (but said, he would before his Death) declare. He complain'd very much of Satan's buffetting him, and disturbing him with the Suggestion of ill Thoughts when at his Devotion; and hereupon earnestly desir'd my Prayers and Advice, both which he had. He now was made sensible of his Guilt; and acknowledg'd, That his Neglect of Prayer, both in Publick and Private, was the original Cause of all this his Misery; and, That he had done much Wrong to several honest People, which he could not now by any manner of way rectify, nor repair, otherwise than by asking their Pardon, and giving them such Information as might be of some Satisfaction to them, which he faithfully promis'd me he would do, and some time after he assur'd me, that he had sent to them, and (according to his Promise) done what I advis'd him to in that Matter. And so I prest him no further (in particular) upon this Point; but (in general) exhorted him to clear his Conscience in every thing, that he might not come short of the Hopes of Heaven, which he (upon his doing what lay in his Power) seem'd comfortably to entertain.
3. James Bullock, Condemn'd for a Burglary by him committed in the House of Mr. Robert Tutt, and stealing thence a Pewter-Dish, a Brass-Porridge-pot, and other Goods. He said, he was about 26 years of age, born in the Parish of St. Leonard Shoreditch; That he was a Silk-Weaver by Trade, and was bound to a Master that liv'd in Angel-Alley without Bishopsgate: That when he had serv'd out his Time, he set up for himself, and hired a Room in that Parish where he was born, and there work'd at his Trade; but the Times being bad, and he brought to such a degree of Want, as not to be able to provide for himself and Family (having a Wife and two small Children) and his Wife (an honest Woman) not in any Capacity (by reason of the Severity of the Weather) to follow the Business she was formerly occupy'd in, viz. that of selling Fish; he unhappily try'd to make himself more easie (under his hard Circumstances) by using such Means as prov'd the contrary. He confess'd the Fact he was condemn'd for, together with the two Felonies he was at the same time convicted of, being now made fully sensible of this, That it would have been a happy thing for him to have pray'd to GOD, and used lawful Means, trusting on the Divine Providence for Relief in his Necessity. He further acknowledg'd, That about eleven months ago he was convicted of stealing 4 Geese, and order'd to have been whipt for that Fact, but (being then very ill) he was excus'd, and discharg'd without Correction. He seem'd to be very penitent, begging Pardon of GOD and Man.
4. Edward Smith alias Allcock, (which latter was his right Name) condemn'd for stealing 10 Silver-Spoons out of the House of Mr. Dutton, at the Greyhound-Tavern in Fleetstreet, on the 11th of December last. He said, he was 21 years of age, born in the Parish of St. Gregory, London: That he had been well brought up by
his Parents, and bound Apprentice to an Apothecary in Porters-street near Newport-Market in Sohoe: That when he had serv'd a little above two years of his Time, his Master failing, he return'd to his Parents: That some time after he went to Sea, and was Servant to a Surgeon on board a Man of War , viz. the Yarmouth, a Third-Rate Ship, of which the Commander (Capt. Lumley) to whom he was known, was very kind to him: That when he had been 4 years on board that Ship (which was a that while employ'd in cruising about the Coast of Great Beitain) he came home again, with Purpose to settle himself in some business at Land, and so he try'd to practise Surgery ; and he writing a good Hand, was sometimes employ'd by some Gentlemen at Doctors-Commons, and others belonging to the Six-Clerks Office (who knew him) to write for them, they paying him by the Sheet: But neither of these two Employments, viz. Surgery and Writing (in which he had no constant business) being sufficient to maintain him and his Wife, he was reduc'd to Poverty, which encreasing daily, he unhappily betook himself (for the getting Relief) to those ill Courses that prov'd his Shame, and Ruin at last. He confess'd, he had been a notorious Offender, and done many Injuries to his Neighbour, which (to his great Grief) he was not able to repair; and he own'd particularly (a thing so palpable, and so well known to the World as not to be conceal'd) That he was once condemn'd for stealing a Silver-Tankard out of the House of Mr. John Egglesfield, on Decemb.23, 1714. Here he mightily bemoan'd his having so much abus'd the Mercy of a Pardon which he obtain'd for that Fact, and which he pleaded at the Old-baily on Saturday the 6th of August last; but withal he said, he had endeavoured to comply with the Condition of that Pardon; which was, That he should within 6 months transport himself out of the Kings Dominions in Europe; and in order thereto had got a Letter of Recommendation from a Gentleman belonging to Doctors-Commons, to a Governor of one of His Majesty's Plantations in the West-Indies, and with that Letter went to Bristol, in hopes of getting a Ship there for his passage; but finding none, he join'd himself to a Company of Strolers, and acted with them, sometimes by the Day, for which he had 3 s. and sometimes by the Week for 20 s. at Bristol, Bath, &c. Then he return'd to London, and likewise to his old way of Thieving; for about 2 months since going to the Castle Tavern in Fleet street, he stole thence a Silver-Porringer, which a certain Person (whom he would not name) dispos'd of. And now he was under this Condemnation, being perswaded that, in order to his Repentance and Salvation, it was necessary he should, so far as possible, make Restitution and Satisfaction to the Persons he had wrong'd, he sent to Mr. Tash, who keeps that Tavern, to acquaint him with it; and tho' he could not restore the Porringer, yet he did other ways make him what Amends he could for it. He also freely acknowledg'd his Guilt of the Fact he now stood condemn'd for, and of the Felony he was convicted of at the same time, which was his stealing 3 Silver-Spoons out of Mr. Edward Rogers's House, the Nags-head Tavern in Cheapside, on the 13th of December last; and he pray'd GOD and the Persons he had wrong'd to forgive him, who was now truly sensible of, and sorry for, all his past Follies, wishing he had been wiser. He desir'd all young Men and others to take Warning by him, and follow a better Course of Life than he had done, that so they might prevent such a shameful and untimely Death as he was now to suffer.
5. Thomas Helph, condemn'd for breaking open the House of the Reverend Mr. David Duncombe, and stealing thence a Hat, a Common-Prayer-Book, with 3 Pewter Dishes, some Plates, Candlesticks, and other Things, on the 7th instant. He said, he was 19 or 20 Years of Age (he could not be positive which) born at Bridgewater in Somersetshire: That, when he was very Young, his Friends brought him up to London, and left him in the Care of a Kinsman of theirs, a Plaisterer, with whom he liv'd 13 Years, in the Parish of St. Mary, Whitechappel: That this Relation of his sent him to School, and took Care of his Education, and then put him to work at his Trade; which having learnt, he went down into the Country among his Friends, where he found some Employment, working for a whole Twelve-month together with a Plaisterer . Afterwards returning to London, he fell into bad Company, which debauch'd him; particularly one Richard Goulding, who entic'd him into the
commission of the Fact he now stood condemn'd for, and said, he heartily repented of; adding, that his stealing at first small Sums of Money and Things from his Mother, and other Friends he liv'd with was the beginning of his Ruin; those little Thefts having dispos'd him for greater.
At the Place of Execution (to which they were carry'd from Newgate, viz. Allcock in the Coach with me, and the rest in 2 Carts, this Day) I attended them for the last time, exhorting them more and more to clear their Consciences, stir up themselves in holy Affections to GOD, and pray, that as Sin had abounded, so Grace might much more abound in them. To this end, I pray'd for them, made them rehearse the Apostles Creed, and sung some Penitential Psalms with them, who desir'd the Spectators to pray for their departing Souls, and take Warning by their Shame and untimely Death, that they might avoid their coming to such an End. After this I pray'd again with them; and having recommended them to the Mercy of God in Christ, I withdrew from them, leaving them to their private Devotions, for which they had some Time allotted 'em: And then the Cart drew away, and they were turn'd off, calling on God to be merciful to them, and receive their Souls.
NB. Allcock told me, He was in the Bail-dock when James Goodman alias Footman (about whom there is an Advertisement in the Book of the Trials, lately publish'd) made his Escape: He saw not how he did it, but was sure he did not go out at the Door.
This is all the Account here to be given of these Dying Persons, by me
Friday, Jan. 27, 1715-16
And to this I shall add, That as I heartily wish that the Number of Malefactors may not encrease, but diminish; so I pray GOD to convert all those that abandon themselves to wicked and illegal Courses, particularly such as are of that Diabolical Spirit He or They appear to be of, who lately wrote to me an impudent Letter (without either Name or Date) of which a true Copy, with my Cursory Animadversions or Remarks thereon, here follows.
IT is strange, as my Lord Wharton said on a remarkable Occasion, that of all Societies of Men, there is none practise so little Common Honesty or Candour as the Clergy. They preach Morals indeed, but never go any further.
Whether You have not made good this Character in your Paper relating to the poor Wretches that suffer'd Yesterday, I leave the World to judg. You must certainly be either the most ignorant Person alive, or else the most accomplish'd Sycophant; for surely your Questions to those Wretches are so very impertinent, and so inconsistent, that I can hardly repeat them without surfeiting. You ask them, Whether they thought it lawful to dethrone George; when no Man alive that has the least Insight into the Laws of GOD or Man can doubt of it. For, is there One Syllable in all the Doctrine of the Church of England (of which you now declare yourself to be a Member) that can justify deposing King James, or abjuring his Son on account of Religion?
HEre is a Saying alledg'd as spoken by a Noble Lord, on a Remarkable Occasion; but what that Remarkable Occasion was, this Detractor does not think fit to tell us. However, let those of the Clergy look to it, who do not lead such a Life as becomes the Gospel of Christ. This does not concern me; I am not to answer for them.
I refer those Papers of mine, about the Traitors lately executed at Tyburn, to the impartial Consideration of the honest and understanding Reader.
This Scurrilous Writer here discovers his furious Passion, not any Reason at all, he having none for his giving me these hard Names.
The Questions I put to those Rebels and Traitors he would not find Impertinent and Inconsistent, were he not such a One himself, who most unjustly and blasphemously presumes here to asperse the Best of Kings, with that Spirit of Rebellion, which speaks him either a Papist or an Atheist, or both.
Here he sets down his Erroneous Opinion, and would make us believe it to be a Law universally receiv'd, and a Doctrine particularly taught by the Church of England. But more of this and of his uneasiness about King James and his pretended Son, which I shall have occasion to speak to, by and by.
I know not what you think now; but turn the Tables, and I dare say you'll be of my Opinion: And so let me ask you, Whether you did not think it a Hardship to be driven out of France for your Principles?
And shall not K. J. and his Son have the same regard, when the Monarchy has been declar'd by all the Laws that ever were made till the Revolution, to be hereditary and indefeasible; and this strengthned and confirm'd by the Church of England, and withal, that Passive Obedience is due to the King, not out of any regard to his Religion, but to his Person and Office? And if so,
Then can you be alarm'd at the Son's endeavouring to recover what Usurpers and Rebels tore from the Father? And are there any other Means of accomplishing this but by the Sword? And is then the Loyal Subject, that is under a Duty both by the Laws of GOD and Man, to assist his Lawful Prince in destroying Usurpation and Rebellion, to be hang'd, drawn, and quarter'd? Is there any difference between G - and a common Robber? This defends his Acquisition by force, and so does the other. And has either of them any other Plea for their Wrongs but Power? Will any Man pity George when he is dethroned?
Give over your Cant, thou vilest of Mankind: Forbear your Flatteries and Lies in prejudice of your Lawful King J. the 3d; or else your Funeral Elegy shall soon be cry'd about the Streets.
Directed thus: To the Reverend
If he will know my Thoughts, let him be inform'd, That as I was driven out of France by the Cruelty of the Popish Religion, so (by the Grace of GOD) I shall do my utmost to prevent that Bloody Religion's driving me out of England.
If he will have Law, and will know the Reasons for the late Revolution, let him look back to the Legal Practices of former Times in such Cases, and let him read the Statutes of Queen Elizabeth, and particularly the Act of Parliament made (upon King James's Abdication) for the Settlement of the Crown as it now is, and I hope will for ever remain in the Royal Family of Our Most gracious Sovereign King George, whom God preserve.
What he understands by Hereditary and Indefeasible, and what Laws he means here, he does not plainly tell: Neither does he appear much dispos'd to Passive-Obedience, though he makes such a Noise of it.
As for the Doctrine of the Church of England, by which he vainly endeavours to support his weak Arguments, it evidently makes against him; for it condemns all such Rebels as he is, who (contrary to the Precepts of CHRIST and His Apostles) refuse to be Subject to the Powers that are, and do speak Evil of Dignities. And for his better Information herein, let him read St. Matt. 22. 21. Rom. 13. 1, &c. Tit. 3. 1. & 1 Pet. 2. 13, 14; and let him come to Newgate, and hear me upon this Subject next Monday.
These Names of Usurpers and Rebels properly belong to the Pretender and his Adherents, and all Forsworn Favourers of that restless and traiterous Party; the very Spirit whereof the Author of this impudent Letter does so lively express therein.
The Loyal Subject indeed is to assist, and will assist his Lawful Prince. And pray, Who is this Lawful Prince, but King George; And, who are those here mention'd that have been hang'd, drawn, and quarter'd, but such as were Rebels, and consequently deserv'd that Punishment?
This strange Comparison, which none but a most profligate Wretch can make, shews their Religion and Manners, who are the Promoters of Popery and Arbitrary Power.
There will be no Cause of Pity, but rather of Praise, chearfully giving Thanks to GOD, and with loud and joyful Acclamations congratuling His Anointed, Our Most Gracious Sovereign Lord King George, when the Almighty shall have given him the Necks of his Enemies, as he has the Hearts of all honest Men and true Protestants.
As I do not deserve those reproachful and unjust Appellations of Vilest of Mankind, Flatterer and Lyar, so neither does the Pretender that of my Lawful King J. III. I have heartily abjur'd him, and do in like manner abhor all the base and treacherous Practices of his audacious Party; and am not terrify'd with these their Threats of having my Funeral Elegy soon cry'd about the Streets, tho' at the same time I am sensible enough of such wicked Men's Malice and Ill-will to me. But let me advise them, out of my Goodwill to their Souls, That they would betimes look to themselves and repent, duly considering, that there is a just GOD, who will one Day call them to a very severe Account for all their pernicious Deeds, and particularly for those Tumults they have rais'd, that Blood they have shed, and other Mischiefs they have done in a Nation that liv'd in Peace before.
Now for a Conclusion, I shall here observe, That as this whole Letter swells with horrid Absurdities and Eyes; so neither is the very Superscription of it without Mistake; forasmuch as I have no House nor Lodgings in the Place it is directed to: Which (perhaps) might be the Occasion (as I gather from the Tenor of it) that 'twas 30 Days after its being written e're it came to my Hand; which was the 29th of November last. And the Reason why I then did not, and now do, answer it, is because I was in hopes this wicked Party would reform: But finding they do not, I must here give them Warning, praying them to consider the heinous Sins and unspeakable Miseries they are daily involving themselves in, who thus presume to continue provoking God's Indignation and Wrath, by their resisting the Powers that be, which (saith St. Paul) are ordain'd of God; and by their disturbing the whole Nation in general, and abusing me in particular, who am quiet (and I hope not useless) in the Land. P. L.
London Printed, and are Sold by J. Morphew, near, Station-hall.