THE Ordinary of NEWGATE HIS ACCOUNT OF The Behaviour, Confessions, and Last Speeches of the Malefactors that were Executed at Tyburn on Saturday the 31st Day of January, 1712/1713.
AT the Sessions held at Justice-Hall in the Old-Baily, on Friday the 16th, Saturday the 17th, and Monday the 19th of January 1713, Six Persons, viz. Five Men and One Woman, being Try'd for, and found Guilty of several Capital Crimes, did accordingly receive Sentence of Death. Of these Persons Five were order'd for Execution; and the other has obtain'd the Mercy of a Reprieve; which I wish he may not abuse, as many before him have done, but take care (as he ought) to improve it to the Glory of GOD.
While under this Condemnation I visited them constantly, and had them brought up twice every Day to the Chapel in Newgate, where (chiefly) I pray'd with them, and both read and expounded the Word of GOD to them; whom (upon my private Examination of them) I found to be in great want of Ghostly Advice. They seem'd to be very desirous of it, and of my Prayers to GOD for them: Both which they had, to their Souls Comfort.
On the LORD's Day the 18th instant, I preached to them, both in the Forenoon and Afternoon, upon part of one of the Psalms for that Morning-Service, viz. Psal. 90. 12, the Words being these: So teach us to number our Days, that we may apply our Hearts unto Wisdom.
Here I first explain'd at large both the Text and Context; shewing, that in this Psalm, Moses (who was the Author of it) gives a plain Description of the Shortness of Human Life, and the Miseries attending it; and from thence proceeds to this excellent Prayer set forth in the Text; wherein he teaches us how we ought to apply ourselves to GOD for Divine Instruction, to the end we may obtain Wisdom; not the Wisdom of the World, which chiefly consists in Cunning and Artifice, and often in Tricks, Fraud, Deceit, &c. but the Wisdom from above, as St. James calls it, by which Men may be made sensible, that the little Time they have to live in this World, is to be employ'd principally (if not wholly) in the serious Thoughts of, and due Preparation for Death in this World, and a happy Eternity in the other. And this is to be Wise to our main Interest, even our Everlasting Life and Salvation.
Having further inlarg'd upon this Topick, in general, I then distinctly spoke to, and made out these Three Points, in particular, viz.
I. That Man's Life, though it were not cut off (as it often is) by some accidental Stroke or other, but did extend to the utmost Natural Period and Limit to which it can possibly attain, is very short in Comparison of that Eternity which comes after it.
II. That upon this Account, every Man should be so Wise, as to take continual Notice of his continual Drawing nearer and nearer to his Death in this World, and to his Judgment in the next; which are (both of them) unavoidable.
III. & lastly, That if it be (as it really is) the greatest Concern, which Men in general can have in this Mortal State, to be always preparing for a better, even that which is Blessed and Immortal; it certainly imports them, in a more especial and urgent manner, to make this necessary Preparation, without delay, who have visibly but a few Days to live in this World, and have so much to do to provide for their Everlasting Happy State in the World to come. And this is (said I to the Condemn'd) This is your very Case.
On the last LORD's Day, the 25th instant, I preach'd again to them, both in the Morning and Afternoon, and took my Text out of the first Lesson for that Morning-Service, viz. Isa. 55. 6, 7. Seek ye the LORD, while He may be found: Call ye upon Him while He is near. Let the Wicked forsake his Way, and the Unrighteous Man his Thoughts, and let him return unto the LORD, and He will have Mercy upon him; and to our GOD, for He will abundantly Pardon.
In my Explanation of this Text, I shew'd (both from it and the Context.)
First, in general, That herein the Prophet endeavours (by many Words and Arguments) to encourage the Jews to Repentance; who were highly Guilty of Idolatry, Apostacy, and many other grievous and enormous Sins; which when they once came seriously to consider, by a Thorough Examination of Themselves, how they had liv'd in Opposition to GOD, and contrary to his Just and Holy Laws, they would then be apt to fall into Despair, and conclude, That GOD would never Pardon such notorious Offenders, as they had been. This was the melancholy and lamentable State they were then in. And this Despair of Mercy, which occasion'd their unspeakable Trouble, we often find to be the sad Condition of Old hardned Sinners, who have offended GOD, Days and Ways without number. Therefore next to a Life as free from Sin as our frail Mortality will permit, the best thing which a Man can do for himself, (who has been unhappily engag'd in a Sinful Course) is to get out of it, as soon as possible, and repent before it be too late; Seeking the LORD, while he may be found; and calling upon Him, while He is near: And (in a Word) returning to Him, while He is offering Mercy.
To encourage my Hearers (and particularly the Condemn'd) to the Performance of this their great Duty, and Furtherance of their Everlasting Concern, I laid down many Arguments before them, shewing them, both the infallible Way, and absolute Necessity of speedy Repentance.
And for their better understanding the whole Meaning of the Text, I shew'd them,
Secondly, in particular, That in it, GOD, by his Prophet, endeavours to perswade Men to hearken to his gracious Call, and to seek him in good earnest; i. e. To labour diligently after the Knowledg of his Reveal'd Will, and the obtaining his Grace for the due Performance of it: Neither of which are attainable but in and through JESUS CHRIST, the Saviour of the World.
To illustrate this Doctrine, and make it still plainer to my Auditory, I discoursed upon these Four Things contain'd in the Text.
I. A Command to seek and call upon GOD; shewing, That we are to seek GOD in his Works, in his Word, and in his Sacraments: And to call upon Him with devout Prayers and earnest Supplications.
II. We have here, a Pressing Exhortation to obey this Command, which (to make it stronger) is thus doubled, Seek ye the LORD while He may be found: And, Call ye upon Him while He is near.
III. The Disposition requisite for our Seeking the LORD so, as to find Him in Mercy; and Calling upon Him so, as to be heard, and graciously answer'd by Him. And this proper and happy Disposition is a parting with our Sins, and Returning unto GOD by Amendment of Life: Which is plainly express'd by these Words, Let the Wicked forsake his Ways, and the Unrighteous Man his Thoughts; and let him return unto the LORD.
IV. & lastly, To the Duty herein prescribed, there is a gracious Promise made of Pardon to the Penitent, who shall find Acceptance with Almighty GOD: For having said, Let the Wicked forsake his Ways, &c; And, Let him return unto the LORD, &c. He adds this sweet, this comfortable, and most encouraging Assurance, in these two Synonymous Expressions. He will have Mercy upon him, and He will abundantly Pardon.
And on Friday last the 30th instant being the Anniversary Day of the Martyrdom of the Blessed King Charles the First, I did again Preach to the Condemn'd Prisoners, and others there present; taking my Text out of the Epistle for the Day, viz. 1 Peter, 2 Chap. 13th & 14th Ver. Submit your selves to every Ordinance of Man, for the LORD's s: Whether it be to the King, as Supream; O unto Governours, as unto them that are sent by Him, for the Punishment of Evil-doers, and for the Praise of them that do well.
From which Words, first paraphrastically explain'd, and illustrated by several other Scripture-Texts, expresly injoining the same Duty, I then proceeded to shew;
I. In what Things we are to Submit to, and Obey, our Supream Governour, and all others in Authority: And that is,
1st, In All Things (whether relating to Church or State) which GOD has Commanded.
2dly, In All Things that GOD has not evidently Forbidden, and are of an indifferent Nature; i. e. Neither Good, nor Bad in themselves; but cease (indeed) to be so, when Commanded, or Forbidden; in which Case, our Obedience becomes necessary and indispensable, as well with respect to Spiritual, as to Civil Matters.
II. Why we are thus Oblig'd to submit and to Obey: And that is for these Reasons Principally, viz.
1st, Because GOD has commanded it; which, without doubt, were of it self a sufficient Obligation, tho' there were no other Reasons for it. But there are. As,
2dly, Because GOD has not only injoyn'd this in his Written Word, but in those Precepts of Reason, which He has by Nature imprinted upon every Man.
3dly, Because no Government can subsist without Obedience to it, neither would Men be Just, Honest, Quiet, and Happy without it: And,
4thly, Because Our Obedience both to the Divine and Human Laws, greatly tends to the Honour of GOD and the Good of Mankind; and Disobedience thereto is absolutely contrary to both.
III. What is the End of Government: And that is twofold, as our Apostle shews; viz.
1st, For the Correction and Restraint of Evil-doers; And,
2dly, For the Protection and Encouragement of Them that do well; i. e. Such as are Obedient both to GOD, and to his Vicegerent. From all which I prov'd,
IV. & lastly, The absolute Necessity of Government; because there can be no Publick Service or Worship of GOD duly perform'd, nor any Moral or Civil Good done or promoted; nor indeed any Ill restrain'd or prevented in this World, without it. For it is more than probable, that without a lawful Government, and a dutiful Obedience to Governours, there should be nothing but Confusion, Oppression, Rapine, Injustice, and the like, in the World; all good Order and Peace shou'd then be banish'd from the Face of the Earth, and no Man could enjoy any thing quietly or safely, but must deliver it up to a stronger than himself: So that he that could kill his Neighbour, or otherwise get the Power over him, might tke his Possessions too; and by such means, the World would soon become a Den of Thieves.
Therefore it plainly appears, That there must needs be a Government among Men; and, That they ought to submit to Governours appointed by Almighty GOD to inforce
the Execution of the Divine Laws, and preserve good Order in every Place, by making such wholsom Laws of their own, as the Exigence of Time and Affairs may require.
And this also shews, That Wicked Men must be punish'd according to the Nature of their Facts, as GOD expresly commands it;
First, in particular, as to the Case of Murder; concerning which He declares. That whoso has committed it, shall be surely put to Death, and no Satisfaction shall be taken for his Life; for the Land cannot be cleansed of the Blood that is shed therein, but by the Blood of him that shed it. Numb. 35. 30. &c.
Secondly, in general, GOD has threaten'd Men with sore Punishments for their Sins of any kind, especially where arriv'd to a great height, as we may gather from these Words of David, Psal. 107. 34. A fruitful Land GOD turns into Barrenness [or makes Barren,] for the Wickedness of them that dwell therein.
But here, if some should say, That all Wicked Men are not Rebels; I grant, that the Crimes of those, who offend in private Cases, are not so universally mischievous, and of such ill Consequences, as theirs are who throw up all Allegiance to, and openly take up Arms against their Lawful Soveraign, and thereby involve a whole Nation in Blood and Misery, as in those former Days (which we now look upon as very unhappy, and mourn for) has been seen in this Land. But yet all Wicked, Men, of any denomination whatsoever, cannot deny but that their Breaking the Laws, in any wise, shews them most mischievous indeed, as being not only injurious to their Neighbours, but unloyal and undutiful Subjects both to GOD, (the Great King of all the whole World) and to Those that represent Him, and act by his immediate Authority here on Earth.
Having extended my Discourses upon these several Heads and Particulars, I did conclude all with suitable Admonitions and Exhortations (by way of Application) to the Condemn'd; whom (at proper times) I examin'd in private; and then it was that they (viz. five of them) who are now to die, gave me the respective Accounts of themselves, as follows.
1. Jacob Avery, condemn'd for a Robbery by him commited upon the High-way, on the 9th of September last: The Particulars of which, and who was concern'd with him therein, may be seen at large in his Printed Tryal. But here I keep to the Confession he made to me. He acknowledg'd, That he was Guilty of this Robbery, and of several others of the like Nature; but not so many as the World suspected him to be Guilty of; for he never committed above Six in his whole Life, nor got above 30 l. by all of them; adding, That he began to enter upon this Wicked Course in August last, and not before. Among the rest, he own'd the Robbery he was to have been Try'd for at Oxford, if the Death inflicted upon him for this had not prevented it. He said, He was an Oxfordshire-Man, born at Goring, and was now about 34 Years of Age: That when he came up to London (20 Years ago) he was bound Apprentice to a Bricklayer , whom he served carefully and faithfully all the Time of his Apprentiship, during which he lived a very sober and religious Life; and frequently received the Holy Sacrament of the Lord's Supper on Sunday-Mornings, at St. Laurence's Church near Guildhall. But afterwards growing remiss in his Performance, both of that and other Religious Duties, as he thus departed from GOD, so GOD also departed from him, and left him to the Devil's Temptations, who prompted him to the commission of Adultery and other heinous Crimes; which, he said, he now bitterly repented of; praying that Good GOD, whom he had so greatly and knowingly offended, to be Merciful to him; and his Neighbours to Pardon him the Injuries he had done them; to whom he could make no other Amends and Satisfaction than to pray, that it would please GOD to bless 'em.
2. John Hart, condemn'd for breaking open the House of Mrs. Abigail Woodroffe, in the Parish of St. Mary Whitechapel, on the 27th of December last; and taking from thence 12 Yards of Crape, and several other Goods. This Fact he readily confess'd, together with two others he was try'd for, and found Guilty of, viz. the Stealing of 43 Yards of Colchester-Bays, the Goods of Mr. John Cardell and Mrs. Margaret Cadey, on the 25th of December last. And on the same Day at Night taking and carrying away 8 Yards of Broad-cloth from the Tenters of Mr. Richard Richardson in Butchers-Close in Moorfields. All these Facts he could not but acknowledg he was Guilty of, because they were plainly prov'd upon him: But he was very loth to discover in particular any ill thing he had done besides, which was not publickly known; saying only in general, That he had much offended GOD, and wrong'd his Neighbour; but could make no other amends for it, than beg Pardon; which he did with all his Heart. This is the Sub
stance of the first Part of this Hart's Confession; who, upon my further and closer Examination of him, did own to me, That tho' he was now under 19 Years of Age; yet, about three Years ago (viz. on the 16th Day of May 1710) he committed a Burglary and Robbery in the House of Mr. Samuel Hayes; taking from thence a Quantity of Copper Half-pence, to the Value of about five Pounds: For which Fact, having receiv'd Sentence of Death, on the 25th of the said Month, he afterwards obtain'd Her Majesty's Pardon, which he pleaded at the Old-Baily, on Friday the 8th of December following: The Condition of which Pardon being, That he should be kept in a Work-house to hard Labour for 2 full Years, he was accordingly sent to, and kept in the Bride-well in Clarkenwell, and there he serv'd out his Time, which being expired, on the 6th of December last, he was then discharg'd from his Confinement; and no sooner was he at liberty, but he return'd to his wicked Ways. He said, He was born in St. John's Street in the Parish of St. Sepulchre, London: That in his younger Years, he was bound to a Card-maker in St. James's Street, Westminster; and, That when he had but one Year and an Half of his Time to serve, he ran away, and became a Vagabond; and so was easily entic'd to those ill things, which he afterwards committed, and which prov'd at last his Ruin. He desired all Apprentices and other young Men to take Warning by him; and so to avoid his Loose and Wicked Life, as to prevent their Coming to such an untimely End in this World, and Eternal Condemnation, which (were not GOD most merciful to him) should be his miserable Portion in the next. Upon an Information given me; that he had robb'd the House of Mr. Philip Carpenter; taking from thence a Silk Quilt, 8 Yards of Wide Camblet, four Yards of Thread Sattin, a Silk Lining of a Gown, and the Head of a Riding-Hood; I asking him, Whether he was Guilty of this Robbery also, be own'd it; but said, he could not help the said Mr. Carpenter to those Goods again, otherwise than by giving him an Account how he disposed of them; which he was very loth to do. I found he had been (tho' a young Man, yet) an old (or great) Offender: And he could not deny it. Neither did he disown, (when I put the Question to him) his having taken a Bundle of Linnen from a poor Washerwoman, which what he had done with, he would hardly be brought ingenuously to confess.
A little before his Execution, he added this to his Confession; viz. That One Day in Decemb. last, about 6 in the Evening, he and another young Lad, not yet taken, got into a House about Goodmansfields, and there finding a Tea-Table with 3 Silver-Pots on it, took both Table and Pots away, which his Companions disposed of; but in what manner, and to whom, he never knew; only he brought him 6 l. 15 s. for his Share.
3. Samuel Yealfe, condemn'd also for a Burglary, that is, for Breaking the House of Mr. John Swan of the Parish of St. Clement Danes, on the 12th of October last, and stealing from thence 30 Pair of Men's Shoes. This Fact he confess'd he was Guilty of, as likewise the 3 others, for which he was try'd at the same time. But it being his Misfortune to be all along in expectation of a Reprieve, he would confess no further, saving that he had rob'd the Shop of Mr. Brown, in the Parish of St. Clement Danes, and taken from thence several Goods; but would not declare who had receiv'd them, and how they were disposed of, otherwise than this; That the People that had those Goods in their keeping for him (and did not know how he came by them) hearing, that he was committed to Newgate for Robberies, presently rid their Hands of the said Goods, by throwing them into a House of Office, or Common Shore: But who those People were, he would not discover, saying, he knew them to be very honest Persons, and therefore would not by any means expose them; and besides, the Goods could not be had again. He said, he was about 20 Years of Age, born at Longney in Gloucestershire; and, That about 8 Years since, he came up to London, and was bound to a Pastry-Cook in Shear-lane, after he had been with him about 3 Months upon Liking. He further said, That his Master, being a good and religious Man, kept him to his Duty, and from ill Company; making him go to Church, and employ his Time well at Home. But after he had served with him 5 Years and an half, he having leave to go and see his Friends in the Country, where he staid about 6 Weeks, at his Return to Town, he became unruly, taking more liberty than he had done before; and more indeed than (as he now acknowledg'd) he ought to have taken; for he kept bad Company, abandon'd himself to Drinking, and to the Sin of Uncleanness, and other Vices. At which time his Master dying, when he had yet one Year more to serve, he served it with his Master's Widow, whom he wrong'd of several Goods, at diverse Times; but she was so kind, as to forgive him. And no sooner was he out of his Apprentiship, but he fell upon Robbing of House and Shops; and so by those heinous and dangerous Facts, brought himself at last to this Dismal End, who (by his own sad Experience) learned this Lesson; That the Ways of Sin, are the Ways of Death and Hell: Which he desired all young Men carefully to avoid.
4. James Phips, condemn'd for Stealing of a Black Mare and a Bay Mare. He said, he was under 20 years old, and born at Stow in Gloucestershire: That from the age of 10 years he was a Serving-Man and a Jockey , till he came to 13 Years of Age; at which time he apply'd himself to the Business of Gardening , and in that Capacity was employ'd in the Gardens of the Right Honourable the Earl of Leicester, at his Lordship's House at Barton in the said County. He further said, That he never committed any such Fact in his Life before, nor any other that deserved Death. He seem'd to be penitent, and heartily begg'd Pardon of GOD, and of them he had injur'd.
5. Deborah Hardcastle, condemn'd for a Burglary and 3 Felonies; of which the curious Reader may see the particular Accounts in her Printed Trials. She confess'd all those Facts, and the Justice of her Sentence, but would not own that she had been an old Offender; saying, That she never was (nor deserved to be) brought to Justice before now: That she had not yet seen 25 Years of Age, was born in the Parish of St. Botolph without Aldgate, and had been a great Pains-taker, being employ'd in the Victualling-Office , for these 10 Years past, and above: That her Husband, a Seaman, being lately Dead, and herself reduced (with an Old Mother and 2 small Children) to great Poverty and Want, she was tempted to do those wicked Things, which she is now to suffer for, and heartily repents of.
Much more I might say of the condemn'd Malefactors, did I take my measures for these Papers, from the various (and often contradictory) Reports made of them by others; who, tho' very forward (it seems) to give in their Informations, would perhaps be very loth to be quoted for Authors. But to satisfy the Reasonable Reader in this Matter, I pray him to be referr'd both to the Title of these Papers, and to the Consideration of the Design of them; and he will presently apprehend, That herein I only undertake to give the World an Account of what I say to the Condemn'd, and what the Condemn'd either say to me, or in my Hearing, or at least what I have personal Knowledg of. So that I am sure (and the Publick may be so too) that I always write truly what I certainly know of them, and may properly be call'd, Their Confessions to me, and my Admonitions to them.
At the Place of Execution, to which they were carry'd from Newgate in two Carts this Day, I attended them for the last time, and exhorted them to clear their Consciences, and stir up their Hearts and Affections to GOD. There they shew'd by many Sighs and Tears, and other Expressions of Grief, their Abhorrence of Sin, and the Sense they had of the great Trouble and Misery it always brings upon Men. They desir'd me to pray for them, which (according to my usual Custom) I did, and sung some Penitential Psalms with them, and made them rehearse the Apostles Creed: Then commending their Souls to GOD in CHRIST, I withdrew from them. They wish'd the Spectators, and all young Men, and others, to take Warning by them.
This done, they apply'd themselves to their private Devotions, for which they had some Time allow'd them. Afterwards the Cart drawing away, they were turn'd off, all the while calling (each of 'em) upon GOD for Mercy, Pardon, and Salvation, in these and the like Ejaculations: Lord, have Mercy upon me! Lord, save me! Lord Jesus, receive me, &c.
This is all the Account here to be given of these dying Persons, by me,
Saturday, January 31. 1712/1713.
THis is to give Notice to all Gentlemen, Booksellers, and others, That there is lately publish'd a new sett of Cuts, adapted to several sizes of Common-prayers, all new Designs, by Mr. Gocree of Amsterdam; engrav'd by P. Vandergucht. Likewise Mr. Sturt's Cuts. Sold by ROBERT WHITLEDGE, at the Bible and Ball in Ave-Maria-Lane, near Ludgate; where may be had all sorts of Bibles, either in Folio, Quarto, Octavo, Twelves, or other sizes; Common-prayers in Folio, for the use of Churches; Common-prayers in 8� & 12�. All neatly bound. Duty of Man's Works of all sizes; Duty of Man in Latin; Latin and Welsh Common-prayers; Tate and Brady's new Version of Psalms, with the new Supplement: Dr. Gibson on the Sacrament, Mr. Clutterbuck on the Liturgy; The Statutes at large, in 3 vol. By Beveridge's Sermons and private Thoughts, &c.
This Day is Publish'd,
THE Whiggs Unmask'd; being the Secret History of the Calves-head-Club, shewing the rise and progress of that infamous Society since the Grand Rebellion, containing all the Treasonable Songs and Ballads, sung as Anthems by those Saints at their King-killing Anniversaries, with Reflections thereupon. Much enlarg'd and improv'd by a genuine Account of all the Plots and Conspiracies of the Whiggish against the Queen and Ministry, since the Persecution of the Church, under the disguise of Moderation, in their violent Proceedings against Dr. Sacheverel, with proper Animadversions in Prose & Verse, upon their wicked Machinations. Adorn'd with Cuts applicable to every particular Design. To which are added, several suitable Characters, pen'd by Sir John Denham, and other valuable Authors. Also a Vindication of the Royal Martyr K. Charles the First; wherein are laid open, the Hellish Mysteries of the old Republican Rebellion. The 8th Edition, with large Additions. Sold by J. Morphew, near Stationers-hall.
MR. Paul Lorrain's Sermon, preached in the Chapel of Newgate, on July the 6th, 1712. against Atheism and Blasphemy, upon the Abjuration, Recantation, and Conversion of Mr. Richard Burridge, who was convicted of Blasphemy before the Right Honourable Sir Tho. Parker, Lord Chief-Justice of England. Price 6 d. Likewise a Treatise against Atheism, wrote by the said Mr. Burridge whilst under Confinement, entituled, Religio Libertini; or, The Faith of a Converted Atheist: To which is prefixed, A Narration of his Life, from his Birth to the time of his Sufferings. An Account of what pass'd at his Tryal; with a relation of the Cause of the Prosecution. Both sold by J. Graves next White's Chocolate-house in St. James's Street, and J. Morphew near Stationers-hall.
1. The British Hudibras, in 5 parts, compleat; Being a Continuation of Mr. Butler's Hudibras, the 3d Edition, adorn'd with Cuts: Written by Mr. Ward. 2. Dr. Drakes Picture of a Favourite; or the Memoirs of the Earl of Leicester. 3. Sir William Cavendish's Memoirs of Cardinal Woolsey. 4. Memoirs of the Court of Scotland. 5. Memoirs of the Court of England. 6. Memoirs of the Duke of Orleance. 7. The Memoirs of the E. of Warwick: the four last Written by the Countess D'Anois, Author of the Ladies Travels.
London printed, and are to be sold by J. Morphew near Stationers-hall.