<!-- © 2003-2008 Old Bailey Proceedings Online -->
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<p> THE ORDINARY of NEWGATE'S ACCOUNT of the Behaviour, Confession, and Dying Words, OF THE THREE MALEFACTORS, Who were executed at TYBURN On Monday the Twenty-third of JUNE, 1753. [In fact, the execution took place on Monday 23 July 1753.]</p>
<p>BEING THE Sixth EXECUTION in the Mayoralty OF THE Rt. Hon.
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<interp inst="OA17530723n2-1" type="surname" value="GASCOYNE"/>
<interp inst="OA17530723n2-1" type="given" value="CRISP"/>Sir Crisp Gascoyne</persName>,
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<rs id="OA17530723-occupation-2" type="occupation">LORD-MAYOR</rs>
<join result="persNameOccupation" targOrder="Y" targets="OA17530723n2-1 OA17530723-occupation-2"/> of the
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<join result="persNamePlace" targOrder="Y" targets="OA17530723n2-1 OA17530723-geo-1"/>CITY of LONDON</placeName>.</p>
<p>NUMBER VI. for the said YEAR.</p>
<p>Printed for, and sold by T. PARKER, in Jewin-street, and C. CORBETT, over-against St. Dunstan's Church, in Fleet-street, the only authorised Printers of the Dying Speeches.</p>
<p>[Price Six-pence.]</p>
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<p> THE ORDINARY of NEWGATE'S ACCOUNT of the Behaviour, Confession, &c.</p>
<p>BY Virtue of the King's Commission of the Peace, Oyer and Terminer, and Jail-delivery of Newgate, held before the Right Honourable Sir
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<interp inst="OA17530723n9-1" type="surname" value="Gascoyne"/>
<interp inst="OA17530723n9-1" type="given" value="Crisp"/>Crisp Gascoyne</persName> ,
<rs id="OA17530723-occupation-3" type="occupation">Knt</rs>
<join result="persNameOccupation" targOrder="Y" targets="OA17530723n9-1 OA17530723-occupation-3"/>.
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<join result="persNameOccupation" targOrder="Y" targets="OA17530723n9-1 OA17530723-occupation-4"/> of the
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<join result="persNameOccupation" targOrder="Y" targets="OA17530723n9-1 OA17530723-occupation-5"/>, the Lord Chief Baron Parker, Mr. Justice Foster, Mr. Baron Legge,
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<interp inst="OA17530723n9-2" type="surname" value="Moreton"/>
<interp inst="OA17530723n9-2" type="given" value="William"/>William Moreton</persName> ,
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<join result="persNameOccupation" targOrder="Y" targets="OA17530723n9-2 OA17530723-occupation-6"/>;
<rs id="OA17530723-occupation-7" type="occupation">Recorder</rs>
<join result="persNameOccupation" targOrder="Y" targets="OA17530723n9-2 OA17530723-occupation-7"/>, and others of His Majesty's Justices of Oyer and Terminer of the City of London, and Justices of Jail-delivery of Newgate, holden for the said City and County of Middlesex, at Justice-hall, in the
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<join result="persNamePlace" targOrder="Y" targets="OA17530723n9-1 n9-2 n9-3 n9-4 n9-5 OA17530723-geo-2"/>Old Bailey</placeName>, on Wednesday the 18th, Thursday the 19th, Friday the 20th, and Saturday the 21st of July, in the 27th Year of His Majesty's Reign,
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<interp inst="OA17530723n9-3" type="surname" value="STOCKDALE"/>
<interp inst="OA17530723n9-3" type="given" value="JOHN"/>John Stockdale</persName>,
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<interp inst="OA17530723n9-5" type="surname" value="Johnson"/>
<interp inst="OA17530723n9-5" type="given" value="Christopher"/>Christopher Johnson</persName>, and
<persName id="OA17530723n9-4">
<interp inst="OA17530723n9-4" type="gender" value="male"/>
<interp inst="OA17530723n9-4" type="surname" value="PEERS"/>
<interp inst="OA17530723n9-4" type="given" value="WILLIAM"/>William Peers</persName>, were capitally convicted, and received Sentence of Death accordingly.</p>
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<p>And, as they were all three convicted for the heinous Crime of Murder, in Pursuance of a late Act of Parliament, Mr. Recorder immediately, upon their being brought in guilty by the Jury for Middlesex, proceeded to pass the Sentence, thereby directed, on Stockdale and Johnson, who were first tried, and then on Peers, who was soon after brought to Trial, and convicted. The Sentence was passed in a solemn and affecting Manner (after having endeavoured to touch their Passions, and with good and wholsome Advice, to bring them to a proper Sense of their Guilt) in these Words of the Act, viz. You are to go from hence to the Place from whence you came, and from thence to the Place of Execution, where you are to be hanged by the Neck until you are dead. Your Bodies are to be carried to Surgeons-hall, to be dissected and anatomized, and the Lord have Mercy on your Souls.</p>
<p>Since which Time they have attended at Chapel, and other private and necessary Devotions, and in all Appearance behaved as became Men sensible of their Vileness, and unhappy Circumstances.</p>
<p>1, 2.
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<interp inst="OA17530723n12-1" type="surname" value="Stockdale"/>
<interp inst="OA17530723n12-1" type="given" value="John"/>John Stockdale</persName> and
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<interp inst="OA17530723n12-2" type="age" value="20"/>
<interp inst="OA17530723n12-2" type="surname" value="Johnson"/>
<interp inst="OA17530723n12-2" type="given" value="Christopher"/>Christopher Johnson</persName> were committed to
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<join result="persNamePlace" targOrder="Y" targets="OA17530723n12-1 n12-2 OA17530723-geo-3"/>Newgate</placeName>, on their own Confession, for murdering and robbing one
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<interp inst="OA17530723n12-3" type="surname" value="Gardiner"/>
<interp inst="OA17530723n12-3" type="given" value="Zachariah"/>Zachariah Gardiner</persName> .</p>
<p>They were detained also for assaulting and robbing the aforesaid Gardiner of a Silver Watch, and other Things. And,</p>
<p>Also, for assaulting the aforesaid Gardiner, and giving him a mortal Wound, of which he died. Of these Accusations the Indictment consisted, and Proof enough there was against them, which, upon Reflection, seemed to carry along with it somewhat particularly providentially, as the Nature of their being discovered will shew, when we come by and by to consider it as it was represented.</p>
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<interp inst="OA17530723n15-1" type="given" value="William"/>William Peers</persName> was committed on Suspicion of murdering
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<interp inst="OA17530723n15-2" type="given" value="Margaret"/>Margaret Peers</persName> , his
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<join result="persNameOccupation" targOrder="Y" targets="OA17530723n15-2 OA17530723-occupation-8"/>, and was detained, by Virtue of the Coroner's Enquiry, for murdering the aforesaid
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<interp inst="OA17530723n15-3" type="given" value="MARGARET"/>Margaret Peers</persName>, his
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<join result="persNameOccupation" targOrder="Y" targets="OA17530723n15-3 OA17530723-occupation-9"/> . Evidence sufficiently appeared for the Grand Jury to find the Indictment for the Murder, and the Court was very well satisfied with the Virdict of the Middlesex Jury, who found him also guilty.</p>
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<interp inst="OA17530723n16-1" type="given" value="William"/>William Peers</persName> was about 52 Years of Age, and born in the County of
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<join result="persNamePlace" targOrder="Y" targets="OA17530723n16-1 OA17530723-geo-4"/>Surry</placeName> of Parents who brought him up in a Manner that might have produced a better Fate than he, by his Imprudence, and giving Way to the Violence of unruly Passion, at last brought himself to. He was bred up in a very decent Way, and bound
<rs id="OA17530723-occupation-10" type="occupation">Apprentice to a Baker</rs>
<join result="persNameOccupation" targOrder="Y" targets="OA17530723n16-1 OA17530723-occupation-10"/>. The first Part of his Time he served in the Neighbourhood, where he breathed his first Breath, and the Remainder in
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<join result="persNamePlace" targOrder="Y" targets="OA17530723n16-1 OA17530723-geo-5"/>Whitechapel</placeName>.</p>
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<p>He was a Man endued with no great Share of natural Parts (tho' that was rather his Misfortune than his Fault) and was confined to theSphere of being employed as a Journeyman, having never been so happy as to arrive at so good Fortune as to be Master of Business in one Sense, tho' he was looked upon as able to discharge such Part of the Business as in the Station of Life, in which it had pleased God to place him, he was called upon to do. He had been employed in this Business by several Persons in the Neighbourhood where he lived, and we do not find but that he did his Business as well as in general it is done, being esteemed as an honest, tho' unhappy Man as to his Intellects, and want of Government of himself, as several might (who knew him, and with whom he had done Business) and were ready to testify of him.</p>
<p>He was married to this Woman, whose Death he was so unhappy as to be the Cause of, for several Years, and they lived together as People of weak Minds are generally known to do, sometimes in Harmony, and sometimes otherwise, as their mutual Conduct happened to be with respect to each others Tempers, and other Circumstances that might occur between a Man and his Wife.</p>
<p>They both worked for their Living, she at her own Business to which she was bred, and he as a
<rs id="OA17530723-occupation-11" type="occupation">Journeyman Baker</rs>
<join result="persNameOccupation" targOrder="Y" targets="OA17530723n16-1 OA17530723-occupation-11"/>. There does not appear to have been any more remarkable Misconduct between them, as to their Matrimoninal State, than is too frequently seen, and seems unavoidable among the lower Class of Mankind, tho' there is scarce to be met with any Couple that in general lived better together in mean and indifferent Circumstances than they are said to have done.</p>
<p>He says he had some Reasons to be dissatisfied at her Manner of Life, which, because we would not stir up the Ashes of the Dead, we forbear to mention, saying only, in general, that they were such as are too much the Custom of unthinking Women, and too frequently heard of.</p>
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<p>The Murder, for which he suffered, happened upon a Day when he, after having done Work himself, went to fetch her Home from the Place where she had that Day been employed. He says, he did it out of Respect; intending that they might pass away the Evening agreeably by themselves; but, to the great Misfortune of both, it proved quite the contrary, and was the last and worst Evening they ever spent in their Lives. They went Home to their Lodgings together, but some Discontents arising, they were not easy there, and so they agreed to go to a publick House,where the unfortunate Quarrel happened, which was the Cause of the Destruction of them both. He says, the Occasion of it was her wanting more of that cursed and pernicious Liquor called Gin, which he was not willing she should have, because he thought she had too much before; upon which Refusal, Words arose, and, he says, Blows were the Consequence on her Side. She struck him several Times, he says, but the one fatal one she received from him was more than all she had done, or could deserve; but his Passion overcame his Reason. Oh! the dreadful Consequences of aggravating Expressions in weak Minds! How fatal do Jarrings prove too frequently to the contending Parties!</p>
<p>He says, one Sunday, not above a Month before this sad Catastrophe happened, his poor murdered Wife went out about 7 o'Clock in the Morning, and returned not till 8 in the Evening. Upon her coming Home, he told her she, had used him very ill, to leave him thus alone all Day; upon which she grew angry, and told him she would go when she pleased, and come when she pleased, and what was that to him; upon which, says he, being in Liquor, she reeled from one Side of the Room to the other, and fell down. He took her up, and put her upon the Bed, and told her, that one Day or other she would kill herself in those Fits. To which she replied, as he says, let me die when I will, you will not live long after. I mention this only, because he spoke of it himself as a remarkable Passage between them, and he since thought in himself, it was a sad Sort of a prophetick Saying of her's, as the Event of Things has woefully proved.</p>
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<p>When the Fact was committed, there happened to be no-body but themselves in Company, or in the Room, tho' it was a publick drinking Room, and the poor Woman was murdered before any Body came in. There were People in another Room near, but they took no Notice of them; supposing their Quatrel would proceed no farther than Words, they never moved towards them, nor attempted to interfere. When he was committed, therefore he thought no-body knew any Thing of the Matter, and flattered himself into a Security of escaping the Law for want of Proof of the Fact; but herein he miserably deceived himself and his Friends. When they made Enquiry about how it came to pass, he pretended he knew nothing of the Matter, no farther than that she struck at him, and fell upon his Breast and Arm while he had the Knife in hisHand, but denied that he aimed any Blow with it. This was rather a Plea against than for him; for, as there was no-body in the Room but themselves, and she received a Wound, which she died of soon after, who could give it her but himself? The first Person that came in took the Knife out of his Hand, and, as several Evidences declared, no one was near her but himself, the Indictment for the Murder of his Wife was sufficiently proved to the Satisfaction of the Jury, and their Verdict seemed attended with the Approbation of the Court, when he was brought in guilty.</p>
<p>Upon which he declared himself innocent as the Child unborn (a too frequent Saying of the Guilty) as he did also at receiving Sentence: But his Note soon changed when he came to be talked to as to the Manner and Nature of the Fact. He then began to think he was too much to blame, and confessed he was heartily sorry for what he had done. Tho' he still said he could not well account for the Action, yet he could not but own that it was by his Hand she received the Wound. Tho' his Passion so overcame his Senses that he scarce knew what he did, yet he owned he must have been the Cause of her Death; but how, or in what Manner, he could not particularly say. As he had shed Blood, he said he was content that his Life should pay for it, owned the Justice of his Suffering, and hoped that God might be merciful unto him, that the dreadful Punishment of such his bloody Deed, ending with this Life, he might escape Death eternal.</p>
<p>He seemed to behave well from the Time of Conviction till he suffered; as well as the Narrowness of his intellectual Faculties might be supposed to admit of. When at Prayers he seemed to shew great Contrition, and his Devotions were attended with Tears.</p>
<p>He was a Man of no great Understanding, nor knew much of the World, tho' he had lived so long in it: He had murdered his Time too much in Idleness, and Want of Attendance on his Business, which he lamented very much before he departed; and some of the latest Words we had together were to this Purpose: That as to his Sufferings it was no more than was due to his Crime, but he most lamented, he said, for the Scandal he left behind him. He said, moreover, he had no Reason to wish to live, he had rather die, in Hope that God, for the Sake of Christ, would forgive his Transgressions.</p>
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<interp inst="OA17530723n27-1" type="given" value="Christopher"/>Christopher Johnson</persName> , scarce arrived to the 20th Year of his Age,</p>
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<p>was born in
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<join result="persNamePlace" targOrder="Y" targets="OA17530723n27-1 OA17530723-geo-6"/>London</placeName>, but his Father dying when he was young, he was taken into the Country and brought up, and bred in a handsome Way, and might have done very well if he would have hearkened to the Advice of his Friends, as their own Accounts of him, and the Neighbours who knew him while he was in the Country, have declared in publick Company. Those who took care of him after his Father's Decease put him to School, and gave him such an Education as was necessary for the Business they intended him for, and to which he was placed out. For about two or three Years before he left the Country, he was put
<rs id="OA17530723-occupation-12" type="occupation">Apprentice to a Sadler</rs>
<join result="persNameOccupation" targOrder="Y" targets="OA17530723n27-1 OA17530723-occupation-12"/>, where he might have done well, had he been content to be bred to work for his Living.</p>
<p>But, unhappily for him, that was not the Bent of his Genius; he was of a more volatile and roving Temper, than to suffer himself to be confined to a Shop, tho' he (as well as many others have done) he heartily repented of it before he died.</p>
<p>He says he came to
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<join result="persNamePlace" targOrder="Y" targets="OA17530723n27-1 OA17530723-geo-7"/>London</placeName> about three Years ago, since which his Manner of Life has been surprisingly wicked; and there's scarce a Sort of Roguery in the Town, tho' it abounds with many, that came within the Sphere of his acting, that he has not been concerned in; and he might very well he said to be, tho' young in Years, yet old in Wickedness.</p>
<p>He had Art enough, however, in all his Wickedness, to keep himself out of the Reach of the Law; and many one has suffered for unlawful Deeds, which he has put them upon, and reaped Advantage by.</p>
<p>He owned he had been very wicked, but as to Particulars, his Indisposition occasioned by a violent Fever, which took away the Use of his Limbs, and frequently his Senses, so as to render him incapable of giving an Account of himself and his Affairs, he communicated but little to me; and, as the Time was very short after Conviction, I could attend, and enquire only into such Matters as I was particularly requested to do.</p>
<p> Forgery had been one of his great Evils, which he acted after a Manner different from what 'tis to be hoped is common. He had got into a Method of forging a Note of Hand, payable to himself, upon which he would swear a Debt against the Person, whose Name himself subscribed, and arrest them, or hold them to Bail. Several Persons have been so served by him, one of which put me upon Enquiry into the Nature of such Things. He swore a Debt against a Woman</p>
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<p>upon one of these Sort of forged Notes, and had ruined her, but for some Friends that interfered, and in some Measure prevented it, tho' it has cost her a great deal of Money, she says, to defend herself. Upon Enquiry he declared, upon the Word of a dying Man, she never was indebted to him upon any Account whatsoever; and that many such like Things he had done. He was willing to have declared many other wicked Ways, by which he had maintained himself for a long Time, but his Weakness, and a Sort of Lethargy hung over him, which rendered it the more difficult to come at the Knowledge of the rest of his Tricks. He married a Woman about a Year and Half ago, he says, with whom he lived till they had ruined one another, and about five Months ago he left her; and since he has been skulking up and down-all Day, and at Night attended publick Places of Entertainment. What he got by picking Pockets, &c. he squandered away in Idleness and Gaming; and so he went on till he became acquainted with Stockdale, whom, he says, he met first at
<placeName id="OA17530723-geo-8">
<join result="persNamePlace" targOrder="Y" targets="OA17530723n27-1 n33-1 OA17530723-geo-8"/>Sadler's-Wells</placeName>, when they appointed, after a little Intimacy, to meet again next Night at the Billiard-Table, in Holborn, as Stockdale mentions in his Account.</p>
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<interp inst="OA17530723n33-1" type="gender" value="male"/>
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<interp inst="OA17530723n33-1" type="given" value="John"/>John Stockdale</persName> , was an unhappy Youth, but just turned of 17 Years of Age, being born in
<placeName id="OA17530723-geo-9">
<interp inst="OA17530723-geo-9" type="type" value="county"/>
<join result="persNamePlace" targOrder="Y" targets="OA17530723n33-1 OA17530723-geo-9"/>Leicestershire</placeName>, and bred up in a genteel Manner with great Tenderness. His Education was such as promised better Things than the Event has shewn. He might have been expected to be a Comfort rather than a Disgrace to those whom he was in Duty bound grate fully to remember, and honour, under God, for all he had received and been supported with during the short Continuance of his Days. Had his Endeavours been equal to the Care that was taken to train him up in the Way that good Instructions and wholsome Advice would have led him into, he might have been a happy Man, and on Pains and reasonable Expence would have been wanting to have introduced him into the World in a handsome Manner.</p>
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<p>But his natural Inclination was such, that his more early Years afforded Marks of but an indifferent Mind. He was not disposed much to Books, nor did that Confinement and Application, which is necessary for a Boy, in order to make any Proficiency in Learning, at all agree with his Temper: so that all Expence was thrown away upon him, and all Care to improvehis Mind was rendered ineffectual, by his Neglect of making Use of the Advantages he might have had. He wanted for no Opportunity of doing well, if his Inclination had been that Way likely to have invited him; but his Parents too soon found they had a Temper to deal with inflexible from its own Errors; it would follow Evil, tho' Good was pointed out, and he incurred the just Resentment of those who would have been his Protectors, had he not refused to hearken to Instruction. Vix excessit ex-ephebis, before he was left to follow his Inventions, which in the End have proved his Ruin, as is generally the Case when those Youths, whose Inexperience needs a Guide, and ought to be governed, will take the Reins in their own Hands; and, for want of Skill and Knowledge of what they are about, like Phaeton, are tumbled headlong from that towering Heighth, to which they unadvisedly aspired. This has been the Case which too many young Fellows of late, who, besides the grievous and lamentable Condition in which themselves are involved, leave behind them Parents or Relations, whose Grief upon their Accounts has been almost insupportable.</p>
<p>Stockdale had not been many Months in
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<join result="persNamePlace" targOrder="Y" targets="OA17530723n33-1 OA17530723-geo-10"/>London</placeName>, but oh! how industrious was he to make a bad Use of that short Time. He came to Town in order to be qualified for Business, which was intended to make a Man of him, and to raise him a Fortune in the World, which Application therein seldom fails to do: But he was no more inclined to follow Business now, than he was his Exercise and Study at School. He might attend at Hours when he was expected, but his leisure Hours, (when Business did not call for Attendance) were appropriated by him to Pleasure and Diversion, and these made to exceed, by far, the Hours of Business, and his intended Employment.</p>
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<p>His Misfortune since in Town, he owned, with Regret, was, that scarce a Place of what is villgarly called publick Entertainment (be it what it would) but had destroyed too much of his little Money, and what was worse, of his Time, idly and profusely. He was inclined to be gay, and had Resort to these Places, not considering what might be the Consequence, and so went on till driven to the last Extremity Tho' he was sent to Town not to spend Money, or be extravagant, yet he seldom failed to pass a Day in which he did not appear somehow in the gay World, where Pleasure and Entertainment abounded according to every's Day's Fancy.Thus he went on, till at one of these Places he became acquainted with Johnson.</p>
<p>Having said so much of each of them separately, we are arrived at the Time of their joining Forces, and taking on to have one Lot. They both agree it was at a Billiard Table, in
<placeName id="OA17530723-geo-11">
<interp inst="OA17530723-geo-11" type="type" value="parish"/>
<join result="persNamePlace" targOrder="Y" targets="OA17530723n33-1 n27-1 OA17530723-geo-11"/>Holborn</placeName>, where their great Intimacy was confirmed; nor where they long before they became so far acquainted, as to resolve upon supporting each other's Fortune, which they both soon found was desperate in either of them. They had each been used to this Table so long as to be very good Players, and while they had a Penny in their Pockets they would play. They practised the Game together, and became such Proficients at that Table, that let who would play against them, if they were Partners, none could beat them for a long Time. And their Luck was such as to get Money every Day, says Stockdale, for a Week or 10 Days together: But at last came an Hour of ill Luck, and the Chance being so that they were divided, they lost all their Money, and, were for a while at their Wit's End what to do.</p>
<p>They were acquainted not much above a Fortnight before they resolved to go upon the Highway, in order to raise Money to support their Extravagancies. During this Time they were used to meet frequently at each others Lodgings to settle the Rout for the Day.</p>
<p>The Saturday before they set out on this wicked and dangerous Undertaking, they met to fix the Measures on which to proceed. They resolved to set out on Monday Morning following, and it was Johnson's Part to hire Horses, which he did on Sunday Night, Stockdale having provided himself with one Pistol, Johnson with a Brace, and a Hanger. Johnson hired Horses on Sunday, the 17th of June, for both himself and Stockdale, and they spent that Evening together at Johnson's Lodgings in
<placeName id="OA17530723-geo-12">
<interp inst="OA17530723-geo-12" type="type" value="street"/>
<join result="persNamePlace" targOrder="Y" targets="OA17530723n33-1 n27-1 OA17530723-geo-12"/>Gray's-Inn-Lane</placeName>.</p>
<p>And now so! the fatal Morning came. On Monday, the 18th of June, they mounted their Horses, pretending to hire for Barnet, in order to go and see a Horse that was to run next Day at the Races. Money being scarce, they refused to pay the Hire before they returned, and were angry that the Man, the Owner of the Mare Stockdale rode, should ask them to pay before-hand, and looked upon it as an Affront to Gentlemen of their Appearance: But, better had it been for them, had the Hire been paid before they went, tho' it turned out for the publick Good, and it was the Means of bringing them to Justice that they did not. The</p>
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<p>Man, however, was content to let them go, satisfied with the Thoughts, of being paid at their Return, having Intelligence where Johnson lodged in his Neighbourhood, and believing his Money safe, as the Fellows made a tolerable Appearance.</p>
<p>So, about Ten o'Clock, they mounted, and set out on their intended Expedition. Had they thought of the Consequence it would have shocked their Resolution, but that was least in their Thoughts. About Ten o'Clock they stopt to refresh themselves and their Horses, not far from the Place where the Scene of Barbarity was acted on the poor
<rs id="OA17530723-occupation-13" type="occupation">Postman</rs>
<join result="persNameOccupation" targOrder="Y" targets="OA17530723n12-3 OA17530723-occupation-13"/>. Having refreshed themselves, away they rode again, and passed on, not unobserved by several People, till they overtook the poor Man, who had scarce passed a Gate at the End of the Lane, near
<placeName id="OA17530723-geo-13">
<interp inst="OA17530723-geo-13" type="type" value="street"/>
<join result="persNamePlace" targOrder="Y" targets="OA17530723n33-1 n27-1 n12-3 OA17530723-geo-13"/>Wynchmore-Hill</placeName>, which opened to
<placeName id="OA17530723-geo-14">
<interp inst="OA17530723-geo-14" type="type" value="street"/>
<join result="persNamePlace" targOrder="Y" targets="OA17530723n33-1 n27-1 n12-3 OA17530723-geo-14"/>Enfield-Chace</placeName>.</p>
<p>They called to him, having just gone thro', to open the Gate, which he very civilly did; and as soon as they came up to him, they enquired the Hour of the Day. The poor Man, little suspecting any Harm, pulled out his Watch, and told them the Time of the Day, which was a little past 2 o'Clock. They immediately resolved to attack him, which they did; Johnson bid the poor Man to give him his Watch, (holding his Hat to receive it) which he did; then he bid him give his Money to Stockdale, who dismounted to receive it. He gave him a Shilling and some Halfpence, and upon their telling him, in angry Tone, and with Threats, that was not all, he put his Hand again into another Pocket, and took out some Silver, which Stockdale received from him; and while he was taking it, the Pistol in his Hand went off it Half-bent, and gave the Postman the unhappy Wound of which he died.</p>
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<p>Stockdale says there was was Nobody then in Sight that he knows of; but their Fright was such when they saw what was done, that he mounted his Horse again, and away they both rode, as fast as their Horses could gallop over the Chace, towards
<placeName id="OA17530723-geo-15">
<interp inst="OA17530723-geo-15" type="type" value="parish"/>
<join result="persNamePlace" targOrder="Y" targets="OA17530723n33-1 n27-1 OA17530723-geo-15"/>Southgate</placeName>: So they crossed the Country, and came into the
<placeName id="OA17530723-geo-16">
<interp inst="OA17530723-geo-16" type="type" value="street"/>
<join result="persNamePlace" targOrder="Y" targets="OA17530723n33-1 n27-1 OA17530723-geo-16"/>Barnet-Road</placeName>, somewhere upon
<placeName id="OA17530723-geo-17">
<interp inst="OA17530723-geo-17" type="type" value="site"/>
<join result="persNamePlace" targOrder="Y" targets="OA17530723n33-1 n27-1 OA17530723-geo-17"/>Finchley-Common</placeName>, and came to
<placeName id="OA17530723-geo-18">
<interp inst="OA17530723-geo-18" type="type" value="parish"/>
<join result="persNamePlace" targOrder="Y" targets="OA17530723n33-1 n27-1 OA17530723-geo-18"/>Highgate</placeName>, and so to
<placeName id="OA17530723-geo-19">
<interp inst="OA17530723-geo-19" type="type" value="parish"/>
<join result="persNamePlace" targOrder="Y" targets="OA17530723n33-1 n27-1 OA17530723-geo-19"/>Hampstead</placeName>, and loitered away their Time in Byeplaces till towards the Evening. Having spent all the Money they took from the Postman, in the Evening they came for
<placeName id="OA17530723-geo-20">
<interp inst="OA17530723-geo-20" type="type" value="urban_centre"/>
<join result="persNamePlace" targOrder="Y" targets="OA17530723n33-1 n27-1 OA17530723-geo-20"/>London</placeName>, Johnson thro'
<placeName id="OA17530723-geo-21">
<interp inst="OA17530723-geo-21" type="type" value="street"/>
<join result="persNamePlace" targOrder="Y" targets="OA17530723n27-1 OA17530723-geo-21"/>Tottenham - CourtRoad</placeName>, to
<placeName id="OA17530723-geo-22">
<interp inst="OA17530723-geo-22" type="type" value="parish"/>
<join result="persNamePlace" targOrder="Y" targets="OA17530723n27-1 OA17530723-geo-22"/>St. Giles's</placeName>, where he left his Horse, and went directly into the
<placeName id="OA17530723-geo-23">
<interp inst="OA17530723-geo-23" type="type" value="street"/>
<join result="persNamePlace" targOrder="Y" targets="OA17530723n27-1 OA17530723-geo-23"/>Strand</placeName>, to pawn or sell theWatch, and Stockdale made his Way thro'
<placeName id="OA17530723-geo-24">
<interp inst="OA17530723-geo-24" type="type" value="street"/>
<join result="persNamePlace" targOrder="Y" targets="OA17530723n33-1 OA17530723-geo-24"/>Pancras</placeName>, into
<placeName id="OA17530723-geo-25">
<interp inst="OA17530723-geo-25" type="type" value="street"/>
<join result="persNamePlace" targOrder="Y" targets="OA17530723n33-1 OA17530723-geo-25"/>Gray'sInn-Lane</placeName>. Being arrived, he left his Mare at the Inn where he borrowed her, quite broke down, and told the Owner, if he would go to Johnson's Lodgings, he would pay him the Hire. When they came there Johnson was not come, so the Man went Home, and said he would call again bye-and-bye. During his Absence, Stockdale had related the whole Matter, about robbing and murdering the Postman, to the Woman with whom Johnson liv'd, and kept Company, in Confidence that she would not betray them. And bye-and-bye comes Johnson to his Lodgings, and having pawned or sold the Watch, when the Owner of Stockdale's Mare came again, they were furnished with Money to pay him the Hire, which the Man received, and went his Way Home; and they, after a little Refreshment, went to Bed.</p>
<p>In the Morning up they got, and hiring other Horses, took another Turn upon the
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<interp inst="OA17530723-geo-26" type="type" value="street"/>
<join result="persNamePlace" targOrder="Y" targets="OA17530723n33-1 n27-1 OA17530723-geo-26"/>Uxbridge Road</placeName>. Not far from the Turnpike, near
<placeName id="OA17530723-geo-27">
<interp inst="OA17530723-geo-27" type="type" value="parish"/>
<join result="persNamePlace" targOrder="Y" targets="OA17530723n33-1 n27-1 OA17530723-geo-27"/>Uxbridge</placeName>, they overtook a Gentleman's Servant with a Portmanteau, whom they intended to rob, and in order thereto rode up to him, one on each Side of his Horse, and bid him stand; upon which, Johnson having the same Pistol this Day, which Stockdale had Yesterday, the Pistol went off again half bent towards Johnson's Left-hand, but the Footman was on the Right, the Pistol happening not to be directed towards him. In this they both agreed, and they were all three so frighted at the going off of the Pistol, that away rode the Servant towards the Turnpike for Shelter, whilst they made the best of their Way, and made off from the Turnpike, and crossing the Country came to
<placeName id="OA17530723-geo-28">
<interp inst="OA17530723-geo-28" type="type" value="parish"/>
<join result="persNamePlace" targOrder="Y" targets="OA17530723n33-1 n27-1 OA17530723-geo-28"/>Hounslow</placeName>; where we shall leave them for a while, and see what was doing in Consequence of Yesterday's wicked Exploit.</p>
<p>A Paragraph appeared in the Papers To-day, June 19, describing the Robbers and Murderers, and their Horses in such Manner, that they could not be long undiscovered, a great Number of Circumstances concurring to lead towards finding them out. These very Men were suspected, and Persons were in Search after them at Johnson's Lodgings in
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<interp inst="OA17530723-geo-29" type="type" value="street"/>
<join result="persNamePlace" targOrder="Y" targets="OA17530723n33-1 n27-1 OA17530723-geo-29"/>Gray-Inn-Lane</placeName>.</p>
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<p>Johnson having got a Fall from his Horse on
<placeName id="OA17530723-geo-30">
<interp inst="OA17530723-geo-30" type="type" value="parish"/>
<join result="persNamePlace" targOrder="Y" targets="OA17530723n27-1 OA17530723-geo-30"/>Hounslow</placeName>, by being very drunk, was obliged to stay somewhere in that Neighbourhood for that Night, but Stockdale came Home by himself to
<placeName id="OA17530723-geo-31">
<interp inst="OA17530723-geo-31" type="type" value="street"/>
<join result="persNamePlace" targOrder="Y" targets="OA17530723n33-1 OA17530723-geo-31"/>Gray's-Inn-Lane</placeName>. He was not long come Home, before his Pursuers were at his Heels, and he was apprehended.They had no sooner told him what it was for, but he immediately desired they would take his Companion Johnson, upon whom he laid the Murder, and he said he would go with them, and shew them where he was; for, by the Way, they had agreed, when they parted, to meet again next Day at the
<placeName id="OA17530723-geo-32">
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<join result="persNamePlace" targOrder="Y" targets="OA17530723n33-1 n27-1 OA17530723-geo-32"/>
<placeName id="OA17530723-geo-33">
<interp inst="OA17530723-geo-33" type="type" value="site"/>
<join result="persNamePlace" targOrder="Y" targets="OA17530723n33-1 n27-1 OA17530723-geo-33"/>Red-Lion</placeName> at Brentford</placeName>.</p>
<p>The next Day, Wednesday, 20th of June, Stockdale and his Apprehenders set out in two Chaises for Brentford. As they were going between
<placeName id="OA17530723-geo-34">
<join result="persNamePlace" targOrder="Y" targets="OA17530723n33-1 n27-1 OA17530723-geo-34"/>Knightsbridge</placeName> and
<placeName id="OA17530723-geo-35">
<interp inst="OA17530723-geo-35" type="type" value="parish"/>
<join result="persNamePlace" targOrder="Y" targets="OA17530723n33-1 n27-1 OA17530723-geo-35"/>Kensington</placeName>, Johnson presented himself to their View; Stockdale saw him, and told the Person who was in the Chaise with him, that he was the Man; upon which he jumped out of the Chaise upon the Causeway under
<placeName id="OA17530723-geo-36">
<join result="persNamePlace" targOrder="Y" targets="OA17530723n27-1 OA17530723-geo-36"/>Hyde-Park Wall</placeName>, and laid hold of him. Johnson said, What's this for? upon which turning about he saw Stockdale in the Chaise, and with an Oath said, Is that little Scoundrel there? I wish I had shot him Yesterday, when I thought on it. A Hanger was taken from under his Coat, and a Pistol out of his Pocket; so he was also put into a Chaise and brought to London, to be carried before the Justice. The same Evening they were carried before Mr. Fielding, when they denied the Robbery, but laid the Crime of the Murder to each other's Charge, being so base a Thing neither of them dared to own it. They were committed that Night to Newgate, and lodged there. Stockdale, when he came in was sobre, and behaved very modestly; but Johnson, being drunk, behaved very insolently, and somewhat refractory, till proper Methods were taken with him.</p>
<p>Some Days afterwards they were again had before Mr. Fielding to be re-examined, when several Persons appeared, who gave sufficient Evidence to cause them to be sent back again, and detained till the Sessions, for the Robbery and Murder. Stockdale could not now but see it would appear he was the Murderer, and having no Thoughts of escaping the Fate due to so horrid a Crime, was somewhat dejected, while Johnson comforted himself, that tho' he knew the Robbery must appear against him, he had no Share in the Murder: But being told that when a Murder was the Consequence of an unlawful Act, as many as went out to do that unlawful Act, were all, in the Eye of the Law, guilty of the Murder, he was very much shocked, and soon after falling sick, continued so to the last.</p>
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<p>On Friday last they were brought to Trial, and pleaded not guilty; but the Evidence was too plain for the Jury to be mistaken in giving a Verdict that both were guilty. Stockdale stood the Trial almostunshaken, and with an even Countenance, till some Persons appearing to his Character, the Sight of them moved him to Tears, knowing how ungracious he had been, and how little could be said in his Behalf. Johnson seemed stupified during the Time of the Trial; and when it was over, being asked what he had to say for himself, pretended, if he had been able, he would have offered somewhat in his Defence. The Verdict being given in, the Court proceeded to pass the Sentence of the Law; after which Stockdale lifted up his Eyes towards him, and with his Hands locked together smote upon his Breast; then turning about, as he went from the Bar, he beat himself over the Head, as he went to the Bail-dock, several Times. Being asked afterwards, whence arose that violent Commotion, and if it was affected, he replied, it was the Conviction of his Mind, and the Horror of his Guilt, that forced him to such Behaviour, not the Desire of Pity from the Spectators of his Fate, for he deserved it not. Johnson was carried away from the Bar, as he was brought, upon a Person's Back, not quite insensible of what had passed, tho' he really was very ill.</p>
<p>They behaved very quietly after Conviction, and seemed very fond of attending Prayers, appeared very penitent, prayed seriously and devoutly to God for Forgiveness of their Sins, particularly that for which they died, and had some Hopes that their late Repentance, which they declared to be sincere, might prevail with God to receive their Souls, trusting in the Promises of God, and the Merits of Christ's Blood.</p>
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<p> At the Place of EXECUTION.</p>
<p>ON Monday Morning, the 23d Instant, about 8 o'Clock in the Morning,
<persName id="OA17530723n52-1" type="defendantName">
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<interp inst="OA17530723n52-1" type="surname" value="Stockdale"/>
<interp inst="OA17530723n52-1" type="given" value="John"/>John Stockdale</persName> ,
<persName id="OA17530723n52-2" type="defendantName">
<interp inst="OA17530723n52-2" type="gender" value="male"/>
<interp inst="OA17530723n52-2" type="age" value="20"/>
<interp inst="OA17530723n52-2" type="surname" value="Johnson"/>
<interp inst="OA17530723n52-2" type="given" value="Christopher"/>Christopher Johnson</persName> , and
<persName id="OA17530723n52-3" type="defendantName">
<interp inst="OA17530723n52-3" type="gender" value="male"/>
<interp inst="OA17530723n52-3" type="age" value="52"/>
<interp inst="OA17530723n52-3" type="surname" value="Peers"/>
<interp inst="OA17530723n52-3" type="given" value="William"/>William Peers</persName> , were put into a Cart at Newgate, and conveyed to the Place of Execution through a vast Multitude of People. Some short Time was spent in recommending their Souls to the Almighty's Protection, and they prayed fervently and heartily to all Appearance. After which Stockdale declared to the Populace, that he did not intentionally kill the Man, but that the Pistol went off before he was aware that he had no Design to kill him, Johnson told me, he believed it was so, though he was not able to speak aloud. Peers said also, he had no Malice in his Heart, nor Intention to kill his Wife. Their Caps were put over their Faces, and the Cart drawing away, they dropped, calling on the Lord Jesus to receive their Souls.</p>
<p>Their Bodies were carried to
<placeName id="OA17530723-geo-37">
<interp inst="OA17530723-geo-37" type="type" value="site"/>
<join result="persNamePlace" targOrder="Y" targets="OA17530723n52-1 n52-2 n52-3 OA17530723-geo-37"/>Surgeon's-Hall</placeName> that Day in a Hearse. Tuesday, Stockdale and Johnson were put into Irons, and Wednesday carried to be hung up near the Place were the Fact was done. The other Body remained at Surgeon's Hall.</p>
<p>This is all the Account given by me,
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<interp inst="OA17530723n54-1" type="given" value="JOHN"/>JOHN TAYLOR</persName> ,
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<join result="persNamePlace" targOrder="Y" targets="OA17530723n54-1 OA17530723-geo-38"/>Newgate</placeName>.</p> </div0> </body> </text></TEI.2>

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