Jonathan Thomas, Royal Offences > coining offences, 6th September 1738.

Reference Number: t17380906-20
Offence: Royal Offences > coining offences
Verdict: Guilty
Punishment: Death

22. Jonathan Thomas , of London, was indicted, &c. &c. for deceitfully and traiterously diminishing and filing 9 Pieces of Gold called Guineas, against the Form of the Statute, &c.

The Councel for the King observed, that the Prisoner was brought before the Court for an Offence of very great Consequence to the Publick, viz. for diminishing the current Coin of the Kingdom, which was expresly declared High-Treason by the Statute of the V. Eliz. Chap. 11, on which the Indictment was founded; so that the Question before the Court was only a Question of Fact, which would be prov'd by a variety of concurrent Circumstances, as the Defendant had no Accomplice in the Crime with which he was charg'd. And that the Proof arising from a Number of such Circumstances, was more satisfactory and conclusive, than the positive Testimony of a single Person; because a great variety of Circumstances can't all tally one with another, unless they have their Foundation in Truth, &c. &c.

The Evidence having been open'd, the Witnesses were called.

Matthew Martin . I am a Teller at the Bank, and it having been observed for some Time, that abundance of (what we call) light Guineas, were paid in by different Porters, we several Times examined and weighed those which were brought by Porters, and finding them always light, we acquainted Mr. Collier the Cashier. He order'd us to watch the Porters, and accordingly the first Porter that came to pay in Money, and take a Note, I follow'd, and saw him deliver the Note to the Prisoner.

Councel. How many Porters may you have observed to have been employ'd in this Business?

Martin. Thirty or 40.

Councel. How many have you dogg'd, and seen go to the Prisoner?

Martin. I believe near 20.

Councel. In what Places did they generally deliver him the Money or Notes?

Martin. At different Coffee-houses and Taverns. Once or twice I have observed the Porter to deliver a Note to him in the Street.

Councel. Did the Porters know that they were dogg'd?

Martin. No, they did not; and all the Times that I follow'd the Porters, I never saw any of them deliver a Note, but to the Prisoner alone. I believe within these last three Months I have seen 20 Notes deliver'd to him in this Manner, of 30 l. and 35 l. Value; and they generally used to be brought back in a Day or two by Porters, who receiv'd Money for them.

Councel. Does it often happen, when a Man takes out 20 Notes in so short a Time, that they should all of them be so speedily return'd?

Martin. No; it does not often happen so.

Councel. Do you remember the Note that was given in the Name of Robert Gipton?

Martin. Yes; it was for 30 l. but I did not receive the Money for this Note. 'Twas on Account of this Note the Prisoner was taken, but I was not the Person that took him. He was taken in July; the particular Day I don't remember; - it was several Days after the Date of the Note, and the Note was dated the 10th of July, I saw it deliver'd to him originally, by the Porter that took it from the Bank. When he was taken this Note was produced to him, and Mr. Franco declar'd he had it from the Prisoner; he (the Prisoner) then own'd he had negotiated Notes, but he said, he could not tell who he had this Note from, nor did he know any such Person as Robert Gipton , to whom the Note was made payable. After he was taken up, his Lodgings in Wood-Street were search'd, where we found 2 Memorandum Books, and this File, in the Prisoner's Buroe, up one pair of Stairs. He was with us when the Search was made, he

produc'd the Key, open'd the Buroe himself, to prevent our breaking it open. I remember I took the File myself, from the Bottom of the upper Part of the Buroe.

Counc. Did he then know he was taken on Suspicion of filing Guineas?

Martin. Yes; he had been before the Lord Mayor before.

Counc. You say there had been twenty Notes deliver'd to Porters, in the Space of these three Months last past; - in what Names were they taken out?

Martin. In many different Names, - not one, in his own Name.

Jury. At what Places did you see Porters deliver Notes to the Prisoner?

Martin. At several different Places: - at the Globe-Tavern, Fleet street; the Chapter Coffee-House, Pater-noster-Row; Sam's Coffee-House, and a Coffee-House near his Lodging, in Silver-Street, - Morris's Coffee-House. Once I saw a Note deliver'd to him in Aldersgate-Street; another likewise was deliver'd to him in the Street, but as I took no Memorandum of it, I can't recollect what Street it was.

Counc. You say none of these Notes were made out in his Name.

Martin. No; none of them. He has been at the Bank, to transact Business himself, and then he always went by the Name of John Harris . In the Memorandum-Book which I found in his Buroe, there was an Account of the Money he had sent to the Bank, and of the Persons, by whom 'twas sent; though he had told us when we took him, that he kept no Account of Bank Notes. The Memorandums in the Books, I take to be the Prisoner's Hand-writing; for I have seen a great deal of his Writing, and he own'd the Books were his.

Counc. You say you did not receive the 30 l. that was paid in, in order to have this Note, payable to Gipton.

Martin. No; it was paid to Mr. Burchall, a Teller at another Table, but I stood by when Mr. Burchall receiv'd it, and I desired him to let the Money lie by itself, 'till the Porter who brought it, was gone, and then I carry'd the same Guineas to the Cashier, to be weigh'd; while the Porter was gone to the other Part of the Hall, for a Ticket, in Order to have a Note made out; and nine of them were found deficient.

Jury. Were the rest full Weight?

Martin. We did not weigh them exactly, but only to a five Penny-weight. I don't doubt but there were more light one's among them, and the best of these Nine, were 8 or 9 Grains short. The Note that was made out for the Porter that brought this Money, was in the Name of Robert Gipton, and I follow'd him, and saw him deliver it to the Prisoner, (I think it was) in Fleet Street. As to the File, it had the Appearance of Gold in the Teeth of it, when I took it. It is in the same Condition, as it was when I found it, and has never been but one Night out of my Custody, and then it was in the Cashier's Drawer.

Counc. Is it common for a Person to take Notes out, in any Name but their own?

Martin. 'Tis done sometimes; but 'tis not common.

Counc. Is the Porter here that took out Gipton's Money?

Martin. I believe he is not.

Prisoner. When was the first Time you observ'd a Porter to bring light Money, in order to have a Note?

Martin. I think, about a Twelve-month ago.

Prisoner. Where's the Money you first observ'd to be light?

Martin. Paid away, I believe.

Prisoner. Where's all the rest?

Martin. Circulated in my Cash, and paid away, 'till the Fraud grew rank.

Mr. Burchall. I am a Teller in the Bank of England. On the 10th of July, a Porter brought 30 l to me, and I gave him a Ticket in order to his having a Note made out for the Money, in the Name of Robert Gipton; but suspecting that he came from the Person that had transacted Business by several Porters, and the Paper he brought being in the same Hand with those brought by other Porters, I took Care not to blend the Money, and got Mr. Waite to weigh it. There was 28 Guineas, a Half Guinea, and 1 s. 6 d. and nine of the Guineas were found too light. They were weigh'd while the Porter was gone to another Table to have his Note made out, and I think Mr. Martin was present when they were weigh'd. We did not secure the Porter then, because we thought the properest Time would be, when he came to have the Note paid.

Counc. You say the Papers which the Porters brought with the Money, were always in the same Hand writing?

Burchall. Yes; always in the same Hand, but never in the same Name.

Counc. Explain yourself concerning the Papers, which the Porters brought with the Money, to entitle them to receive a Note.

Burchall. A Porter, when he brings Money from any Person, and is to receive a Bank Note for it, he brings a Ticket with the Person's Name that he comes for, and the Sum is set down that he brings with him; we see that the Money is right, and then a Note is made out for it, payable to the Name in the Porter's Paper; which Paper, the Porter always takes back with him to his Employer, that he may be satisfied the Bank Note is right as to the Sum. And it had been a common Observation we made, that all the Notes the Porters brought were in the same Hand.

John Beresford . This Note, payable to Robert Gipton, was made out at the bank the Day it is dated. I enter'd it in the Cash-Book, and this is my Hand, (upon the Note.) I countersign'd it, and deliver'd it to the Cashier.

Mr. Martin I saw this Note making out; it was deliver'd to the Porter, and I saw the Porter deliver it, or something like it, to the Prisoner. 'Twas deliver'd in the Street, and I stood on the other Side of the Way.

Mr. Waite. I weigh'd the Guineas, and found nine of them too light. I have them here. Here is a Guinea of the late King's; Date, 1719, eight Grains, that is 16 d. wanting. Another of the late King's, 1722. twelve Grains wanting, that's 2 s. Another of his present Majesty's, 1737. wants 8 Grains, about 16 d.

Councel. 'Tis impossible that should be worn so much.

Mr. Waite. Here's another of the late King's 1726, wants 7 Grains, that is about 14 d. Here is one of King Charles II's, wants 12 Grains, 2 s. - but perhaps there might be 3 or 4 Grains lost by the Wear of this. Here's one of K. James the IId's, 11 Grains wanting. But here is one of King William's which wants 13 Grains, that is 2 s. 2 d.

Councel. This has indeed been rubb'd to its inmost Ring.

Mr. Waite. Here is one of Queen Anne's which wants 8 Grains, and another of Queen Anne's that wants 10 Grains; and these are the very identical Guineas, paid in for Robert Gipton's Note of 30 l. I was by when Mr. Burchal took them, and I weigh'd them directly. The rest of them might want 2 or 3 Grains, or thereabouts. When I shew'd them to the Prisoner, he said, he never saw them before. In my Opinion, the Deficiency plainly appears to have been made by filing.

Thomas Adams . I live with Messieurs Abram and Jacob Franco : I receiv'd this Note from the Prisoner on the 27th of July. I am sure 'tis the same Note that I receiv'd from him. He bought 3 Bags of Cochineal of us, and gave us that Note in Payment. I took Notice of the Name (Gipton) when I took it, and said, it was a comical Name. But however I enter'd it, as receiv'd, and my Master's Son enter'd it in the Bill of Parcel's Book.

Abram Adams , Porter. I know the Prisoner very well: I have been employ'd by him to carry Guineas to the Bank. And from the 15th of November 1734, to the 12th of April 1736, I have gone 17 Times for him, and carry'd always, - from between 20 to 30 l. The last Time was the 12th of April 1736, and I paid the Money at this Gentleman's Table: He said he did not like the Money, and took the Scales to weigh it; when he had done, he said there were 13 Guineas too light, and he had a good Mind to stop the Money. He asked me, who I brought it from? I told him, from a Gentleman that was at the Castle in Woodstreet; and after he had paused some Time, he bid me take the Guineas away - I should have no Bill, and order'd me to tell the Man that sent me, that the next Time he sent such Guineas, they should be stopp'd. I carry'd the Money back to the Prisoner, and told him what the Gentleman said; and from that Time to this, he never sent me with any more Guineas to the Bank.

Councel. Did you know who the Prisoner was, or where he liv'd?

Adams. No; the People at the Castle, from whence he used to send me, were often wondering who he was, and thought it very strange, that he should never carry his Money himself.

Councel. What Name did he go by?

Adams. I did not know his Name; - we called him, - our Bank Master; but from the Time I told him what they said of his Money at the Bank, I lost my Bank-Master.

John Robe . I am a Porter at the Bull-Head, the Corner of Smithfield. I have carry'd Money to the Bank for the Prisoner a great many Times; - I believe 30 Times or more. I have done it for him two or three Years, and have carry'd 20, 25, and 30 l. The most I ever went with at a Time was 35l. I never knew his Name, nor whence he came, nor where he liv'd; but his Method was, to come to our Corner, and carry me from thence to the Bear and Ragged Staff in Smithfield, where he gave me the Money.

Counc. You never asked him why he did not go himself?

Robe. No, he gave 6 d. a Time, and I was glad of the Job. When I had got a Bank Note for his Money, I used to deliver it to him sometimes

at the Bear and Ragged Staff, and sometimes he would order me to bring it to him at a Coffee-house in Aldersgate street

Counc. You say you never knew his Name?

Robe. No, none of us knew his Name, and we must call him by some Name or other; so we call'd him our Bank Master.

Counc. Did he never order any Notes to be made in the Name of Jonathan Thomas ?

Robe. No, never. I remember he has order'd Notes to be made payable to the Names of Holmes and Holt, and Austin; we had a great many Names, and perhaps once in a Week or Fortnight we might have the same Name over again.

Prisoner. Was any of the Money you carry'd ever scrupl'd at the Bank?

Robe. No, 'twas good Money for ought I know. I have carry'd many a 100 l for the Grasiers and Salesmen in Smithfield to the Bank. I have carry'd a great deal of Money for Mr. Pym, and have taken a Note for it in my own Name.

Thomas Turner . I am a Porter. I know the Prisoner very well, I have gone these two Years and a half for him, from the Bear and ragged Staff with Money to the Bank, and have brought him Notes for 20, 25, 30, and 35 l. sometimes I have gone once a Week, sometimes twice; but I never received any Note in the Prisoner's Name. When I had got the Note, I used to carry it to him sometimes to Sutton's Coffee-house, and sometimes to Dolley's in Aldersgate street. I believe I have carry'd Money for him 15 or 20 Times, and I never found there was any Scruple made in receiving the Money. I have carry'd Money for Graziers and Salesmen; their Money and the Prisoner's was all alike I thought. I have carry'd Money to the Bank for Mr. Pym, and have taken a Note in my own Name. 'Tis about 2 Months ago since I carry'd any for the Prisoner.

John Bickerstaff I am a Ticket Porter, and ply at the Bull Head in Smithfield, I know the Prisoner very well; within this Year and half I have carry'd Money to the Bank for him about twenty Times. The Sums were from 20 to 30 l. and I have carry'd the greatest part of the Notes to him at the Bear and ragged Staff; and sometimes to Dolley's and Sutton's Coffee-houses. I did not know his Name till he was taken up;. we always called him our Bank-Master, and I am sure I never received any Money or Notes for him in the Name of Thomas.

Tho Hobbs I am a Ticket Porter, and ply in Little-Britain, I have been employed by the Prisoner these 2 or 3 Years, to fetch Money from the Bank; I never carry'd any in. Sometimes have gone twice in a Week; but he seldom fall'd sending me once a Week or a Fortnight, and I always received the Money in the Name of Charles Smith .

David Kingstone . I am a Ticket Porter in Aldermanbury. I have paid Money into the Bank for the Prisoner a great many Times; - 20, 25, 30, 35, and once 36 l. that was the last Time but one He has frequently given me the Money at the 3 Nuns in Aldermanbury, and has appointed me to bring him the Note, sometimes to a Coffee-house in Aldersgate-street, and sometimes to another Place. The last Money was 30 l. which I carry'd on the 20th of June. I knew his Name was Jonathan Thomas, and I used to wonder why he never paid any of the Money in at the Bank in his own Name.

Counc. How came you to know his Name?

Kingston. I saw him once go down into a Wine Cellar in Aldermanbury, and when he was gone, I asked who he was? The Man that kept the Cellar told me his Name was Thomas; and that he had been a Holland Trader, but had left off Business for some Time. After this, I used to enquire for him at Coffee-houses, (when I had got Money for him) by his own Name. I have seen the Money I carry'd to the Bank paid away before my Face, and do not remember that any of it was ever scrupled.

William Mitchell . I ply in Aldersgate street, and have been (within this Year and half) 20 Times (or more) employ'd by the Prisoner to carry Guineas to the Bank, which they have told over, and have seen them paid away again directly.

John Lant . I ply in Aldermanbury, and have received for the Prisoner from the Bank at several Times 170 l. I have received likewise 30l. at Sir Francis Child 's for him. The last Money I received for him at the Bank I was to pay him in Guild-hall, where he said, I should find him walking about. Accordingly I found him there, and we went into the Sheriff's Court, where he told it over, and half a Guinea was missing. I desired him to let me know where he liv'd, and I would leave half a Crown at his House as I cou'd spare it, 'till the half Guinea was paid. No Matter where I live, says he, I'll call upon you; so he paid me 6 d. for the Jobb, but would not inform me where he liv'd.

Richard Earl , another Porter in Aldermanbury, had carry'd at several Times 7 Notes to the Bank, all which he received for the Prisoner in the Name of John Chambers ; which he took to be

his right Name, and had brought the Money to him, sometimes to a Coffee-house, sometimes to the Baptist's-Head, and sometimes in Guild-hall. These 7 Notes were produced in Court, and this Witness swore the Prisoner wrote the Name, ( John Chambers ) upon every one of them in his Presence.

Mr. North. Upon apprehending the Prisoner, and the Design to search his House, the Prisoner desired he might go with [Text unreadable in original.]us, open the Things himself. Accordingly Mr. Sandwell and I, Mr. Martin and the Prisoner, we to his Lodging. The first Thing we opened was his Desk; in the uppermost Drawer of the Scrutore were these two Memorandum Books, and in the same Drawer I found this File, in which there are Particles of something like Gold. After this, I was informed the Prisoner had a Ware-house, and a Cellar under it in Hare-Court in Aldersgate street; upon searching it we found (in the Warehouse) only a few empty Casks, and some Lumber; not so much as a Crevise to let in Light; even the Key-hole of an old Door was stopp'd. In the Cellar we found a Breach in the Brick-Wall, as if a Filing Board had been set up in that Place, and a square Trough with a Ledge round it, and something like Charcoal Dust in it; we found likewise a Lamp, and the Wall black, (as we apprehended) from the burning of a Lamp or Candle against it. The Dust in the Trough we got wash'd, and then try'd it with Aqua Fortis; this is what was left, and it has the Appearance of Gold. The Place is so enclosed, that no one can look into it; there is indeed a slight Partition which divides off a Part of the Necessary-house, for the Use of the People above Stairs, but is in such a Manner, that they can't see into the Prisoner's Cellar.

Mr. Moore. The Prisoner is the reputed Occupier of this Warehouse and Cellar. The House belongs to Capt. Innocent; I have liv'd there two Years and a half, and he has been the Possessor of it so long; during which Time, I never saw any one but the Prisoner go in, or out.

Mr. North. Upon examining the Memorandums found at his Lodging, we observ'd the Names of several Porters set down, which have now appeared; it seems to be an Account of the Transactions of the Porters, and the Days of the Month when they were sent; among others, - here's 30 Robert Gipton , - Charles Betts .

Mr. Sandwell. I was present when the File and the Memorandums were found, at the Prisoner's Lodging in Wood-street. Upon Messieurs Franco being question'd about this Note of Gipton's, they directed me to the Prisoner, and he told me, he knew nothing of it, and that he made no Memorandums of Business transacted at the Bank. The Note was carry'd to the Bank, the 28th of July, and the Monday or Tuesday following, I ask'd him about it, but he said he knew not how he came by it. I desired him before he was taken up, to let me know who he dealt with, and in what Goods; but he huffed and asked what that was to me: I gave him to next Day to recollect, and accordingly Mr Martin and I went next Morning to his Lodgings; he was not at Home, but we met him in the Street and took him.

When we search'd the Warehouse, we found only Lumber; but we observ'd a Stove with an Iron Door to it, which will melt Gold as well as a Furnace; and there was likewise a Trap-door into the Cellar. By the Stove, we found an earthen Pan, in which were Grains of the meltings of Gold, among other Dust. This was wash'd by Mr. Duck, and after it had been try'd with Aqua Fortis, there was about twenty Grains of Gold. We took up about a Quart of Dirt, which Duck wash'd, and in it we found Filings of Gold. Some Days after this, I went again, with Mr. Doiley, the Constable, (I never went alone) and looking about the Cellar with the Candle, I thought I saw some Gold Dust in the Bottom of a matted Chair, so I knock'd the Dust out into a Paper, and Mr. Hayward, the Refiner, try'd it in a Crucible with Argol, but nothing was produced. I was surprised I should be so deceiv'd, and went again to look at the Chair; still I thought there was Gold Dust in it, and I beat more Dust out of it, which Mr. Duck wash'd, and after it had been try'd with Aqua Fortis, and had gone through the Fire, it yeilded about sixteen Grains. This was got from the second dusting of the Chair, and in order to be assured of its being Gold, I carry'd it to the Mint, where an extraordinary Fire was made, and here it is, assay'd, and the Assay-Master's Report.

Mr. Hayward, Refiner. This assay'd Piece is fine Gold, of 24 Carracts. Standard Gold, is but of 22 Carracts. This, though the finest of Gold, might possible have been taken off Guineas, because it's having undergone these Operations, may have consum'd the Allay, and brought it above Standard.

Mr. Sandwell. This is the same Gold we found in the Dust; I stood by the Assay-Master while he try'd it.

Prisoner. I would ask whether he, or some other, did not carry some Dirt got in the Mint, and scatter it upon the Chair.

Sandwell. No, I did not, nor do I know any body that did.

Mr. Moore. Though I have liv'd two Years and a Half in the House, yet I never saw any Business carry'd on in the Prisoner's Warehouse. I have heard indeed, that he dealt in Brandy and Rum, before the Commencement of the Act against retailing such Liquors, but I never saw any Thing of it, nor any Goods of any Sort ever carried in, or out; nor did I ever see any Body go in, or out, but the Prisoner alone. Part of the necessary House is divided off into his Cellar, and the Boards are a little loose. When I have been at the Vault I have heard a small Noise, like Filing in the Cellar, and this about half a Score Times, I believe; but I never saw what he was doing. The Neighbours have wonder'd what he did in that Warehouse, but I had no Suspicion of this Business.

Prisoner. At such Times as you heard this Filing in the Cellar, can you say I was in it?

Moore. I don't know who was then in the Cellar. 'Twas not like the Noise of Filing in a Smith's Shop, but like the Filing of something small.

William Plevy . The Prisoner has rented the Warehouse and Cellar between 3 and 4 Years. At first, he dealt in Brandy and Rum; but since the Act, I don't know what Business he has followed. I live over-against the Warehouse, and have seen him go in, and out, several Times a Day, but never with any body with him. Whenever he went in, he lock'd himself in, and I have observ'd him to push against the Door to see if 'twas fast. I was with those that search'd the Dust, and told them, there was Gold in the Trough, and in the Bottom of the Chair. I used to wonder how he liv'd.

Mary Moore confirm'd Mr. Moore's Evidence; and said she had heard a Noise in the Cellar, like a small Filing, but she did not know who was at such Times in the Cellar. She had seen the Prisoner go in and out a hundred Times, but never any one else, nor did she ever see any Goods carried in or out. And that the Prisoner generally staid there, a great while at a Time, always lock'd up; and tho' there might be Light in the Cellar, yet she never could see any glimpse of it.

Prisoner. Is there no other Apartment joins to the Cellar?

Moore. No dwelling House; the next Building is a Stable, - and it could not be the Horses that were filing.

Mary Holland gave exactly the same Account.

Mr. Hayward, Refiner. I have bought Gold of the Prisoner, but not within these Twelvemonths, and have sold him 50 or 60 Pound's-worth of Pieces of Eight; (Portugal Money) The Gold he sold me was melted into small Bars, about 3, 4, or 5 ozs. weight, and might be sometimes a little better, and sometimes a little worse, than Standard. The Portugal Money we esteem as Standard Gold. I have dealt with him 3 or 4 Years.

Mr. Cook, Refiner. The Prisoner has several Times brought Ingots of Gold to my Counting-House to sell. Within this Year, or Year and Half, I have bought three or four Times of him Ingots, about 8, 10, or 12 ozs. weight That which comes from the Indies, is in Horseshoes, of about 20 or 24 ozs. weight. I took the Prisoner to be a Man of Reputation.

George Steed . The Prisoner has brought Gold to me to sell, and I have sold him Pieces of Eight. I took him to be an honest Man.

Brian Russel . I am an Ironmonger; and have sold the Prisoner, Files and Crucibles (for melting Metal) these three Years. The Files were two-Penny Handfiles, smooth on one Edge, Pillow Files, and other small Files; midding and small Cut. I have sold him about 20 Crucibles, - they are apt to break in the Fire. I sold him Files 6 or 7 Weeks ago; and likewise before the Spirituous Liquors went down.

Prisoner. The Crucibles I used to turn Lead into Dust.

Mr. Russel. The Files he had of me, were mostly such as are used by Watchmakers.

Defence. When these People, my Lord, call'd upon me about this 30 l. Bank Note, I told them it might possibly have been in my Possession; for I had several Notes upon Goldsmiths, and upon the Bank, in my Possession, and did not know the Names of any one Person mentioned in those Notes; only I look'd upon it as necessary to take some Account of the Numbers, and the like, in case of any Accident. As to the Occurrences in the Pocket-Books, I don't know on what Occasion I made the Memorandums; - some were made a long Time ago. As to my receiving Money from the Bank, in many different, and perhaps fictitious Names, (from whence They would infer I clipp'd the Money I receiv'd) the Reason was this; I have a Load of Debts upon me, and among my Creditors, is a Gentleman, a Director of the Bank; and Mr. Nathaniel Gould (lately deceas'd) was another. This was the Reason I conceal'd my Name, - lest my Creditors should fall on me, thinking I had more Money than really I

was possess'd of. I own I have sold Ingots of Gold, - I deal with India Ships; and as to the Pieces of Eight which I bought, I did that with an Intent to go to India. There is (Gentlemen) a very great Difference in the Value of Gold, - I have sold Gold to Mr. Cook, worth no more than 3 l. 10 s. per Oz and I have bought Gold 18 d. or 2 s. per Oz. worse than Standard. As to the Gold found in the Cellar, - I hope (Gentlemen) you'll think I know nothing of it. Would any one put Gold among Dirt, or in the Bottom of a Chair? As for the File they found, - I had Occasion to file a Lock, and when I had done, I threw it into a Drawer where some loose Leaf-Gold and some Bees-Wax lay.

Mr. Sandwell. There was some Leaf-Gold in one of the Drawers, but 'twas not in the Drawer where we found the File.

Prisoner. As to the Bank-Note, they don't swear it was the Note that the Porter deliver'd me, - Mr. Martin only says, the Porter deliver'd me a Paper. - I never saw the Note, but at Grocers hall

Mr. James Hewey . I have known the Prisoner four or five Years; I have been at his House, and he has been at mine, and I always took him to be an honest Man, and never suspected his getting Money in an irregular Way. I live in Aldermanbury. I have lent him 70 l within these two Months, and would have chang'd a Bank Note for him at any Time. I knew nothing of his Way of Business my self, only I have heard he dealt in Cochineal. When he dealt in Brandies, I heard he had a Warehouse, but I never knew where it was.

Mr. Shaw. I have known the Prisoner about twenty Years; I took him for an honest Man: he was the Son of as worthy a Man, as any in the Kingdom of Ireland. He had 2000l. with his Wife, out of a Quaker's Family, and he himself rented an Estate of 150 l. a Year. I was concern'd with him, to carry a Ship loaden with Lath and Pantiles from Rotterdam to Dublin, and he gave up his Commission, because he saw there would be Loss upon the Voyage. He came here on Account of Losses in Ireland. These brought him to England, and while he was here, I imagined he subsisted on his paternal Estate As to his Warehouse, I did not know he had one 'till now. - That was a Secret to me.

William Trotter . I don't know much of Mr. Thomas. I never saw him 'till about 4 or 5 Years ago I have heard he dealt in Brandy and Rum, and he serv'd a Publick House which I used with those Liquors, about 3 or 4 Years ago. I heard he had a Warehouse, but I did not know where it was, nor how he has subsisted this last twelve Months.

Nicholas Hague . I have known him between 4 or 5 Years. He bore (I thought) the Character of a very honest Man. I never had any Dealings with him, nor do I know how he liv'd these 2 or 3 Years. I thought he had used the 'Change; and had traded and bought Bargains. I heard he had a Warehouse somewhere, but I never saw him buy or sell any thing in my Life.

Chase Wormlayton spoke to the same Effect.

Hannah Burges . I have known him 2 Years, and bought Liquors and Jars of Snuff of him. I have help'd him to Customers, some of them (indeed) have been but very indifferent ones. In his Warehouse ('tis a dark Place) there formerly stood a dark dirty Board a Yard long, propp'd up with a Stick where Drawers and Funnels used to stand. I live over-against him: He has taken Pounds of me, and I have help'd him to take Pounds. I have bought Snuff of him within these 6 Months; Stone Jars that held 7 lb. and Bottles of 2 lb. I never saw any body go in beside himself, but he has desired me, if any one came, to take a Message for him.

Charles Brown , Upholster. I have known the Prisoner 5 Years; he always bore a good Character. I did not take him to be a Clipper, but thought he had Money enough to carry on a good Trade, and I believe he carry'd on Trade in as honest a Way as other Merchants do.

John Smith , George Smith , and Thomas Smith , gave the Prisoner a good Character.

Prisoner. I have sold several hundred Pounds worth of Pieces of Eight, and Mr. Waite has given me a Note for the Money.

Mr. Waite. I never saw him (as I know of) in my Life till I saw him at my Lord-Major's.

William Holmes , a Porter, had carry'd a great deal of Money to the Bank for the Prisoner, which was never scrupled, and the Prisoner always paid him for the Job very honestly. - But he neither knew his Name, nor where he liv'd.

William Dow , Thomas Philips , and John Chaddock , gave him a good Character, and thought he liv'd by turning a Penny in an honest Way.

Mary Green , (with a large File) The Prisoner bought the Files for Lead, to file it small, and to Powder. They were common Files, - here's one of them; the Prisoner, (my Master) always supply'd me with Files.

Counc. And where did you use to work?

Green. At my own Lodgings in Fire-street. The

last Time I work'd for him, was, - a Month ago, I am sure - It might be more than a Month, - I am not sure. I don't know what Use the Lead was for, when it was fil'd.

Counc. And how much was you to to be paid for your Labour?

Green. I was not for making any Bargain, - I don't know, - 3 d a Pound I was to have - I am sure I was above a Week a filing Lead for him.

Counc. Have you been us'd to this Employment?

Green. I have done a great deal; but I don't know what it was for. I have done a dozen Pound, and I believe I might be a Fortnight about it.

Counc. How much had you for doing it?

Green. Five Shillings. - No, three Shillings. There might be a Matter of 12 or 14 lb. of it. I put it into a Vice and fil'd it, and then gave it to him.

Counc Here, - did you ever use such a File as this? (shewing the File found in the Prisoner's Burean.)

Green. No, - but 'tis according to the Bigness of the Lead.

Counc. How long have you carry'd on this Business of filing Lead?

Green. Not long. I was a Fortnight about one Piece; they said it was fit for many Things, - very fit for sodering. I am sure I have worn out 2 or 3 Files upon one Piece - But then they were not new Files.

Counc. Where do you live?

Green. At Mr. Lewis's, at the White-Lyon and Three Pidgeons in Fore-street

Counc. Have you ever fil'd Lead for any body but the Prisoner?

Green. No; only for the Prisoner; he taught me the Business. I was a Fortnight a filing, I am sure. - 'twas heavy, - very heavy, - common Lead, - nothing else.

Prisoner. Why did not you bring the Lead with you?

The Jury found the Prisoner guilty . Death .

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